Skip to main content

Full text of "Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency"

See other formats


ASIA 



*:■ » 









THE GIFT OF 


1 


A.iua.'.o. ^j3(.lin... 



3 1924 070 623 545 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924070623545 



1 ! V I I: 

GAZETTEER ii 



BOMBAY PEESIDENCY. 



VOLUME VI. 



lEWA KANTHA, NARUKOT, CAMBAY, 
AND SURAT STATES. 



Under Government Orders. 



iSomfiag: 

FEINTED AT THE 

GOVERNMENT CENTEAL,PRBSS. 
1880. 




/\.\ W^o^ 



Special acknowledgments are due to Colonel L. 0. Barton 
and Bao Bahadur Nandshankar Tuljashankar for very complete 
materials for the Rewa Kantha Account. For Cambay Dr. Gr. Biihler, 
C.I.E., supplied valuable historical, and Mr. G. F. Sheppard, C. S., 
useful descriptive and administrative, details. The Sachin and 
Bansda accounts are from papers contributed by Mr. B. 0. K. 
Ollivant, C. S., and Rao Bahadur Keshavlal Nathubhai. 

JAMES M. CAMPBELL. 
February, 1880. 



CONTENTS. 



REWA KA'NTHA. 

Chapter I.— Description. paob 

Position and Area ; Boundaries i Divisions ... ... 1 

Aspect ; Mountains ; Rivers ... ... ... 2-6 

Water-supply ; Drainage ; Geology ; Climate ... ?.10 

Chapter II.— Production. 

Minerals ; Trees ; Plants ; Forests ... ... 11-15 

Animals ; Birds ; Fish ... ... ... 16-18 

Chapter III.— Population. 

Census Details ... ... ... ... 19-21 

Hindu Castes ; Musalmans ; Parsis ; Christians ... 22-34 

Villages ; Dwellings; Communities ; Movements ... 35-37 

Chapter IV.— Agriculture. 

Soil ; Tillage ; Crops ; Famines ... ... ... 38-40 

Chapter V.— Capital. 

Capitalists ; Interest ; Craftsmen ; Wages ; Prices ; Weights 

and Measures ... ... ... ... 41-45 

Chapter VI.- Trade. 

Roads; Ferries ; Post ; Exports and Imports ... ... 46-55 

Manufactures ... ... ... ... 56-58 

Chapter VII.— History. 

Legends ; Early Hindus to 1484 ; Musalman Ascendancy 
(1484-1700); Local Revival (1700-1730); Maratha 
Supremacy (1730-1820) ; British Supervision (1820-1879) ; 
First Naikda Rising (1838); The Mutinies (1857); 
Second Naikda Rising (1868); Changes (1820-1879) ... 59-66 

Chapter VIII.— Land Administration. 

Land -holders ; Management ; Villages ; Staff ; Assessment ; 
Revenue Survey ; Cesses ; Rent how Realized ; Instal- 
ments ; Defaults ; Reforms ; Survey ; Boundary Disputes. 67-76 



ii CONTENTS. 

Chapter IX -Justice. '*"" 

Civil ; Criminal ; Courts of Award ; Police ; Jails ... 77-82 
Chapter X.— Revenue and Finance. 

Rajpipla ; Bariya ; Lunavada ; Sunth ; Minor States ; Cesses. 83 - 85 
Chapter XI.— Instruction. 

Schools ; Progress (1864 - 18 79) ; Libraries ... ... 86-88 

Chapter XII.- Health. 

Diseases ; Dispensaries ; Vaccination ... ... 89-90 

Chapter Xin.-States ... ... ... ... 91-166 

Chapter XlV.-Places of Interest ... ... ... 157-170 



NA'RUKOT. 



Description ; Products ; Population ; Agriculture ; Trade ; 
History ; Administration; Justice; Revenue; Instruction; 
Health ; Places of Interest ... ... ... 173-178 



CAMBAY. 



Chapter I.— Description ; Products ; Population ... ... 181 - 186 

Chapter II.— Trade and Manufactures. 

Roads ; Trade, Historical Summary of (913-1880) ... 187-197 

Manufactures (Agate Ornaments and Cloth)... ... 198-208 

Money-lending ; Currency ; Prices ; Wages ... ... 209 - 210 

Chapter III. -History, 

Name ; Legends ; Balharas (915) ; Anhilvada Kings 
(950-1300); Early Delhi Governors (1300-1400); 
Ahmedabad Kings (1400-1573) ; Mogbals (1573-1730) ; 

Cambay Nawabs (1730-1880)... ... ... 211-233 

Chapter IV.— Administration. 

Land ; Justice ; Police ; Revenue ; Instruction . . . 234- 239 

Chapter v.— Places of Interest. ... ... ... 240-241 



SURAT STATES. 



Ba'nsda ... ... ... ... ... 245-253 

DHAEAMP0R ... ... ... ... ...254-257 

Sachin ... ... ... ... ... 258-265 

Index ... ... ... ... ... 267-271 



EEWA KANTHA 



B 561 



MTEJfiENCES 

IS TtthikaO/lictcmdifaHut. 
ft CoUator:s Bvn^alow^^_ 
& Travellers'^ Do. 

'- ^ Madt Road' 

a ffiJlFort 



M E 






) PopuJuJuiii aiom 20.000 
2 , beHmm, 7.S00) 

&■ MOOO) 
^ iebfem 5.000) 

& ISOOS T* 
4 ■ — be/Mem 2.^00} 

&■ s.ooo] 




^G>- 



>t'£KWAR V-.-' GAe 



^V 






^R 



10 5 



Scale of Miles 

10 2 



Cm^Photap/uo Office Poona, 1878 



IRIEWA 
SKAHTIEIA 



EEWA KA'NTHA. 



Chapter I. 
Description. 



Boundsriet, 



CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The lands under tlie control of tlie Rewa Kantlia Political Agent 
lie between 21° 23' and 23° 33' north latitude and 73° 3' and 74° 18' 
east longitude. With an extreme length from north to south of 
about 140 miles and a breadth from east to west varying from ten 
to fifty, the Rewa Kantha has an area bf about 4792 square miles, 
a population of over 500^000 souls or 110 to the square mile, and 
yields an estimated average yearly revenue of about £162,710 
(Rs. 16,27,100). 

' Besides lands stretching about fifty miles along the south bank 
of the Rewa or Narbada, the Rewa Kdntha iucludes an irregular 
band of territory from ten to fifty miles broad, passing north from 
the Narbada about twelve miles beyond the Mahi, and to the 
west an isolated strip of land chiefly along the left bank of the Mahi. 
It is bounded on the north by the Meywd,r states of Dungarpur and 
Bansvada ; on the east by the sub-divisions of Jhalod and Dohad in 
the Panch Mahals, Ali Rajpur and other petty states of the Bhopavar 
Agency and a part of Khandesh; on the south by Gaikwar 
territory and the Mandvi sub-division of Surat ; and on the west 
by Anklesvar and Broach, by Gaikwar territory, by Godhra and 
Kalol in the Panch Mahals, by Thd,sra and Kapadvanj in Kaira, 
and by Parantij in Ahmedabad. The Pandu and Dorka Mehvas 
villages detached from the rest of the Agency lie chiefly along the 
left bank of the Mahi, between the Panch Mahals and Baroda 
territory on the east, and Kaira on the west. 

The Rewa Kantha Agency contains six large and fifty-five small Divisiona. 
states. Of the large states, one, Rajpipla in the south with an area 
of about 1574 square miles, is of the first class, and five, Ohhota 
TJdepur and Bariya in the centre, and Sunth, Lunavdda, and 
Balasiuor in the north and north-west, are second class states with 
areas varying from 400 to 875 square miles. The fifty-five small 
states, with an average area of about thirty square miles, include 
Kadana and Sanjeli in the north and three groups of Mehva^ or 
turbulent villages. Of the three Mehvas groups, Sankheda with an 
area of 311 square miles, comprising twenty- two petty estates, lies on 
the right bank of the Narbada, while the Pdndu Mehvas with an area 
of 138 square miles and twenty-two small estates, and the Dorka 
Mehvas nine square miles in extent with three estates, are situated on 

B 561—1 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter I. 

Descriptiou. 

Divisions. 



Aspect, 



Mountains. 



STATES. 



the borders of the Mahi. About one-fifth of the whole Eewa Kantha, 
comprising nineteen states yielding a yearly revenue of about 
£30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000), is, on account of the minority of the chiefs 
and from other causes, under the entire control of the Political 
Agent. Of the nineteen states under direct management, two 
Lunavada and Sunth are second class j the rest are small estates 
varying in area from four to 100 square miles. The following table 
shows the chief statistics of the different Rewa Kantha states :— 

Rewa Kdntha States, 1879. 











Density 




Estima- 


NikME. 


Area. 


Villages 


Popula- 
tion. 


per 
square 
mile. 


Houses. 


tert 
revenue. 


KadSna 


130 


100 


12,689 


97 


3002 


£ 

lOOO 


Sunth 


394 


B78 


49,675 


126 


11,564 


9000 


LunivMa 


388 


437 


74,813 


192 


17,357 


12,900 


Sanjell 


33 


41 


2632 


77 


713 


610 


BSIasinor 


189 


249 


41,984 


222 


9684 


8000 


BAriya 


813 


478 


S2,421 


64 


12,404 


17,600 


PAndii and iJoi'ka 














Mehvas 


147 


154 


41 ,618 


283 


10,360 


11,200 


Chhota Udepur 


878 


680 


62,913 


72 


14,,'i06 


26,008 


Sankbeda MehTis ... 


311 


326 


46,966 


111 


9674 


18,500 


EAjpipla 

Total ... 


1614 


691 


120,036 


79 


23,956 


80,000 


4792 


3434 


605,647 


106 


113,210 


183,610 



In the outlying villages to the west along the Mahi, and in the 
north and south where the district stretches into the Gujarat plain, 
the land is open and flat. But along the east border and, except 
in the tamer valleys of the Orsang and Heran, over the whole centre 
of the district, the country is pal land hilly and forest-clad 
yielding little more than the three ' ps ', jpdhn, pdni, and jsan, stones, 
water, and leaves. 

Though with no high mountains, the Rewa Kantha is a hilly 
district. Its two principal ranges are, in the south the Rajpipla 
hills, the west-most spurs of the Satpudas the water-parting between 
the Narbada and the Tapti valleys, and across the centre of the 
district the spurs of the Vindhya range, that running from the flat 
topped sandstone crowned table land of Ratanmal, forty miles west 
to Pavagad, form the water-parting between the valleys of the 
Narbada and the Mahi. "Within Rewa Kantha limits the Rajpipla 
hills form a range, bordering the left bank of the Narbada and a 
high plateau that stretches from this range south. Except a spur 
passing about eight miles north into the Rewa Kantha, the south 
range of the Rajpipla hills, that runs parallel to the T^pti, lies 
outside of Rewa Kantha limits. The north Rajpipla hills with an 
average breadth of about twelve miles covered with rather stunted 
timber and stocked with tigers, panthers, bison and other of the 
largest sorts of wild game, stretch about forty miles across the south 
of Rewa Kantha. In the east the hills, steep and rugged, rise into 
difficult peaks. Westwards near Rajpipla the line is from south to 
north crossed by the stream of the Karjan and its tributary the Teri, 
whose waters join close to the new Rajpipla fort. Beyond this break, 
the range lower and less marked, gradually falling into a table-land 



Giy'arfit.] 



EEWA Ki.NTHA. 



stretches west into Broach. On one of the highest peaks, Dev 
Satia about 2000 feet above the sea, are the ruins of old 
Eajpipla, where in troublous times the chief and his followers used 
to take refuge. The way up, diificult even for footmen, through 
thick forest and high elephant grass, winds round precipices and 
ugly ledges. There are still traces of the former capital and on Dev 
Satia immediately behind are the ruins of an old fort. From Dev 
Satia the view is wide and beautiful. To the east, ranges of hills 
rise in endless confusion, to the south the valley of the Karjan 
stretches through the central uplands, to the west the Narbada 
winds to the sea, and to the north lies the rich Gujarat plain with 
Pavagad on the horizon. Of the south Eajpipla hills the only spur 
that comes within Eewa Kantha limits has, unlike the northern 
range, sloping sides and flat tops. On the east of the Karjan 
river a ridge of hills stretches for twelve miles from north to south, 
and to the east of this again lies the Sagbara range 700 feet high, 
well wooded and flat topped, peopled by several small Bhil hamlets. 
The Vindhya spurs, that lying east and west cross the Centre of the 
district from Eatanmal to Pavagad, are steep about 800 feet high, 
their tops in some places flat, in others rising into peaks. In the 
range are several passes, two of them at Kadval in Udepur and near 
Sagtala in Bariya fit for carts. From Eatanmal northwards a 
chain of hills or more strictly a line of table-land from 800 to 1200 
feet above the sea, the water-parting between the Mahi and the 
Anas, forms the boundary between the Eewa Kantha states of 
Bariya, Sanjeli and Sunth on the west, and the Panch Mahals 
districts of Dohad and Jhalod in the east. This table-land can in 
many places be crossed by carts. Besides the chief highway, that 
between Godhra and Dohad mounts the plateau about seven miles 
west of Dohad, roads run from Bariya, Sunth, and other Eewa 
Kantha towns to Dohad, Jhalod and Limdi. Between this table- 
land and the range of the Pavagad hills are many irregular 
branching timber-covered spurs, steep and high with jagged tops 
on the east, growing gradually lower as they pass west, and finally 
disappearing in the basin of the Mahi. To the north these spurs, 
more regular and unbroken, lying north and south parallel to each 
other in ranges separated by narrow valleys, form a link between 
the Aravali and Vindhya mountains. Occasionally the traveller 
may go for miles along the hill foot without finding an opening, and 
in some parts in moving from one village to another has to make 
long detours. 

Separated by the central line of the Eatanmal and Pavagad hills, 
are two distinct river systems, the Mahi with its tributary the Panam 
in the north, and in the south the Narbada joined from the right 
bank by the Men Asvau Heran and Or or Orsang, and on the left 
by the Karjan. 

Entering the district in the extreme north-east corner, the Mahi 
passes south-west for about 120 miles through Kadana, Lunavada, 
and the Pandu Mehvas. Between steep, fifty to eighty feet high, 
banks, sometimes rocky but chiefly of clay or conglomerate furrowed 
by local drainage into deep ravines, the stream of the Mahi seldom 



Chapter I. 
Description 

MountaiiiB. 



Riven. 



The Mahi, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



4 



STATES. 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Kivers. 
Q'he Mahi. 



The Pdnwm, 



The Narliada. 



except in floods filling it from side to side, flows along a broad 
sandy or stony bed broken at times by islands of rock or ricb alluvial 
soil. Dming tbe 120 miles of its Rewa Kantha course^ tbe country 
through which the river flows changes from wild forest-clad hills 
and cliffs in the east to a flat bare plain in the west. Its deep banks 
and in the hot season, its very languid stream, make the Mahi of 
little use for watering crops. Its stream is too shallow and its bed 
too rocky to allow of water carriage, Ferry boats are its only craft. 
Its rich stores of fish are little used, 

Of the local tributaries of the Mahi the only one of importance 
is the Panam, that rising in the Batanmal hills after a north-west 
course of ninety miles falls into the Mahi, six miles west of Lunavada. 
Its broad sandy bed between banks generally about forty feet high, 
can, except in floods, be crossed by carts at points not more than half 
a mile apart. After a course of thirty miles north-west the Panam 
enters Bariya, about forty miles east of Pavagad, then after twenty 
miles in Bariya it passes through thirty miles of Godhra, its last 
eight miles lying in the forest and hill country of Lunavada, 

The hundred miles of the Narbada's Rewa Kantha course may be 
divided into three parts ; the first about thirty miles south-west from 
Hamp to the Dev river ; the second, about thirty miles north-west 
through the Rewa Kantha to Chanod ; and the third, forty miles 
Bouth-west to Govali about four miles east of Broach, 

Prom Hamp to Grardeshvar about ten miles below the Pev river, 
through a country of hill and forest, between wooded or steep craggy 
banks, the stream passes over a channel too rocky for any craft but 
timber rafts. For the next twenty miles to Chanod, though the 
right bank keeps steep, the left is low and shelving and the stream 
is deep and the channel smooth enough to allow the passage of boats 
of not more than two feet draught, Near Chanod, the right bank, 
about eighty feet high, is seamed with ravines, the knolls between 
crowned with villages. The stream is even in the hot weather deep 
and swift, and in floods swelling forty feet above its fair weather 
level, it stretches for a mile across the low southern bank. During 



1 PolloT^ing the course of the gtream, the details are, after six miles two small 
streams joi», the Sukna from the right and the Chibota from the left. Four miles 
further (10), through a 200 feet deep passage between sheer and bluff cliffs ajid among 
wild and thjckly wooded valleys, the rjver cuts through threp parallel hill ranges that 
xrni north to the western A rAvali spurs, A mile ( H ) below the paps is Kad^na, and some 
miles further Munpur, both difficult fords. About twenty miles below KadAna (31) 
the Bhidar a small stream dry during hajf tlie year joins from the right ; five miles 
further (36) at MadhvAs is a steep and difficult ford and nine miles lower (45) a good 
ford at Hadod ; about a njile further (46) the Pdnam joins from the south-east ; two 
miles lower (48) at Chirqpeli is a diflScult and rocky ford, and another also difficult 
^nd rooky at SlAvli (52) ; five miles further (57) the river leaves Rewa Kantha, then 
after dividing Raira and ^e Panch Mah^s for fifteen miles (72) is the PAli ford where 
the great Qodhra highway crosses, a ford in the fair season and a ferry in the rains ; 
then eight miles further (80) a good ford at Itva ; five mjles below (85) Sihora a 
difficult rooky passage, where from the left the Meshri from Godhra falls into the 
Mahi i one mile further (86) from the left come the united streams of the Goma and 
Karad ; then at Bhidarva ten miles lower (96) a ferry ; after six miles (102) the 
Bombay Baroda and Central India Bailway crosses ; and thei) for twenty miles more 
(122) the river pa,«ses through the west villages of the PAndu Mehvis. 



Gnjav&t.] 



EBWA KANTHA. 



the remaining forty miles the country grows richer and more open, 
the banks are lower, the bed widens including islands, and the stream 
deep and slow enough for water carriage, is for the last twenty 
miles at all times too deep for carts, and for eight is a tidal stream^ 
a mile and a half broad where it leaves the district. 

The chief of the Narbada's Rewa Kantha feeders are from the right 
the Men, Ashvin and Or, and from the left the Dev, Karjan, Kari, 
Madhuvati, Kaveri and Amrd,vati. Passing down the stream, from 
the left the Dev after an eighteen mile course from the Babaka talav 
hills falls into the Narbada, about twenty-five miles below Hamp. 
The Dev valley is of special interest from its sandstone rocks and 
beds of trap ashes. Eighteen miles further, from the right comes the 
Men, a small stream with a rugged south. west course of about fifty 
miles from the Chhota Udepur hills. Four miles more from the 
same side, in size and course much like the Men, conies the Ashvin 
and six miles more also from the right, the Or or Orsang. This, the 
largest of its Eewa Kantha feeders, rising in the Ratanmal hills after 
a south-west course of about ninety miles through Chhota Udepur, 
Baroda, and the Sankheda Mehvas, joins the Narbada at the sacred 
town of Chanod, With banks from twenty to thirty feet high and a 
broad sandy bed, the Or is, except in times of flood, a small stream. In 
its passage through the Rewa Kantha the stream running twelve miles 
west, takes a sudden south bend and after thirteen miles again turns 
sharp north. In this bend stands the town of Chhota Udepur. 
Beyond Udepur ten miles to the north-west, the Or is from the right 
joined by the Ain, a small stream with its source in the Ratanmal 
range. Then after twelve miles west it bends south-west and is joined 
on the right or north bank by the Buraj, a small stream also from the 
Ratanmal range. Twelve miles further the Baroda boundary is 
reached and for twenty-five miles the Or flows south-west through 
Baroda till close to the Sankheda village of Bhiloria, it is joined on 
its east or left bank by the Heran, This river from Ali Rajpur in 
the east, with banks from forty to fifty feet high and a bed divided 
by rocky barriers into long pools, may in the fair season be crossed 
by carts at every two or three miles. After its meeting with the 
Heran for seven miles through the Sankheda estates of Shanor and 
Mandva, the Or, shallow in the fair weather, but in floods from forty 
to fifty feet deep, passes south between steep banks from sixty to 
100 feet high. Its meeting with the Narbada is sacred, thousands, 
especially at the Chaitra (April -May) full moon, coming there to 
bathe. Four miles below the Or from the south or left bank comes 
the Karjan, in size the second of the Narbada's Rewa Kantha 
tributaries. This stream, rising in south Rajpipla and flowing north 
through the central range of hills, joins the Narbada about six miles 
south of the present capital of Nandod. Among the hills its banks, 
always steep and rooky, are in places impassable and rocky ridges 
stretching across its bed divide the stream into deep dark pools. 
Twenty-five miles after it enters Rajpipla limits, the Mohan brings 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Riven. 
The Narbada. 



1 The April . May, VaisMkh, springs pass as far as the island of Dev thirteen miles 
higher. 



[Bom1>ay Gazetteer. 



6 



STATE3. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Rivers. 
The Narbada, 



to the Karjan the drainage of the most westerly hills. Thirty miles 
further in the centre of the north-most range of hills close to 
Eajpipla, it is on the right bank joined by the Teri. Leaving the 
hills the Karjan keeps north for six miles and then sweeping to the 
west passes Nandod town, and after six miles more falls into the 
Narbada near the village of Rund. During its last twelve miles the 
river bed is from sixty to 100 yards wide, with from thirty to forty feet 
high banks, steep on one side and shelving on the other. Nineteen 
and a half miles west of the KaHan also from the south, comes the 
Kari a small stream formed by the meeting of several water-courses^. 
Eight miles further, off the north end of the Shuklatirth island, comes 
the Madhuvati, draining north-west from the centre of the Eajpipla 
hills. Ten miles beyond, also on the left bank, the Kaveri, a small 
stream with a sandy bed almost dry during the hot season, from one 
of the west spurs of the Rajpipla hills, after a winding northerly 
course of about thirty miles, falls into the Narbada, four miles east of 
the Broach boundary. The last of its feeders, the Amravati rising 
in the Rajpipla hills and flowing west parallel to the Kaveri does 
not join the Narbada till below Rewa Kantha limits. 

The chief islands in the Narbada bed are ; four miles below the 
Karjan, Vyasji, nntilled, two miles long by half a mile broad, its 
ownership in dispute between Rajpipla and Baroda ; fifteen miles. 
lower off the mouth of the Khadi, Div island, a sandy waste, a mile 
and a half long by half a mile broad ; six miles below the Khadi, the 
Nand island ; six miles further off the mouth of the Madhuvati, 
Shuklatirth, four miles long and one broad, famous for its great 
Banian tree the Kabir Vad ' ; and four miles more, west of the Kaveri, 
an island 3| miles long and at broadest 1 j miles, yearly covered in 
times of flood and yielding the finest crops of tobacco, castor-oil and 
millet. The chief ferries are at Chanod; at the north end of the Vyasji 
island four miles below ; at Patna two miles lower, and in the next 
eight miles at Varkal Oli, Sisodra,and Rajpur; one and a half miles 
lower at Asha ; and four miles further at Vasna and Indor. Four 
miles below Indor is the last place where carts can cross. Except 
the islands in its bed and the belt of low land on its left bank 
covered in times of flood, the waters of the Narbada are little used 
for irrigation. For the first thirty-five miles the channel is too. 
rough to allow of any boats but timber rafts, and in the eastern parts 
the passage is hard even for them. To the west, boats drawing not 
more than two feet ply as far as Gardeshvar about seventy miles from 
Broach. The only trade, and that small, is to Sinor about forty 
miles from Broach, where a few boats bring salt, iron, and piece 
goods, and take timber, bamboos, tobacco, grain, and grass. 

Besides by the Narbada and its feeders, Rajpipla is in the west 
drained by the Kim and Tokri that, rising in the western hills and 
meeting as they leave Rajpipla territory, pass west into Broach, and 



1 Details of Kabir Vad are given in the Broach Statietical Account. Boro 
Gazetteer, II. 355, 



Gujarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



in the south by the Dudan from the Sagbara hills on its way south 
to the Tapti. 

Though some of its ponds hold water all the year round, the Rewa 
Kantha is without any large lakes or reservoirs. Of the number of 
wells no return is available. Almost all the better class of villages 
have one or two built drinking-water wells supplied with troughs for 
the village cattle, and in some cases used for watering the land. 
Bhils and Kolis, as the labour is less, draw water from stream beds 
rather than wells. The forest parts of the district especially Bariya 
and Rajpipla are rich in streams and springs. But the water, though 
to look at clear and fresh, is from the quantity of vegetable matter 
most unwholesome to drink .^ 

From the form and lie of the land, water readily passes off along 
the different rivers and water-courses. No part of the district 
stands in need of artificial drainage. 

The Rewa Kantha rocks belong to five classes ; metamorphic, 
quartzite sandstone, cretaceous, trap, and nummulite. In the north 
and as far south as about eight miles beyond the Or river though 
the country has not been surveyed, the rock is believed to be chiefly 
metamorphic, a highly crystalline granite or gneiss ^ sometimes 
piled in huge dome-shaped masses ^ two or three hundred feet high 
with occasional beds of limestone and hornblend. Among the 
metamorphic rocks are a few trap and sandstone outliers, and in the 
west the granite gradually changes into the quartzite or quartzite 
sandstone of the Champaner bed. About eight miles south of the 
Or river and running north-east and south-west along a waving 
line almost parallel to the course of that stream, the rock changes 
from metamorphic to trap. Though in some places trap rests 
immediately on metamorphic rocks, a fringe of cretaceous rock known 
as Bagh or Mahadev is rarely wanting along its edge. In the west, 
covered sometimes with a thick capping of shale, these cretaceous 
rocks are generally in the upper part more or less pure limestone 
with organic remains,* and below, sandstone without fossils. At 
the top just below the trap, the conglomerates and sandstones inclose 
iu many cases great masses of uncrystallized flint.* Besides as a 
fringe between the trap and metamorphic rocks, beds of this 
sandstone varying from a few yards to eighty miles, stand out in 
different parts of south Rewa Kantha uncovered by trap. The chief 



1 At Ratanpur in Rijpipla, the water is said to tinge everything cooked in it a dirty 
yeUow. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 268. 

2 Occasional foliation among the granites, and the want of any general distinction 
between true granites and the more crystalline forms of gneiss, tend to show that the 
granite is an original constituent of the crystalline rocks and not intrusive. Mem. 
Geol. Sur. VI. 3, 31. 

3 Some parts of BAriya are roughened by off-shoots from the Ratanmdl hiUs, plutonic 
and metamorphic rocks, granite, gneiss, mica-schist and clay-slate with a grayish 
marble in the valleys. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 93, 114. 

i The organic remains are specially rich near KavAnt and on the Dev river, where 
are some weU marked species of the Ostrea and shark's teeth. Mem. Geol. Sur. 

VI 49 
5 These masses of flint are supposed to have filtered through the overlying traps. 

Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 56. 



Chapter I. 
Description. 
Water supply. 



Drainage, 



Geology, 



[Bom'bay Gazetteer, 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

(geology. 



STATES. 



of these sandstone inliers are near Kav^nt about twelve miles south 
of Chhota Udepur ; ^ further west between the Heran and the 
Narbada; in the bed of the Narbada at Bar and Vadgamj and, 
on the left bank of the Narbada, on its tributary the Dev, 
where is a capping of shale about 500 feet deep and under it a coarse 
gritty sandstone at least equally thick.* There is no evidence of 
any great difference in age between the limestone and the trap, and 
towards the east there is great conformity between them. But 
towards the west the sandstone has been worn away in so local and 
irregular a fashion, that it seems to have taken place in the air and 
not under the water. 

The traps formed of different flows varying greatly in age,^ may 
geographically be divided into two groups to the north and to the 
south of the Narbada. In those north of the river the chief points 
of interest are ; sandstone inliers, beds of trap aSh, and occasional 
trap beds sedimentary in origin but different from the lake deposits 
of Central India.* Among the traps to the north of the Narbada, at 
Padvani about twenty miles south of Chhota Udepur and at 
Matapenai hill about twelve miles south-west of Chhota Udepur, are 
signs of direct volcanic action. Near Padvani a hill of basalt and 
porphyry with quartz fragments, much disturbed sandstones, large 
ash beds, and frequent masses of intrusive trap, seems to have been 
a centre of igneous action, perhaps part of the great volcanic focus 
of the Rajpipla hills.^ The hills of volcanic ash are highly fertile, 
often tilled to the top. In this part of the district, Matapenai hill 
about twelve miles south-west of Chhota Udepur is a place of 
geological interest. A craggy peak of highly crystalline grayish 
trachyte scattered over with huge blocks of granite, this hill would 
seem to have been the nucleus of one of the Deccan trap volcanoes. 
An intrusive mass of trap has carried up with it blocks of granite 
and the highly crystalline structure points to slow cooling. The 
small veins of granite in the trap are not easily explained.® South 
of the Narbada, unlike the general level of the trap beds to the east 



1 The details of the most easterly of the Kavdnt iiJiers as shewn in the Kari 
stream are, begimiing from the lowest : 1, altered sandstone ; 2, ferruginous gritty 
clay ; 3, sandstone ; 4, alternations of fine and coarse gritty sandstone with baoads of 
conglomerate and sandy clay ; 5, fine sandstones ; 6, massive grits ; 7, massive fine 
white sandstone ; 8, thin sandy shales ; 9, hard coarse grits and conglomerates. 
Here a small fault comes and trap is brought in. Trap continues for forty or fifty feet, 
then beds similar to the last are repeated and upon them fine massive sandstone with 
shaly sandstone resting on it. This is the highest bed seen and is covered with trap. 
Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 164. 

2 At Padv4ni, about five miles south of Kavdnt, is a little patch of cretaceous rock. 
The look of the rocks, the ash beds near, and the trap masses show that this was a 
fire centre, perhaps part of the volcanic focus of the B^jpipla hills. Mem. Geol. Sur. 
VI. 170. 

3 One flow covers a bed of rounded pebbles, many of them taken from former trap 
flows. This, it seems probable, is the result of streams hollowing valleys in the trap, 
and in the time between different lava flows, partly filling the hollows with rolled 
stones and volcanic ash. Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 166. 

4 About four miles south of Kavdnt near the village of Chikhli NAni and at GhantoL 
about a mile to the west between the trap and the cretaceous rook are beds of 
■edimentary trap. 

5 Mem. Geol. Sur, VI. 170. « Mem. Geol. Sur. VI, 172. 



Gujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



and north, the lines of the Rajpipla traps are much disturbed. The 
beds dip at comparatively kigh angles (5°- 20°) and dykes are 
commonj some of them of great size, ridges 100 to 150 feet high 
close together and parallel to each other with a general direction of 
east-north-east to west-south-west. That the rocks have been 
disturbed since they were deposited is shewn by the tilting of the 
nummulitic beds that rest on them. But they were tilted before 
the time of the nummulitic beds, though it is not clear whether this 
was due to disturbance or to their original consolidation on a slope.^ 
The signs of disturbance and the great number of dykes seem to 
shew that Rajpipla was, during the time when trap rooks were 
poured out, a great centre of volcanic action. Other signs of 
volcanic action in south Rewa Kantha are in the Dev valley, the 
hardening of the sandstones and the dykes and intrusive masses of 
trap. In the south-west corner of the Rewa Kantha near Ratanpur, 
the west-most part of the Rajpipla hills is a fringe of older tertiary 
beds with nummulite-bearing rocks. The upper part are gravels 
and sandy clays with agate pebbles often cemented into a 
conglomerate, the lower are bands of sandy limestone full of fossils 
and thick beds of iron-charged clay. The fragments of trap and the 
rolled agate pebbles show how the trap was worn away while the 
tertiary beds were being formed. It seems probable, though present 
knowledge cannot settle the point, that these tertiary beds are 
of different periods, the lower nummulitic limestone and lateril^ 
belonging to an earlier epoch than the agate gravels and 
conglomerate.^ In the west are the Ratanpur beds, agate gravels 
sometimes cemented so as to form conglomerates with bands of 
clayey or chalky sandstone.^ Among the agates the only stones of 
value are found in a small ferruginous stratum, to the iron in which, 
their colour is probably due. South of the Ratanpur stream very 
little rock is shewn as far as the Kaveri. In the K^veri, the rock, 
except that it has more laterite, is much like that at Ratanpur. At 
Vfisna on the Kaveri, Major Full James is said to have found 
specimens of nummulitic limestone. But the latest examination 
failed to find any limestone stratum and the place may be three 
miles south at Vaghalkhor.* Between the Kaveri and the Amravati, 
scarcely any rock is seen, the whole country being covered with 
alluvium. The banks of the Amravati consist chiefly of trap pebbles 
cemented by carbonate of lime with an occasional nummulitic 



Chapter I. 
Description- 
Geology , 



1 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 58. 

2 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 63. At MAldipur, a little to the south of Eatanpur in 
descending order, the series of nummulitic beds is as follows : 1, very coarse 
conglomerate ; 2, ferruginous mottled clay ; 3, fine sand with a band of trap pebbles ; 
4, conglomerate of trap and agate pebbles ; 5, coarse sandstone ; 6, sandstone ; 7, 
limestone ; 8, slightly ferruginous sandstone ; 9, coarse conglomerate of trap pebbles, 
Jilem. Geol. Sur. VI. 19S. 

3 The following beds are seen in descending order : 1, Calcareous clays ; 2, agate 
gravels and conglomerates with fossil wood ; 3, calcareous and argillaceous white 
sandstones ; 4, agate gravels and conglomerates with occasional trap pebbles ; 5, 
ditto with layers of sand and red iron-bearing clay ; 6, calcareous clays and pale 
yellow sandstones with plant remains ; 7, alternations of gravel or conglomerate 
sandstone and red lateritoid clay, with occasional bands of clay of various colours and 
shales. Each bed represents some hundred feet. It is hard to say if all the beds are 
regularly placed one on the other, Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 197. 

4 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 199. 
E 561—2 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



10 



STATES. 



Chapter I. bed.^ At Vaglialkhor is an interesting section with numerous 

Description. fossils, and clear evidence of tlie sedimentary origin of tte laterite.^ 

Between tlie Amravati and the Kim, laterite and nummulitic limestone 

are largely exposed.^ Along the banks of the Narbada and to the 

west of the nummulites, the rocks are hid by alluTium.* 

Climate. Tbe Eewa Kantha rainy season begins in or about the month of 

June and lasts till the end of September. No rain returns are 
available but the fall is believed in ordinary years to vary from 
thirty-five to forty inches. The cold season begins in October and 
lasts till March. In the forest-covered tracts of eastern Eewa Kantha 
with large areas of land rich in springs, the cold is about January 
sometimes very severe, ice forming «n pools and the crops suffering 
severely from frost. In those' parts the mornings keep cool till the 
end of April, a cold known from its value to the mahuda flowers as 
mahudia tddh or the mahuda chill.* The hot weather lasts from 
the middle of April till after a good fall of rain in July. The heat 
is sometimes very severe, the thermometer in the shade in Lunavada 
and Bariya standing at 108° and 110°. In 1873 the heat was so 
great that several people died and bats and monkeys fell dead from 
the trees. Healthy in the open parts, the climate of the eastern 
hill and forest tracts, especially of Bariya and Eajpipla, is very 
sickly.^ The chief diseases are malarious fever, eye and skin 
complaints, diarrhoea, and dysentery. Fever, present throughout 
fhe year, is commonest in September, October, and part of November, 
when the waterpools and rank forest growth of the rains are drying 
up. Diarrhoea and dysentery, most prevalent in July and part of 
August, are due to exposure to the wet and damp of the rains. Bye 
affections are common at the beginning of the rains, and skin 
diseases, itch, ringworm, and guineaworm prevail throughout the 
year, brought on by the bad quality of water used for drinking and 
bathing.' 



1 Mem. Geol. Snr. VI. 200. 

2 The details of the Vilghalklior section are at the base a thick bed of laterite ; next 
yellow clay ; then a bed of pipe clay ; next sand passing into limestone abounding in 
nummulites, gasteropoda and other fossils ; above the limestone a band of sandstone 
and then laterite again containing pebbles. Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 200. 

3 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 201. 

4 Colonel FuU James has left the following geological notes of the country from 
Chhota Udepur south-west to the limits of Broach : Chhota Udepur to KarAli fifteen 
miles south-west, a series of low hills, the rocks mica schist with blocks of quartz and 
felspar, KardU black soil and a trap hill ; Kardli to VAsna ten miles north-west, 
lightish black loam, a ridge of mica schist, and then deep black loam ; Vdsna to Agar 
twelve miles south-west, a line of sandstone hills, a plain of black soil, and a second 
ridge of sandstone ; Agar to TalakvAda on the Narbada eleven miles south, no rocks, 
black soil ; TalakvAda to Ntodod ten miles south-west, black loam, no rocks ; 
along the left bank of the Narbada twenty-seven miles south-west through back loam 
cut by local streams. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII, 105 - 109. ' 

5 The lowest recorded thermometer-readings are 36° and 38°. But cases of frost 
are well known. 

6 The local belief is, that the climate of the forest or pdl country suits women though 
it does not suit men. The men of Sunth on the Ohibota river are, the proverb says, as 
lean as monkeys and the women as stout as asses. 

7 Report of the Apothecary attached to the Rewa Kintha Agency, dated 10th 
July 1875. 



Gujarat.] 



CHAPTER II. 



PRODUCTION. 

The Rewa Eantha has a considerable store of mineral wealth.^ 
Building stone abounds. In the north a rather low class stone ia 
found near the Bariya village of Valundi and in the Hadap river, 
and further north in Sunth, an easily worked bluish stone, said to 
be better than Porbandar, has been much used in Rampur and in 
the chief's palace at Sunth. Slabs of a black, soft, and smooth 
stone found by Bhils and Kolis iu Sunth are used by barbers for 
sharpening their razors ; the part of the hill where they are found 
is called the barber's hill; gdnja ghdti. Between Vasna and Agar, 
about twenty-five miles south-west of Ohhota TJdepur, a whitish 
sandstone found in large slabs would make an excellent paving 
or building stone. In the south the limestone of the nummulitic 
rocks is well suited for building. There is also near the centre of 
the district a good supply of lime from the metamorphic rocks of 
Chhota TJdepur, and from the nummulitic rocks in the west. Of 
ornamental stone the metamorphic rocks near Ohhota TJdepur yield 
four kinds of granite, red, white, grey, and nearly black, and seven 
miles north-east of Ohhota TJdepur good specimens of white, yellow, 
and grey marble have been found. Of minerals near Jabugam 
on the Or river about twenty miles west of Ohhota TJdepur, mica 
occurs in considerable quantities. Iron seems to have once been 
worked on a large scale along the west limits of the district. Near 
Jambughoda about twenty miles east of TJdepur the ground is so 
widely covered with slag and scoria as to point to very extensive 
iron works. In the south of the district on the west of the village of 
Limodra about twenty-five miles west of Nandod are large mounds 
of iron slag, evidently from an iron furnace. It contained (1852) 
out of 100 parts 53-64 of silica, 5-39 of alumina, 10-49 of lime, 28-96 
of the protoxide of iron, and 1-52 loss with traces of magnesia and 
manganese. I^urther south at Bhilod near Ratanpur, some good 
iron ore has been found, and at Tadkesar not far to the south of the 
Eajpipla border, piles of iron slag mark the sites of old furnaces.^ 
Of precious stones there are the agates and carnelians, for which 
since the days of Ptolemy (150) Eajpipla has been famous. The 
agates found in the conglomerate and sandstone rocks to the west 
of Rajpipla, are supposed to have been originally formed in trap 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Minerals. 



b561h 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 101, 102, 105, 107, 109, 110. 
2 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 3, 216, 218. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



12 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Minerals. 



Trees. 



from the soaking iu of water laden with flint, and to have been 
brought to their present position during the time when the earlier 
trap flows were being worn away.^ Though the stones are found in 
trap rocks, amongst the gravels of the tertiary rocks, and strewn 
over a considerable area on the surface, the chief workings are 
near Eatanpur on the left bank of the Narbada about thirteen miles 
east of Broach, where the plain is dotted with small hillocks, the 
sites of former mines. The only agates of value are found in a 
thin iron-bearing bed, to which they probably owe their special 
colouring. The pits, generally about thirty feet deep, are entered 
by holes cut in the sides. Under ground the earth is dug in the 
ordinary Indian system, of rabbit warren-like holes barely large 
enough for a man to get through squatting. The agates are 
chipped at the mine, and those thought good enough are taken to 
Eatanpur and exposed to the sun. They are then burned and again 
chipped, and if properly coloured sold to stone -dealers, chiefly 
Cambay Musalmans of the Bohora sect.^ 

Crreat part of the Eewa Kantha is forest land. The chief trees 
are the mahuda, Bassia latifolia, found in the greatest plenty in the 
districts of Chhota TJdepur and Bariya. The timber is much used 
in house building ; the flowers are a chief article of food and drink 
for the poorer Bariya and TJdepur tribes, and from the seeds or berries 
called doli, the doliu oil is extracted. Teak, sdgvdn or sag, Tectona 
grandis, is abundant, but except in malvans or sacred village groves 
is stunted. The timber is used for house building, the seeds and 
flowers are given in cases of colic, and the leaves are made into 
thatch. Blackwood, sisam or sisu, Dalbergia sissoo, is not found 
in any large quantity. Tamarind, dmli, Tamarindus indioa, is 
plentiful, the timber used for house building, and the fruit for 
pickling. The Mango, amha, Mangifera indica, is chiefly valued as 
a fruit tree. Of the Bamboo, vans, the poles are^sed for roofing, 
the young shoots are pickled, and the wheat-like seed is ground 
into flour and made into bread. The Mayan, Mimusops indica, is 
abundant and valuable. Its tough wood is used in making native 
sugar mills and mortars, and in the hot season large numbers of the 
poorer tribes feed on its fruit. Sddado, Terminalia arjuna, timber 
is largely used in house building and for other purposes. Of the 
Khakhar, Butea frondosa, the leaves are made into platters, the 
flowers called kesuda are used as a dye, and the wood for fuel. Its 
gum serves the place of Indian kino. It is given in cases of chronic 
diarrhoea and is an external astringent application. Of Beheda, 
Terminalia belerica, the fruit used as a dye is astringent and forms 
an ingredient in the compound powder used by native doctors, and 
called triphala. Of the Timharrun, Carissa, carandas, the fruit 
commonly eaten is believed to lessen the effects of opium. Its wood is 



» Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 3, 56, 219. 

=" Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 110, and Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 3, 219, 220. Fuller detaUs 
are given in the Statistical Account of Cambay. The position of the agate hills in 
Ptolemy's map, and the Periplus (247 a.d.) details of the Broach agate trade, seem 
to fix the chief carnelian mines in some Central Province range rather than in the 
ft^jpipla hills. 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



13 



hard and is the abnus or ebony employed in making boxes and other 
articles of household furniture. Bill, -^gle marmeloSj is sacred 
to Shiv, over whose image its leaves are strewn. Its fruit when 
dry is made into snuff boxes. The pulp of the unripe fruit is useful 
in cases of dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Chdroli, Buchanania 
latifolia, seeds are a favourite native spice. Dhdvdo, Anogeissus 
latifolia, wood is used for fuel and the gum is mixed with some 
medicinal drugs and eaten as a cold weather tonic. Gugali, Boswellia 
serrata, a sweet-scented gum, is burnt in religious ceremonieSj and 
sometimes used to strengthen lime. Alardi, Morinda exserta, wood 
is used for fuel, and the leaves are given to cattle when grass and 
forage are scarce. Kher, Acacia catechu, timber is valuable not 
sufferiug from water, useful as fuel, and yielding the astringent 
substance called kdih, Terra japonica. In Bariya, during February 
and the three following months, hath making gives employment 
to a large number of Kolis and Naikdas. Branches stripped of 
their bark are cut into small three or four inch pieces and 
boiled in earthen pots tUl only a thick sticky decoction remains. 
A narrow pit five or six feet deep is dug and a basketful of the 
extract placed over the pit's mouth, the water soaks into the earth 
and the refuse remains in the basket, leaving the hath in the pit. 
The extract is then taken out of the pit and dried on leaves in the 
sun.' The hher also yields a white powder called khersdl given to 
cure coughs. The soft wood of the haledi tree is made into wooden 
plates and used for fuel. Kalam or Jcadam, Stephegyne parvifolia, 
sacred to Krishna, is used for house building. Haldharvo, Adina 
cordifolia, soft and yellowish is also a useful timber. The Nim, 
■ limhdo, Melia azadirachta, is sawn into planks and used for house 
building. Its bark serves for cinchona and the leaves are used in 
fomenting swollen glands, bruises, and sprains. The expressed oil 
of its seeds is used in cases of leprosy. Piplo, Fious religiosa, 
and Vad or Banyan tree, Ficus indica, are common. Of the Wood 
Apple tree, hothi, Feronia elephantum, the fruit is eaten ripe or 
pickled, and the astringent pulp is given in cases of diarrhcea and 
dysentery. Moheno wood is used for fuel. Tanach, Dalbergia 
oojeinensiSj wood is tough and used in cart building. Bdval, Acacia 
arabica, wood is used for fuel and in making cart wheels. Its gum 
is valuable and its astringent bark is used in tanning. Of the 
Palmyra, tad, Borassus flabelliformis, the juice yields toddy and the 
leaves serve for thatching. The juice of the Wild Date, khajuri, 
Phoenix sylvestris, yields toddy, and its fruit is eaten by the lower 
clases. Blunt-leaved Zizyphus, bordi, Zizyphus jujuba, fruit 
is eaten, and is a favourite food with bears. Samdi, Prosopis 
spicigera, is worshipped on the Dasera festival (September-October). 
Its pods called sdngri are used as vegetables. Custard Apple, 
sitdphal, Anona squamosa, is chiefly valued for its fruit. Kanji or 
karanj, Pongamia glabra, yields an oil useful in cases of itch and 
burning. Bohen, Soymida febrifuga, bark yields a dark red dye. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Trees. 



' Bom. Gov. Sel, XXIII. 154. In 1826, aa it still is, the price was about ten pounds, 
sers, a rupee (R». 1-8 to Rs. 2-8 a man). The export was then estimated at 600- 
700 mans ; corresponding returns are not now available. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



14 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Trees. 



Plants. 



It tastes bitter and may be used like Peruvian bark. A good tonic 
in intermittent fever, it causes dizziness if too much is taken. 
Kado, Wrightia tinctoriaj flowers are mixed with curry and taken 
as a vegetable. The seeds called indrajav are useful in dysentery. 
The barkj formerly exported to Europe under the name of Concan 
or Tellicherry bark, is astringent and bitter and is employed in 
fever and dysentery with much success. Sevan, Gmelina arborea, a 
light wood, is used in making carts and some articles of furniture. 
Simla wood is soft and is hollowed into canoes or small boats. The 
fine cotton-like wool that covers its seeds is used for stuffing pillows, 
and its gum, called hamarkas, ground to powder is drunk in milk as 
a tonic. Pilvu, Salvadora persica, berries are aromatic and pungent 
to the taste. Roliedo, Csesalpinia sappan, is supposed to cure a 
swelling in the belly, and the disease known among native doctors 
as congealed blood. A tree of this kind is kept with great care by 
the Raja of Rajpipla. Agathio, Sesbania grandiflora, flowers are used 
for food and the bark as a tonic. The seeds of the Arithi, Sapindus 
emarginatus, known as soapnuts, are used in cleaning the hair. 

The following are some of the principal shrubs and medicinal 
plants found in the Rewa Kantha forests. Achyranthes aspera, 
the seeds are given in cases of hydrophobia and snake-bite, the 
juice of its flowering spike for scorpion bites, and the ashes of the 
burnt plant have been successfully used in dropsy. Gorakh dmli, 
Adansonia digitata, the pulp is a good refrigerant in fever, and 
the bark a useful substitute for quinine in low fever. Kariaturi, 
Agathotes chiraita, an infusion of its leaves is used as a tonic and 
febrifuge. Samudra sholc, Argyreia speciosa, the leaves are used 
to foment boils and abscesses. Shatdrasi, Asparagus racemosus, 
the root when fresh is a mild tonic. Golchru, Asteracantha longi- 
folia, the root is a tonic and diuretic. Dholi sdtardi, Boerhaavia 
diffusa, the root is said to be a strong emetic. JEranda hdhdi, Carioa 
papaya, the milky juice is reckoned one of the best vermifuges. 
Garmdla, Cathartocarpus fistula, the pod pulp acts as a strong 
purgative. Indralc, CitruUus colocyntMs, the pulp of the fruit is 
purgative. Dholo dJedo, Calotropis gigantea, the root -bark is 
used as a diaphoretic, an emetic in large doses, and as an alterative 
in leprosy. Musli, Curculigo orchioides, the root slightly bitter 
and aromatic is used in gonorrhoea. Amarvel, Cuscuta reflexa, 
the stem is used as an alterative, especially in bilious 
disorders. Ndgar motah, Cyperus rotundus, the fresh tubers 
are a stimulant and diaphoretic. Jangli suran, Dracontium 
polyphyllum, the roots are used as an antispasmodic in asthma. 
Kdlu ganthi, Eclipta prostrata, the root is a purgative and 
emetic, used in cases of enlarged spleen, liver, and dropsy. Thor, 
Euphorbia nereifolia, the milky juice is given as a purgative, and 
is put in the ears to cure ear-ache. Pitpdpdo, Fumaria parviflora, 
the whole plant is used with black pepper in common agues. It is 
said to be a diuretic, diaphoretic, and aperient. Sdgargota, 
Guilandina bonduc, the kernels of the nut are very bitter and 
powerfully tonic. They are given in the form of powder mixed 
with spices in intermittent fever, Brahni, Hydrocotyle asiatica, 



Qajarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



15 



tte whole plant is considered diuretic. It is a good alterative 
and has been used with, success in skin diseases. It is said to 
cure brain disorders. Aduso, Ailanthus excelsa, the juice of the 
leaves and flowersj expectorant and antispasmodic, is given in 
chronic bronchitis and asthma. Bhui champo, Ksempferia rotunda, 
the roots are stomachic and applied to swellings. Tumbdi, Leucas 
linifolia, in snake-bites the leaves are bruised and a teaspoonful 
of the juice given to be inhaled through the nostrils. Bhui amldi, 
Phyllanthus nirurij the roots, fresh leaves, and young shoots are 
used as diuretic, the roots and fresh leaves in jaundice or bilious 
complaints, and the young shoots as an infusion in dysentery. 
Isapgol, Plantago ispagula, the seeds mucilaginous and demulcent 
may, mixed with sugarcandy, be given in the form of a cold infusion 
thrice a day in cases of dysentery and gonorrhoea. Ldl chitrak, 
Plumbago rosea, the fresh bark is made into a paste and applied 
to indolent buboes and tumours. Bdvchi, Psoralia corylifolia, the 
seeds aromatic and slightly bitter are said to be stomachic and 
are used in cases of leprosy and other skin diseases. GajJcarni, 
Rhinacanthus communis, the juice of the leaves and roots is applied 
as a cure for ringworm. Mwndavli, Sphseranthus hirsutus, the seeds 
considered to cure worms are prescribed in powders. The powdered 
root is stomachic, and the bark powdered and mixed with whey is 
a valuable remedy for piles. Gulvel, Tinospora cordifolia, the stem 
is a good tonic and diuretic. A cold infusion has been found to be of 
much benefit in chronic rheumatism and remittent fever. Kdlijiri, 
Vemonia anthelmintica, the seeds are very bitter and powerfully 
anthelmintic and diuretic. Reduced to powder and mixed with lime 
juice they are used to destroy lice. Nagod, Yitex nigundo, the 
roots are used as a decoction, as a vermifuge, and as a diaphoretic 
in protracted fevers. Bhawdi, Grrislea tomentosa, the flowers are 
powerfully astringent. A decoction is used in cases of diarrhoea. 
Malkdnguni, Celastrus paniculata, the oil of the seeds is a diuretic 
and has been used successfully in healing sinuses and fistulse. 
Hansrdj, Adiantnm lunulatum, the leaf of this fern is used in 
cases of fever and cough. Balbaja is used for ascites occurring in 
children. Kolijan, Alpinia galanga, the root is used in cases of 
cough and rheumatism. Gani, the seed is used in constipation. 
Nilophal, Nymphcea lotus, also called poyana, is used generally in 
the form of a syrup in cases of fever. Rdm tulsi, Melissa officinalis, 
is used for headache, fever, pain of the intestines, and colds. 
Nirgundi, Vitex bicolor, the fruit is used for gleet and debility. 
Gherdn, considered a good tonic, is said to heal broken bones. 
Among Rewa Kantha grasses the most important are viran or khas, 
when wetted a well known screen for cooling hot winds, and elephant 
grass, haru, whose stems are used for native pens, kalam. 

The Rewa Kantha f drest reserves are of two kinds ; state reserves, 
tracts in the large forests w'here the state only can cut, and sacred 
village groves called mdlvan, where the finest timber of the district is 
found. Except for the wants of the state, or when the villages are 
forced to make good losses caused by some general fire or flood, the 
fear of its guardian spirit keeps the people from cutting in their 
village groves. Most villages have two kinds of mdhians, one never 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Plants. 



Forests. 



[Bonrbay Gazetteer, 



16 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 



Animals. 



cut except on emergencies, tie other less sacred and generally felled 
at intervals of thirty years.i The Bariya forests were once famous 
for their large stores of high class timber. But of late years from 
the growing demand and the stricter conservancy in the neighbouring 
Panch Mahals, they have been greatly cut down, and except in the 
sacred village groves few large trees are left. Except in the eastern 
Sagbara range, the timber of the Rajpipla hills, teak, hher, blackwood, 
lancewood, sddar, mahuda, and bamboo, is not of good quality. The 
trees are stunted and damaged by fire. The timber is sent down the 
Narbada and the Tapti, and by land to Anklesvar, Mandvi, and 
other British towns. In Bariya the former custom was to farm 
every year the customs duties on timber exported from the state 
inclusive of the monopoly of the right of purchase and of the sale of 
the supplies for export. The contractors could not fell wood, but 
only buy it from the villagers. The people of the state could buy 
for home consumption, not for export. After November (2nd Kartik 
sud) the villagers could export on their own account. Those who 
bought from the contractors had to pay timber fees.^ Villagers 
brought the timber they cut to the Simalia market. At the close of 
the contract, contractors might carry away free of duty any supplies 
of timber they had bought. This practice, when the demand 
increased, led to a very rapid felling of trees. The restriction, that 
the contractor could only buy and not himself cut, was of little use 
as he could easily arrange with the villagers to have such trees 
as he wished cut down. The result was that all good-sized trees 
disappeared. The villagers suffered as they were seldom able to 
export on their own account and generally sold very cheaply to the 
contractors. This contract system has now been discontinued and 
the people are allowed on payment of a fee^ on each cartload to fell 
timber from places not reserved, and export it for sale. People 
from other districts have to pay an additional fee called van katdi. 

The domestic animals of the district are buffaloes, cows, horses, 
camels, asses, sheep, goats, cats and dogs. The cultivating classes 
keep cows and buffaloes. Brahmans and other townspeople prefer 
cows to buffaloes as less costly. Bullocks are chiefly kept by 
the cultivators as the country is too rough for bullock carriages. 
Vanias and others, who have to go into the rural parts of the district 
instead of driving, ride ponies. Some Musalmans keep camels and 
let them out for carrying goods. Besides by potters and rice-beaters, 
asses are much used as beasts of burden. Every year after October, 
divcbli, camel-men called Eaykas or Rabaris bring camels from 
Meywar and Malwa to graze in Lunavada, Sunth and Bariya, paying 
a fee of two young camels the herd, and return a little before the 
rains. So too Oharans from Kathiawar bring buffaloes and settle in 
good grazing villages. Bharvads and Rabaris keep goats and sheep. 



1 CoL Anderson, Bdriya Administration Report, 1865-66. 

2 On a cartload of teak Rs. 3-4 ; of bamboos Rs. 1-8 ; of sddar wood Rs. 1-8 ; of 
other wood Rs. 1-4. On a cartload of timber bought by people of other districts from 
the contractors at the Simalia wood station, Rs. 1-6. On a cartload of rafters Rs. 1-2. 

3 On a cartload of teak Rs. 3, and less for other timber. 



6ujard.t.] 

RBWA KANTHA. 17 

Except among Bhils, who look on them as witches, cats are found Chapter II. 
in every house. Some of the Bhils have dogs of a better breed Production, 
than the common village pariah. 

Animals. 

Though all traces of them have long disappeared, wild elephants 
were as late as the seventeenth century found in the Rajpipla and 
Chhota Udepur forests.^ Tigers and hill panthers, though yearly 
becoming fewer, are still found in considerable numbers. A common 
way of killing tigers is to stuff the carcase of an animal he has 
killed with minia kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum. Eating this the 
tiger becomes giddy and is either beaten to death with clubs or shot 
by arrows. Another plan is, near where tigers come to drink, to 
build a small hollow brick and cement pillar furnished with loop- 
holes. In this, large enough for a man but too small for a tiger, 
the hunter hides, and through the loop-hole shoots the tiger when 
he comes to di-ink. Bears and wild hog are common in the forests. 
Of deer, sdmbar, Rusa aristotelis; spotted deer, chital. Axis 
maculatus ; blue bull, nilgai, Portax pictus ; and chinkd/ra, Grazella 
benettii, are found over great part of the district ; and bison, hama 
hhensa. Bos gavcBus, in the Sagbara forests in the extreme south-east. 

The cock and hen, reared by Kolis and Bhils, are the only 
domestic fowls found in the Rewa Kantha. 

Of game birds the Painted Sand Grouse, Pterocles f asciatus, though Birds, 

properly belonging to open country, are often found in the forest. 
Common Sand Grouse, Pterocles exustus, are found in great numbers 
in barren, sandy, or rocky tracts. The Red Spur Fowl, jalkukdi, 
Galloperdix spadiceus, are found in thick forests. The Painted 
Partridge, Idl titar, Francolinus pictus, and the Grey Partridge, 
titar, Ortygomis ponticerianus, are common everywhere. Of quail 
the common Bush Quail, Imri, Perdicula asiatica, the large Grey 
Quail, Coturnix communis, the Black Breasted or Rain Quail, 
Coturnix coromandelica, and the Bustard Quail, Turnix taigoor, are 
common every where. Of snipe the Common, Gallinago scolopacina, 
the Jack, Gallinago gallinula, and the Painted, Rhynchaea 
bengalensis, are found. Of geese there are the Black Goose, nuktah, 
Sarcidiornis melanonotus, and a smaller sort, name unknown. Of teal 
the Cotton, Nettopus coromandelianus, the Whistling, Dendrocygna 
javanica, the Common, Querquedula crecca, and the Blue-winged or 
Garganey, Querquedula circia, are common. The Ruddy Shieldrake 
or Brahminy duck, Casarca rutila, is found on large rivers. , The 
Shoveller, Spatula clypeata, the Grey Duck, Anas paecilorhyncha, 
the Widgeon, Mareca penelope, and the Pochard are well known. 
Plorican, karmar, Sypheotides auritus, are found in the west of 
Rajpipla, and Pea-fowl in all the forests.^ 

Of the Mahi and Narbada fish, some details are given in the 



1 Large elephants were formerly hunted in the territories of Rajpipla. But the 
passage in the mountains being now (1750) closed, they are no longer found. Bird. 
Mir^t-i-Ahmadi, 104. 

2 From a list of game birds furnished by Mr. Dunbar, Forest Officer, Panch 
Mahals. 

B 561—3 



Fish. 



[BomTjay Gazetteer, 
18 STATES. 

Chapter II. Broacli and Kaira statistical accounts. Those of chief importance 
Production ^^® *^® mdhsir, mareJ, pdlva, boi, dangri, roi, surmai, and zinga. 

Tlie alligator, magar, abounds in tlie large rirers, and from liis 
boldness and greed is often tlie terror of a wbole neiglibourliood. 
Collecting where bodies are burned in the hope of having part of a 
half -burned body thrown into the river, they press to the shore so 
boldly that according to native belief they sometimes dash water on 
the pyre and carry away the unconsumed corpse. They also seize 
cattle and sometimes children, or even grown men and women. 

The stores of fish in the large rivers are made little use of. So 
great is the influence of the higher class of Hindus that professional 
fishermen, Machhis, can practise their calling only by stealth. There 
is no trade in fish, and the Machhis earn a living either as ferrymen 
or peasants. Besides Machhis and Bhois fishermen by caste, Kolis, 
Bluls and other of the lower fish-eating tribes net fish, especially 
when a pond overflows, or when a small water-course is flooded 
with rain water. The nets and the way of catching fish do not 
differ from those used in Broach and Kaira. 



CHAPTER III. 



POPULATION. 

Until 1872, the Eewa Kantha people were never numbered. The 
1872 census showed a total population of 605,732 souls or 105 to 
the square mile.^ Of the whole number 485,423 or 95-98 per cent 
were Hindus ; 20,104 or 3-98 per cent Musalmans ; 198 Parsis ; 
5 Christians ; and two were brought under the head ' Others.' 

The following tabular statement gives for the year 1872 details 
of the population of each state under the Agency, according to 
religion, age, and sex : — 







Rewa Kdntha 


Populatim, ISIZ. 










HINDUS. 




Statb. 


Not more than 

12 years. 


Above 12 and 

not more than 

80 years. 


Above 30 years. 


Total. 


Grand 
Total. 




Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Persons. 


Kaddna 


2629 


1944 


2570 


2106 


1687 


1445 


6386 


6495 


12,381 


Sunth 


9309 


8541 


9902 


8322 


6691 


5972 


■ 25,802 


22,835 


48,637 


Lunivida 


15,131 


12,6S3 


14,183 


11,117 


9466 


920-5 


38,770 


32,955 


71,725 


Sanjeli 


436 


367 


618 


442 


394 


328 


1347 


1137 


2484 


Bal^sinor 


81-30 


6,709 


7442 


5659 


6237 


4950 


20,611 


17.218 


37,829 


Bdriya 


8896 


8290 


9411 


8979 


8647 


7086 


26,964 


24,356 


51,309 


PAndu Mehvds 


8^13 


6496 


7897 


6542 


6693 


6234 


21,803 


18,292 


40,095 


Chhota Udepur 


10,907 


9242 


12,071 


10,918 


9918 


8325 


32,896 


28,485 


61,381 


Sankheda MehvSs ... 


9214 


8016 


8388 


76-30 


6240 


5397 


23,840 


21,043 


44,883 


BiJP'Pla 


21,010 


19,847 


19,329 


17,0lJ9 


19,818 


17,662 


60,187 


64,438 


114,625 


Political Agent's Camp. 






47 


4 


22 


1 


69 


5 


74 


Total ... 


93,904 


82,085 


91,558 


78,618 


73,703 


65,526 


259,165 


226,268 


485,423 



■" The pressure of population varies considerably in the different states. It is 
greatest in Bdlisinor with 222 and least in Sanjeli with 77. The tract of country 
running north from the Narbada through Chhota Udepur, BAriya and Sanjeli, is the 
most thinly peopled, the inhabitants being almost exclusively Bhils, and the square 
mile pressure varying from 77 in Sanjeli to 72 in Chhota Udepur. Next as regards 
fewness of people comes Kadina with '97 inhabitants to the square mile. Although 
for the greater part covered with hills and forests peopled entirely by Bhils with hardly 
sixty iniabitants to the square mile E-ijpipla, having some five thickly populated 
districts on the banks of the Narbada, has an average density of 79 souls to the square 
mile. In the states bordering on the Mahi there is a marked increase in the population : 
in the Pdndu Mehvis the pressure is 283 to the square mile ; in BAldsinor further north, 
222 ; in the adjoining state of LunAvAda, through which the Mahi passes, 192; and 
in Sunth further to the eastward, 126. The variation of population within a very 
short distance is remarkable. Thus in the Borsad sub-division of the Kaira 
district, which borders on the Pdndu Mehvds, the density is 749 to the square mile, 
while in the latter it is only about 283, and in the, state of Biiriya, the shortest distance 
between which and Borsad is not more than thirty miles, the population to the square 
mile is under 65. 



Chapter III 
Population. 



Distribution. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



20 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Distribution. 



STATES. 

Rewa Kdntha Population, 187B — corttinned. 





MUBALMA'NS. 


State. 








1 












Not more than 
12 years. 


Above 12 and 

not more than 

30 years. 


Above 30 years. 


Total. 


Grand 

Total. 




Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females 


Persona 


Kadina 


65 


47 


69 


56 


45 


36 


169 


189 


308 


Sunth 


178 


113 


263 


144 


196 


139 


642 


396 


1038 


Iiun&vikda 


679 


488 


517 


647 


459 


498 


1555 


1533 


3088 


Banjeli 


4 


1 


17 


3 


18 


S 


39 


9 


48 


Ealdsinor 


716 


688 


668 


665 


676 


742 


2060 


2095 


4166 


BAliya 


177 


128 


264 


152 


249 


125 


690 


406 


1095 


F&ndn Mehvis 


288 


226 


326 


221 


256 


207 


869 


654 


1623 


Chhota Udepur 


2S0 


204 


318 


281 


247 


215 


816 


700 


1515 


Sankheda Mehvis ... 


360 


323 


382 


389 


328 


284 


1070 


996 


2066 


RAjpipla 


891 


733 


1041 


786 


946 


860 


2878 


2379 


5257 


Political Agent's Camp. 






7 




3 


1 


10 


1 


11 


Total ... 


3508 


2951 


3866 


3244 


3423 


3112 


10,797 


9307 


20,104 




PA'ESIS AND CHBISTIANS. 


KadSna 




















Bnnth 








... 












LiinAvSda 




















Sanjeli 




















BSlasinor 




















Biriya 


■" 3 


'" 2 


■" 3 


■■■ 3 


■■■ 2 


' 4 


■■■ 8 


" 9 


"l7 


P4ndu Mehv4a 




















Chhota TJdepnr 




■■■ 3 


■" 3 


"■ 2 


'" 3 


■" 6 


■■■ 6 


"ll 


"'l7 


Bankheda Mehvds ... 


■■ 3 


2 


6 


1 


4 


1 


13 


4 


17 


Rijpipla 


2G 


18 


34 


13 


40 


23 


100 


54 


154 


Political Agent's Camp. 




















Total ... 


32 


25 


46 


39 


49 


34 


127 


78 


205 




TOTAL. 


EadSna 


2694 


1991 


2629 


2162 


1732 


1481 


7055 


5634 


12,689 


Sunth 


9487 


8664 


10,170 


8466 


8787 


61U 


26,444 


23,231 


49,675 


Lunavada 1 


15,710 


13,121 


14,700 


11,664 


9915 


9703 


40,325 


34.488 


74,813 


Banjeli 


439 


368 


635 


445 


412 


333 


1386 


1146 


2532 


B^ldsinor 


8846 


7897 


7912 


6224 


5913 


6692 


22,671 


19,313 


41,984 


Bariya 


9076 


8420 


9678 


9134 


8898 


7216 


27,662 


24,769 


62,421 


Pandu MehTds 


8601 


6722 


8222 


6763 


6949 


5461 


22,672 


18,946 


41,618 


Cbbota Udepur 
Sankheda Mehvis 


11,157 


9449 


12,392 


11,201 


10,168 


8646 


33,717 


29,196 


62,913 


9577 


8341 


8774 


8020 


6572 


6682 


24,923 


22,043 


46,966 


KSjpipla 


21,957 


20,598 


20,404 


17,828 


20,804 


18.445 


63,166 


66,871 


120,036 


Political Agent's Camp 






54 


4 


25 


2 


79 


6 


85 


Total ... 


97,444 


85,061 


96,470 


81,911 


77,175 


68,671 


270,089 


235,643 


605,732 



Prom the above statement it appears that the percentage 
of males on the total population was 63'41 and of females 46'69. 
Hindu males numbered 259,165 or 53"38 per centj and Hindu 
females numbered 226,258 or 46*62 of the total Hindu population j 
Musalman males numbered 10,797 or 53'71 per cent, and Musalman 
females 9307 or 46-29 per cent of the total Musalman population ; 
Parsi males numbered 120 or 60*60 per, cent, and Parsi females 
78 or 39 '40 per cent of the total Parsi population ; all the five 
Christians were males. 



Gujarat. 



EEWA KANTHA. 



21 



The total number of infirm persons was returned at 2081 (males 
2119, females 862), or forty-two per ten thousand, of the total 
population. Of these 48 (males 29, females 19), or one per ten 
thousand, were insanes ; 296 (males 184, females 112), or six per ten 
thousand, idiots; 432 (males 296, females 136), or nine per ten 
thousand, deaf and dumb ; 101 1 (males 481, females 530), or twenty 
per ten thousand, blind, and 294 (males 229, females 65), or six per 
ten thousand, lepers. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the members 
of each religious class of the inhabitants according to sex at 
different ages, with, at each stage, the percentage on the total 
population of the same sex and religion. The columns referring to 
the total population give up the distinction of religion, but keep 
the difference of sex : — 

Mewa Kdniha Population by Age, 187S. 







Hindus. 


MUSALMA'NS. 


Age. 


Males. 


Per 

cent. 


Females 


Per 
cent. 


Males. 


Per 
cent. 


Females 


Per 
cent. 


Pptolyear 

Between 1 and 6 
6 „ 12 
„ 12 „ 20 
„ 20 „ 30 
„ 30 „ 40 
II 40 „ 60 
., 50 „ 60 

Above 60 




7406 
42,702 
43,796 
42,583 
48,975 
88,139 
20,909 
10,243 

4407 


2-86 
16-47 
16-90 
16-43 
18-90 
14-71 
8-06 
3-95 
1-70 


7673 
41,794 
3i,618 
32,124 
46,524 
32,651 
17,968 
10,600 

4606 


3-39 
,18-47 
14-41 
14-20 
20-66 
14-38 
7-94 
4-64 
1-99 


375 
1505 
1628 
1703 
2163 
1717 
1034 
474 
198 


3-47 
13-94 
16-08 
15-77 
20-03 
16-90 
9-58 
4-39 
1-83 


342 
1856 
1253 
1334 
1910 
1455 
880 
538 
239 


3-67 
14-57 
13-46 
14-33 
20-62 
15-63 
9-46 
5-78 
2-67 


Total ... 


259,165 


226,258 


10,797 


9307 




PA'esis AND Christians. | Total. 


Age. 


Males. 


Per 
cent 


Females 


Per 
tent 


Males 


Per 
cent. 


Females 


Per 
cent. 


•Up to 1 year 

Between 1 and 6 
II 6 11 12 
II 32 1, 20 
II 20 „ 30 
II 30 „ 40 
„ 40 „ 50 
1. 60 „ 60 

Above 60 




1 

17 
14 
21 
25 
22 
22 
4 
1 


0-82 
13'93 
11-48 
1 6 -53 
19-68 
17-38 
17-32 
3-28 
0-32 


4 

14 

7 

8 

11 

12 

9 

5 

1 


5-13 
1T96 

8-97 
10-26 
14-10 
24-36 
11-54 

6-41 

1-28 


0782 
44,2i4 
45,438 
44,307 
51,164 
39,878 
21,965 
13,7i6 

4606 


2-88 
16-37 
16-82 
16-40 
18-94 
14-76 
8-13 
3'97 
1-71 


8019 
48,194 
33,87« 
38,466 
28,445 
34,025 
18,8S7 
11,043 

4746 


3-40 

18-32 

14-38 

UM 

20-56 

14-44 

8-10 

4-69 

2-01 


T 


ofal ... 


127 


78 


270,089 


235,643 



The Hindu population of the district belongs, according to the 
1872 census, to the following sects : — 

Rewa Kdntha Hindu Sects, 1872. 



Vaishnavs. 


Shaivs. 


Ascetics 

AND RELI- 

Gions 

MENDI- 
CANTS. 


Unsecta- 

HIAN 

Hindus. 


Shra'vakb 




Bima- 
nuj. 


Valla- 
bhS- 
ch4rl. 


Kabir- 
panthi. 


MMh- 
vich^ri. 


Svdmi- 
ndriyan. 


TotAi,. 


33,068 


7742 


4671 


8469 


2270 


27,744 


767 


399,187 


1515 


485,423 



Chapter III- 
Population- 
Health. 



Age. 



Religion, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



22 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Musalmdns. 



Occupation. 



Hindus. 
Priests. 



From this statement it would seem that of the total Hindu 
population, the Vaishnavs numbered 56,210 or 11'58 per cent; the 
Shaivs 27,744, or 5"72 per cent ; the Shravaks 1515, or 0"31 per cent ; 
and the Unsectarian Classes 399,954, or 82-39. 

The Musalman population belonged to two sects, Sunni and Shia ; 
the Sunnis numbered 17,818 souls, or 88'63 per cent of the whole, 
and the Shias 2286, or 11-37 per cent. Of the Parsis 132, or 66-67 
per cent of the total Parsi population, were Shahanshais and 66 or 
33-33 per cent Kadmis. The five Christians were all Eoman 
Catholics. 

According to occupation the census returns for 1872 divide the 
whole population into seven classes — 

I. — Employed under Government, or Municipal, or other local authorities, 

numbering in all 5437 or 1 '7 per cent of the entire population. 
II.— Professional persons 3288 or 0-65 per cent. 
III. — In service or performing personal offices 4672 or 0'92 per cent. 
IV. — Engaged in agriculture and with animals 125,931 or 249 per cent. 
V. — Engaged in commerce and trade 4365 or 0'86 per cent. 
VI. — Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering operations, and 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared for 
consumption 40,705 or 8 per cent. 
VII. — Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise (as) 133,878, and children 
182,505, in all 316,383 or 6256 per cent, and (6) miscellaneous persons 
4951 or 0-98 per cent ; total 321,334 or 63-54 per cent. 

The following gives some details of the different castes and races. 

Under Brahmans came twenty divisions : Nagar, with four sub- 
divisions, Vadnagara, Visnagara, Sathodra, and, Chitroda ; Audich, 
with two sub-divisions, Sahasra and Tolakia ; Mevada, with two sub- 
divisions, Bhat and Trivedi; Modh ; Shrigaud; Khedaval; Khadayata ; 
Udambar ; Eodhval ; Shrimali ; Gomtiv^l ; Bhathela or Anavla ; 
Nandoda; ChovisajMotala; Eayathala; Rayakval; Maratha Brahmans, 
with three sub -divisions, . Deshasth, Konkanasth, and Karhada ; 
Kayatia; and Tapodhans. In proportion to its size, Lunavada 
contains more Brahmans than any other state under the Agency, 
having 7976 Brahmans and an area of 388 square miles. Bariya 
with 813 square miles had only 431. Rajpipla, with 1514 square 
miles had only 4360, Sunth, nearly the same in area as Lunavada, 
had but 700, and Chhota Udepur with 873 square miles 
only 276. Most Lunavada Brahmans follow secular pursuits. 
Those at Rajpipla and the Sankheda Mehvas are ■ principally 
attached to the various shrines and temples on the banks of the 
Narbada. The Vadnagara Nagars came into the Eewa Kantha 
for Government service. They are very few in number, and are 
generally well off. The Visnagara Kagars, almost entirely 
confined to the town of Lunavada, are divided into two parts, local, 
Talahda, and settlers from Idar, Idariya. These eat together, but 
do not intermarry. During the rainy, and a part of the cold 
season, many of them go to the petty states of Malwa and Central 
India, and recite Veds and Purans. Lunavada is the only place in 
Gujarat, where a large number of Atharvan Vedic Brahmans of this 
class are found. Some of these act as bankers and traders, and 
are tolerably well-to-do. The Sathodra Nagars are only found in 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



23 



tlie town of CMnod on the Narbada, and are poor, living mostly on 
alms. The Chitroda Nagars probably came into the Rewa Kantha 
on Government service. The Audich Sahasras are very numerous 
in Lunavada, Nandod, and the Sankheda Mehvas, and are tolerably 
■well off. The Audich Tolakias, mostly found in Bariya, are seceders 
from the Audich Sahasras and seem to have come from the Kaira 
district. The Trivedi Mevadas, chiefly found in Lundvada, are 
mostly peasants. As a class they are poor, many of them going 
every year to Baroda, where they earn their living as water- 
carriers. They spend large sums in caste feasts, meidvds, 
considering it a great honour to offer their guests clarified butter. 
This honour is so much coveted that people frequently ruin themselves 
in their efforts to be enrolled among the upper 27^, sddi sattdvis, who 
have the privilege of giving their guests butter. The Bhat Mevadas, 
much fewer in number than the Trivedis, are also poor. The Modhs, 
regarded as experts in the art of begging, are mostly found in the 
town of Balasinor. They travel over the whole of Gujarat, and 
even as far as Bombay, and obtain alms by many tricks. A few 
of them are now in Government service, especially in the education 
department. The Shrigaud Brahmans; divided into two sects new, 
nava, and old, juna, are famous for their power of drinking 
melted clarified butter, ghi. This power they attribute to the favour 
of their goddess, a lamp decked with flowers and ornaments, and 
set in the midst of the butter drinkers. At their marriage feasts, 
these Brahmans for fun make some of the bridegroom's party wear 
beards and mustachios, fasten wheat and pease-meal cakes, vadds, 
with holes in the centre to their ears, put conical hats of kJidlchra, 
Butea fronddsa, leaves on their heads, and on the hat a lighted 
lamp, and break wafer biscuits, pdpad, over their heads. The 
Khedaval Brahmans have lately settled in the district for service or 
trade; they are well-to-do. The Khadayata Brahmans act as priests, 
gors, to Vanid,s of the same name. The Udambars, priests, gors, 
of the Nima Vanias are few in number, and are said to have come 
from Samlaji in the Mahi Kantha state of Idar. Of the Rodhval 
Brahmans very little is known. The Shrimalis act as priests to 
the Shrimali Vanias, and are in middling circumstances. The 
Gomtivals, chiefly cultivators, are found mostly in the town of 
Rampur in Sunth. The Bhathelas, or Anavlas, are settlers from the 
Surat district. The Nandoda Brahmans, named after the town of 
Nandod, are found in Rajpipla and the Sankheda Mehvas, and are 
mostly poor. Not much is known of the two classes, Mota and Nana, 
into which the Chovisas are divided. The Motalas are also settlers 
from, the Surat district. The Rayathalas, originally settlers from 
Bikanir or Thali in Marwar, are mostly found in the town of 
Lunavada. They are disliked and the sight of them thought 
ill-omened. The Rayakvals are beggars from the neighbouring 
districts. The Maratha Brahmans have come into the Rewa Kantha 
on service and are well-to-do. The Kayatias are regarded as low 
class Brahmans, and perform funeral rites for Shudras. The 
Tapodhans, worshippers of Shiv, if Brahmans at all, are Brahmans 
of the lowest class. In Lunavada, where they are found in 
considerable numbers, most are peasants. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Hindus. 
Priests. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



24 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
Population, 

Rajputs. 



Traders. 



Husbandmen, 



Craftsmen. 



The Rajputs of the district are, according to their class and the 
places they come from, divided into the following thirty-seven 
sub-divisions : Virpura or Solanki ; Parmd,r ; Rathod ; Chohan 
Dabhi; Puravia; Vaghela; Grohil; Dia; Kachhotia; Tank 
Chudavatj EUiar; Sisodia; Makv^a; Gujar; Dodia; Grhelot 
Raval; Yedia; Padiar; Jodha; Khuntar; Ohamarpa; Mohal 
Padhar ; Bhati ; Khavas ; Hada ; Jadia ; Barad ; Bihola ; Rana 
Sojantria; Karodia; Jalia; and Vadvasia. In proportion to its 
size, Lunavada^ contains a larger number of Rajputs than any other 
state under the Agency. Many of this class, chiefly relations of 
the different chiefs, are large landholders ; the rest are peasants, 
soldiers, and messengers. 

Under Mercantile, Trading, and Shop-keeping classes came 
the Vanias, belonging to fourteen divisions: Porvad; Nima; 
Khadayata; Mevada; Shrimali; Nagar; Vayada; Umad; Osval; 
Mam J Deshaval; Modh; Jharola; and Lad. Many of these 
classes are divided into Dasa and Visa. The Porvads are mostly 
found in Lunavada and Sunth. Some of them are Shravaks. The 
Nimas are numerous in Bariya, Limavada, and Balasinor, and are 
partly Shravaks' and partly Meshris. Among the Khadayatas 
marriageable girls are scarce, and consequently large sums have to 
be paid to the bride's father. Some of the Mevadas in the town of 
Lunavada are goldsmiths by profession, and are known by the name 
of their craft. The Shrimalis are partly -Shravaks and partly 
Meshris. Some of these also follow the occupation of goldsmiths. 
The Nagars are not numerous. Vayadas are tolerably well off. 
The Umads are immigrants from Meywar. The Osvals are all 
of them Shravaks. The Marus are said to have come into the 
district from Marwar. The Deshavals are not found in large 
numbers. The Modhs, found chiefly in Rajpipla and the Sankheda 
Mehvas, are mostly oilmen by profession, and are' therefore called . 
Ghanchis. The Jharolas and Lads are only met with in the* 
southern parts of the Rewa Kantha. 

Of Cultivators there were^ five classes : Kanbis, with four 
sub-divisions. Leva, Kadva, Anjna, and Maratha; Kachhias, with 
two sub-divisions, Padaria and Sagaria ; Malis ; Pateliyas ; and 
Rajputs. The Kachhias and Malis cultivate gardens, growing 
flowers and vegetables. The Pateliyas are said to have come from 
Ghampaner, and are believed to be the descendants of Rajputs. 
They are divided into four classes, Parmar, Solanki, Chohan and 
Gohil. At marriages they have the peculiar custom that the bride's 
mother touches the bridegroom's head with a yoke and some other 
field tools, before he enters the house prepared for him by the 
bride's father. They use animal food and worship Kali, the goddess 
of the Pavagad hill. 

Of Manufacturers there were two classes, Ghanchis, oil pressers 
and Ohhipas, calenders. 



1 LunivAda, 388 square miles, 2577 Rajputs; Rijpipla, 1514 square miles, 5893; 
Bdriya, 813 square miles, 542 ; Chhota Udepur, 873 square miles, 2407 ; Sunth, 394 
square miles, 626 ; and Sankheda MehvAs, 311 square miles, 4843. 



Gujarat] 



REWA KANTHA. 



Of Artisans there were ten classes : Kumblidrs, potters, with two 
sub-divisions, Deshi and Marvadi; Suthars, carpenters, with two 
sub-divisions, MevMa and Vaishya; Bonis, goldsmiths; Darjis, 
tailors; Luhars, blacksmiths j Kansaras, coppersmiths; SaMts, 
masons ; Chunarfe or Kadiyas, bricklayers ; Kharddis or Saranias, 
turners ; and Lakharas, makers of lac bangles. 

Of Bards there were two classes, Bhats, bards, and Charans, 
genealogists. 

Of Personal Servants there were two classes ; Hajams, barbers, 
belonging to four sub-divisions, Limbochia, Bhatia, Malvi, and 
Hindustani ; and Dhobhis, washermen. 

Of Herdsmen and Shepherds there were two classes, Bharvads, 
keepers of goats and sheep ; and Rabaris, who rear camels and cattle. 

Of Fishers and Sailors there were two classes, Machhis and Bhois. 
Besides fishing, the Machhis till land, and act as ferrymen across the 
Mahi m the rainy season. The Bhois also till land, grow sMngodds, 
Trapa bispinosa, in the beds of ponds, carry palanquins, and by 
means of large earthen pots, golds, ferry passengers across the 
river Panam near the town of Lunavada. 

Under Labourers and Miscellaneous Workers came fifteen classes ; 
Kandois, sweetmeat sellers ; Bhadbhunjas, grain parchers ; Grolas, 
rice pounders ; Pinjaras, cotton cleaners ; Ods, well-diggers ; Kalals, 
liquor-sellers; Dalvadis, brickmakers; Thoris, makers of wooden 
combs and plates and beggars; Vaghris, fowlers, hunters, and 
beggars; Ravalias, cotton tapemakers and beggars; Bajanids, 
acrobats ; Vanjaras, grain carriers ; Laban^s ; Naiks ; Bhartharis 
and Hi] das, beggars. Besides their ordinary business, the Golas 
sell rice and carry it on donkeys. The Vanjaras carry merchandise 
on pack bullocks, and also trade in grain and salt. They and the 
closely allied tribes of Labanas and Naiks have settled in some of 
the Bariya villages, where they till land. The Bhartharis play on 
a kind of rude violin, and sing songs, particularly in praise of 
king Bhartrihari, from whom they are named. The Hijdas, 
hermaphrodites and eunuchs, are singers. 

Of Workers in - Leather, there were six classes : Mochis, shoe- 
makers ; Dabgars, makers of leather jars ; Khalpas, Bhambhis, and 
Chamadias, tanners ; and Tirgars, who make arrows and carry away 
dead cattle. 

Besides the three classes of tanners and the Tirgars, there were 
four Depressed Castes : Dheds, weavers of coarse cloth ; Garudas, 
Dhed priests ; Turis, Dhed minstrels ; and Bhangias, sweepers and 
makers of bamboo baskets and mats. 

There were Devotees and Religious Beggars of various names, 
such as Sanyasis, Grosais, Khakhis and Sadhus. The Khakhis have 
a monastery, math, called Ndth Bdvdno AMddo, at Lunavada, which 
has acquired much local celebrity. It has an important branch at 
Ahmedabad called Nilkcmthno Akhddo. Of Gosai monasteries, 
maths, those at Sarsan in Sunth, and Chavadia in Lunavada, are 
the best known. 
B 561—4 



Chapter III. 
Population. 



Bards. 
Servants. 

Shepherds 
Fishers. 



Miscellaneous. 



Leather 
Workers. 



Depressed 
Classes. 



Beggars. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



26 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatioii. 

Unsettled Tribes. 
Bhila. 



Dreti. 



Of Unsettled Tribes there were six classes with, in 1872, a total 
strength of 307,199 souls. Of these 172,328 were Bhils, 94,157 
Kolis, 30,780 Dhankas, 9660 Naikdas, 155 Valvis, and 119 
Chodhras. ' 

The Bhils are found in large numbers, especially in the south-east 
of the Rewa Kantha. The bulk of the population in Rajpipla, 
Sankheda Mehvas and Chhota Udepur, they become gradually 
fewer till, near the hills forming the watershed between the Narbada 
and Mahi, they give place to the Kolis. The Rewa Kdntha Bhil is 
generally of middle size, strong-limbed, muscular, and wonderfully 
active and dirty. Bhil houses, built neither in groups nor rows, are 
scattered some distance from each other, so that the village covers 
an area of three or four square miles. For this there are three 
chief reasons : the fear that their neighbour may be a witch and- 
bring some calamity on them ; their grea,t dread of infection, which 
they believe to be the work of evil spirits, so that the favourite cure 
for a Bhil who has been long sick is to change his house ; and lastly . 
there is the fear of fire, fires being kept burning in every hut both for 
heat and light. The Bhil hut is built of two forked uprights of Icher 
wood, Acacia catechu, with a beam of teak laid across, upon which are 
fastened light teak rafters or bamboos. The rafters are fastened to 
the ridge pole by boring holes through their upper ends, and passing 
small male bamboos, generally through four rafters at a time, two 
of them going on one side of the roof and two on the other. If 
bamboo poles are used as rafters, they are chosen long enough to 
form both sides of the roof. From the underside of the centre of 
the bamboo a piece is cut, and this resting on the ridge-pole, the 
two ends of the bamboo fall on either side, shoots of creepers and 
strips of bark helped by the weight of the thatch keeping the rafters 
in their place. On the rafters some layers of teak leaves are laid, 
and over the teak leaves is a thatching of rough forest grass. The 
walls of the hut are made either of brushwood or of opened bamboos, 
plastered inside with mud and cowdung. To make these strips or 
bands of opened bamboos, across each point of a hollow or female 
bamboo pole, a number of up and down scars are cut. Then one 
large slit is carried from end to end, and the bamboo opened, and 
by the help of the joint cuts laid flat on the ground in one broad 
band. These bands are then interwoven and plastered inside- with 
mud and cowdung. The hut has usually one opening protected 
by a wattled bamboo door. Outside the hut is generally a small 
covered stage for water pots and grass, high enough to let cattle 
stand below it. Of household goods, each hut has a short cot,^ a 
few jars for grain and cooking, earthen drinking vessels, and field 
tools, generally a wooden plough, a small pick, a hatchet, a bill- 
hook, and a few baskets. 

As regards dress, the Bhil and Kolis of the pal, are divided into 
two classes; potadids or waistcloth wearers, and langotias or 



' The Bhil is generally longer than his cot, according to his saying ' The cot should 
not swallow the body, but the body the cot.'- 



Onjar&t] 



REWA KANTHA. 



27 



loincloth wearers. The former, besides a waistcloth, wear a short 
coat, angarkha, and a turban, pdgdi, generally white but soinetimes 
red. A few, instead of the waistcloth, wear short drawers reaching 
to their knees. The latter have only a very narrow strip of cloth 
generally plain, but sometimes among the Rathvas, Koli settlers 
from the Malwa district of Rath and younger Bhils, with red 
borders, passed between the legs and fastened at either end to 
a string belt. A Bhil woman usually wears a coarse sddi, a 
large petticoat, ghdgro, and a cheap bodice. On holidays she 
puts on a silk sddi and a mashru petticoat, half silk and half 
cotton. On holidays men wear red or white turbans with peacock 
feathers in them, and round their shoulders pieces of white or red 
cloth, or among their headmen a piece of scarlet broad cloth. 
A Bhil's dress costs, as a rule, from 10s. to 12s. (Rs. 5-6) 
a year; a Bhil woman's from 14s. to 16s. (Rs. 7-8)j and a 
child's from 6s. to 8s. (Rs. 3-4). Both men and women wear 
ornaments, chiefly of silver, brass, and glass. Men wear wristlets, 
rings, armlets, and necklaces, mddalids, all of silver. Women 
wear gold noserings, Jcdnto or vdli ; silver or brass earrings, dodis ; 
necklaces, mddalids and hdnsdis of silver or brass and glass beads ; 
armlets, chudds, of brass, lac, or cocoanut shell, worn in tiers from 
the elbow to the wrist ; wristlets, gujri, finger rings, and tiers of 
brass anklets, pinjdnids, from the ankle to the knee. A man's 
ornaments are worth from 10s. to £1 (Rs. 5-10) and a woman's 
from £2 to £2 10s. (Rs. 20-25). 

The ordinary food of a Bhil varies with the different seasons of 
the year. In the cold months (November to March) it consists 
of bread, rotla, made of the flour of Indian corn or other coarse 
grains, such as hanti, Panicum spicatum, with occasionally split 
pulse, adad, Phaseolus mungo. Sometimes they eat Ichichdi, a 
mixture of coarse rice and boiled split pulse, adad, Phaseolus mungo, 
or mag, Phaseolus radiatus. In the hot season (April to June), 
when they are short of grain, they eat boiled mahuda berries, or 
Tnahuda berries mixed with a little Indian corn flour, soured with 
green or dry mangoes or dried jujube apples, and a buttermilk 
and Indian com flour porridge. In the rainy season they live on 
wild fruits and roots, eked out with sdmo, a wild self-sown grain 
that comes up after the first few showers of rain. To' these are 
added a few vegetables, chiefly onions and chillies, grown in plots 
near their huts. The Bhils occasionally add to their scanty supply 
of food by hunting and killing wild animals, and when these are 
scarce, by stealing and killing cattle. On holidays and festivals 
they are never without animal food. The Bhils are habitual topers 
and much given to mahuda spirits. The yearly food charges of a 
well-to-do Bhil family, a man, his wife, and two chUdren, may be 
estimated to vary from £7 12s. to £8 16s. (Rs. 76 - 88) .^ 

Most of the Bhils are peasants, but their scanty crops do not last 
them for more than three or four months. During the rest of the 



Chapter III . 
Population- 

Bbila. 
Drest. 



Food. 



Occupation. 



' The details are : grain, Ks. 36 to 48 ; molasses, Es. 3 ; clarified butter, ghi, Ks. 6 ; 
oil, Rs. 1-8 ; salt, Rs. 6 ; liquor, Rs. 12 ; opium and tobacco, Rs. 12 ; and condiments^ 
as. 4. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



28 



STATES. 



Chapter III- 
Population- 

BhJls. 

Character. 



Religion. 



year they depend for support on the sale of forest produce^ timber, 
viahuda, honey, wax, and lac. 

A Bhil is truthful, thriftless, superstitious, and fond of drink. 
His truthfulness is due rather to a want of readiness in telling lies 
than to any inborn or acquired love of truth ; all are wanting in 
forethought. A thrifty Bhil is almost unknown. As a rule, they 
live from hand to mouth, deeply indebted to the village trader, and 
seldom receiving the full value of their labour or produce. Such is 
the Bhil's love of spirits that all their religious and social rites end 
in a great debauch. A rude still is made on the spot, a quantity 
of mahuda flowers is thrown in and the spirit drunk raw and fiery. 
At such times, both men and women mad with excitement, often 
commit serious crimes. Weapons are handy and a few taunting 
words provoke a discharge of arrows or a fatal blow with an axe. 
Afterwards they admit their fault, pleading drunkenness as an 
excuse. The Malivad Bhils, in the north of Lunavada, were at one 
time most lawless and unruly. They defied the authority of the 
Rajas of Lunavada and openly and fearlessly made raids into the 
neighbouring villages. Under British management they have been 
brought to order, and their leaders caught and punished. A trace 
of their former oppression remains in the bullock-driver's favourite 
curse, ' May the Malivads catch you.' Mr, Hall, who surveyed the 
district between 1867 and 1871, found the central or Bariya Bhils 
orderly, honest, well-disposed, willing, and cheerful. Of the south 
or Raipipla Bhils, Lieutenant PoUexfen, who surveyed the district 
between 1853 and 1855, has left the following account.^ *The 
Bhils are for the most part of middhng stature, clean limbed and 
muscular, endowed with extraordiaary activity and remarkably 
expert in the use of the axe on which their livelihood greatly 
depends. Mild and inoffensive, they are highly susceptible of 
kindness, and at the same time are wonderfully patient under 
oppression. Not even the smallest article was ever taken from my 
camp, though had they felt inclined, nothing could have been easier. 
I never heard of a theft or a murder. Their one fault seems to be 
drunkenness.' 

A Bhil's religion consists largely of a belief in charms. They 
worship female deities, known as mdtds, represented by symbols 
rather than images, by wooden posts, earthen pots, toy horses, 
wicker baskets, and winnowing fans. They believe in witches and 
in the evil eye. They have their wise men called barvds, exorcists, 
whose oflB.ce is hereditary, and who are in special request when an 
epidemic breaks out. Then the heads of the different village 
communities wait on the holy man with offerings, praying him to 
point out the cause of the visitation. The wise man generally names 
some old woman as the cause. Small mercy is shown her. She is 
seized by a raging crowd, swung by the heels or otherwise ill-treated, 
probably losing her life unless the police hear in time and put a stop 
to the riot. 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 320. 



Gnjar&t.] 



EEWA KANTHA. 



29 



On their holidays and festivals, they dress in their gayest attire, 
and spend a little money in buying sweetmeats and other cheap 
luxuries. Their chief holidays are Holi, 15th Phdgan Sud (February- 
March) ; Dasera, 10th A'so Sud (September - October) j and Grokal 
Atham, 8th Shrdvan Vad (July- August). The Holi holidays last for 
a week or more. During this time the Bhils do no work, drink liquor, 
dance, and sing obscene songs, and large bodies of them, men and 
women together, go round Vania and other high caste houses asking 
for small money presents, goths. One favourite ceremony called 
the hearth, chulo, is to dig a wide trench, and filling it with logs of 
wood set it on fire. As it burns, the men get drunk, and run over 
the fire without burning the soles of their feet. Another of their 
frolics is to plant a small tree or branch firmly in the ground. Bound 
this men and women gather, the women round the tree, the men 
outside. One man rushing in tries to uproot the tree, when all the 
women set on him and thrash him so soundly that he has to retire. 
Another man steps in, and he too is belaboured, and makes his escape. 
Thus the play goes on, till one man luckier or thicker skinned than 
the rest, bears off the tree, but seldom without a load of blows that 
cripples him for days. On Dasera day, 10th A'so Sud (September - 
October) they gather in large numbers in towns where their chiefs 
go in procession to worship the shami tree. On the Gokal Atham 
or 8th of Shrdvan Vad, they attend fairs at the temples of some of 
their mdtds or goddesses. Other yearly festivals are Naudarva, 
held in Shravan (July- August), and JhampaheldinS'arfifc (October- 
November). At the first animal sacrifices are offered to Naudarva, 
apparently nava da/ro or new grass, and eaten by the villagers ; liquor 
is drunk and the day spent as a holiday. The Jhampa, in October - 
November, is the harvest day, a more important festival. In both 
of these the whole village joins and each villager has to pay his 
share of the general cost. Goats and fowls are sacrificed to the 
god Bdbddev, offerings of liquor are poured out, the exorcist, 
barva, performs some mummeries, and the day ends with feasting 
and drinking. The village headmen, jpatds, take a leading part in 
these entertainments, and where the appointment is disputed, fights 
take place, sometimes ending in bloodshed. 

The occasional festivals are the In and the Jdtra or Yatra. The 
in is the result of a vow taken by some of the villagers. A branch of 
the halam tree is set in a hole, and the hole filled with rice instead 
of earth. The branch is then worshipped with animal sacrifices and 
liquor, the offerings being eaten by the whole body of villagers. 
The jdtra is also held on account of the fulfilment of a vow taken 
by some one of the villagers. On this occasion the god is worshipped 
with the usual accompaniments of animal sacrifices and liquor, and 
the people who come from all parts of the neighbourhood eat, drink, 
and make merry. No invitations are necessary to attend a jdtra. 
Any one hearing the sound of the village drum may join the party, 
sure of a welcome. 

Of festivals held at longer intervals than a year, the chief is Bdha 
dev, or the father god, held on the top of Devgad hill near the 
town of Bariya. The story of the festival is that when Dungarji, 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Bhils. 
Holidayi, 



Occasional 
Festivals. 



30 



STATES. 



[Bombay Qazetteer. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bhils. 
Occasional 
Festivals. 



the grandson of the Patai Raval, retired to Bariya after the 
Musalman conquest of Champaner in 1484^ a Bhil was cutting 
wood on the top of the hill which overlooks the present town of 
Bariya. As he cut^ he struck his axe agaiast two small round stones 
and blood gushed out. The axe was shivered to pieces. The Bhil 
told the exiled prince, and he findiug the stones, had a shrine built, 
and made the rule that once in twelve years the Bariya chief should 
visit them with great pomp. The shriae is on the top of a high 
hill called Devgad or the god's fort, approached by a very rough 
and windiug path about a mile and a half long. The stones are 
worshipped under the name of Devgad Bapji or the Devgad 
Father. They are set on a small raised verandah covered by a flat 
terrace and before them are numerous wood and clay horses, 
cocoanuts, oU, and other offerings. Near the shrine is a sacred brick 
and cement reservoir, kund, about twenty feet square and twenty-four 
deep, whose water is believed to purify from sin. The chief's 
twelfth yearly pilgrimage takes place in Ghaitra (March or April). 
On the 2nd of this month, every twelfth year, a Bhil exorcist, barva, 
goes to the shrine and there spends a month in devotion. During 
this time the holy man and his companions are supported at the 
Raja's expense, and are furnished with a guard. This office is 
hereditary ia a particular Bhil family, who live in the village of Rai 
Bara, about six miles from Bariya. On the appointed day, the 15th 
of Ghaitra, the Raja and his retinue climb the hill on foot, and 
remain there for thirty-six hours. On arriving at the shrine rich 
ofEerings of animals, grain, and money are placed before the objects 
of worship and afterwards given to the offi.ciating Bhils.^ When all 
is ready, the officiating Bhil begins to tremble and to personate the 
deity who is supposed to have become incarnate in him. Thus 
inspired he is believed to possess the power of prophecy ; and not 
only the followers of the Raja, but the Raja himself approach him 
with deference and respect, and making known their wishes, humbly 
pray that they may be granted. Through his assistants the Bhil 
gives answers to the different applicants, generally laying down 
certain conditions, one of which almost always is the payment of 
a sum of money. Besides answering questions, the Bhil foretells 
whether the coming year will be one of plenty or of want, and 
whether the Raja's affairs will go well or ill. Lastly he blesses the 
Raja, telling him that the deity is well disposed to him, and that 
his country will flourish. Then the chief gives a parting present, 
sarpdv,^ and the priest gives him and his followers, rice, flowers, 
and leaves of the bili tree. Separate ceremonies, much the same in 
detail, are performed in honour of the minor deity. The right to 
officiate belongs to a Bhil family, who live at the village of Udhavla 



1 The details are : 4# owts. (12 mans ] of Jehichdi ; 50 lbs (IJ mans) of suhMi, 
or malido, bread made of flour, butter, sugar, and other ingredients. To these, _ 
according to some, are added 4f cwts. (12 mans) of boiled gram called bdkla and 4f 
cwts (12 mans ) of adad, made up into cakes called vadds ; 12 male buffaloes j 12 
coats • 12 fowls ; 12 vessels of spirits ; 12 vessels of oil ; 1 small figure of a house partly 
of cold and partly of silver, the whole weighing 2^ tolas ; and IDs. (Es. 5) in cash. 

'The details are : one turban worth 10s. (Rs. 5) ; one shoulder cloth, shela, worth 
10» (Ks. 5) ; a waistcloth worth 2s. (Re. 1), and 10». (Rs. 6) in cash. 



Gujar&t] 



REWA KANTHA. 



31 



about two miles from Bariya. Similar but less valuable presents 
are given. Before the ceremony is performed a raging tiger is 
believed to destroy the Bariya herds, and if the Raja makes no 
pilgrimage, some calamity will fall on his family or people. The 
last pilgrimage year fell in 1873 when the state was under British 
management. There was no tiger, no procession, and no 
punishment. 

These aboriginal tribes hold no festivals in honour of the birth of 
a first child or of the first pregnancy of their wives ; the only family 
events on which they spend money are marriages and funerals. 
Before a marriage or a funeral feast, to every family that is to be 
asked, a string is sent with a knot for each day till the feast. Each 
day the guest unties one knot, and, when all are untied, he comes to 
the entertainment. 

The Bhils have some peculiar marriage customs. In some 
instances the match is made, as is usual with other tribes, by the 
parents of the bride and bridegroom. Sometimes the young couple 
arrange matters unknown to their parents. They disappear and 
after hiding for some days in the forest, come back and declare 
themselves man and wife. The parents as a rule accept the 
situation and after settliug the bride's dowry which is generally from 
£6 to £8 (Rs. 60-80), the marriage is celebrated in the usual 
form. If the matter is not quietly settled, a feud runs on between 
the families until a bride is seized by force from the bridegroom's 
family or his cattle are carried off. Sometimes a woman boldly walks 
into the house of the man she wishes to marry, and declares that 
he is her husband. Should he be willing he sends for her father, and 
making him a present of from £6 to £8 (Rs. 60-80), the latter 
consents to the match. If the man is unwilling he is no way forced 
to make the woman his wife. Agaiu, if a Bhil wishes to marry and 
is unable to pay his wedding expenses, he joins his future father-in- 
law as a serf, and contracts to serve him for a certain number of 
years, at the end of which he is entitled to the girl's hand and to 
have all marriage expenses paid. During this period of probation 
he and the girl live as man and wife. Polygamy is allowed among 
the Bhils and it is not necessary that the bride should be younger 
than the bridegroom : in some cases the wife is double and even 
treble the age of the husband. A Bhil woman cannot marry a 
second husband in the lifetime of the first, unless she obtains a divorce 
with his consent. Divorce is as a rule very easily granted. Women 
leave their husbands and take up with other men, and if the paramour 
is willing to pay £6 to £8 (Rs. 60-80), to make up for the husband's 
marriage expenses, nothing further is done. Aiter the marriage 
ceremony is completed some women hide a ring and a few 
grains of Indian corn in a dunghill near the house, and tell the 
bride and the bridegroom to find them out. It is lucky for the 
bridegroom to be the first to lay his hand on the ring. After this 
the maternal uncle of the bride taking the married couple on his 
shoulders, dances along with the guests assembled for the occasion, 
singing songs to the accompaniment of a drum. The marriage 



Chapter Ill- 
Population. 
Bhils. 



Custonu. 



Marriage, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



32 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bhils. 

Death. 



Oommututy. 



Eolis. 



feast is boiled Indian corn and granij some animal food and large 
quantities of mahuda liquor. Each guest, if a friend or relation of 
the host, brings with him a potful of liquor and a goat. The 
guests sing and dance all night, many of them drinking till they 
fall senseless. 

The Bhils burn their dead. On their way to the burning ground, 
they make several halts picking up stones at each and heaping 
them in a pile near the burning ground. On the next day the stones 
are thrown away. On the tenth day, the Eavalia, or Bhil priest, brings 
a brazen horse or a cow to the house of the deceased and places it on 
a piece of cloth. The people present sprinkle water on it and place 
before it a pie or a handful of Indian corn. The Eavalia then sets 
the image in a brass dish filled with water, and placing the dish on 
his head dances and sings, the guests joining him. If the image in 
the dish moves they think the horse is possessed by the spirit of the 
dead and the people bow before it singing songs. Some rice and 
clarified butter are then given to the crows and next day the guests 
are feasted. As on marriage occasions, each of the host's friends 
and relatives brings with him a goat and a potful of liquor. 
After the feast is over they present turbans, pdgdis, to the eldest 
man in the deceased's family, and sdd/is to the widow or other women 
of the house. 

Of the Bhils there are forty-two tribes or clans, gots, some of them 
claiming a strain of Rajput blood and bearing such names as 
Parmar, Vaghela and Rathod.^ Intermarrige is allowed between 
the members of the different clans. 

The head man of a Bhil village usually called jadvi possesses 
considerable influence among the villagers. He either enjoys rent- 
free land or is freed from the payment of other state dues. He also 
receives a small fee on marriages and money presents on Das6ra. 
He presides at the feasts and ceremonies held in honour of the 
village gods, devs. 

The Kolisaredividedinto twenty-one tribes,^ g'oifs, belonging to two 
great sub-divisions, Talabda and Khant, which are so distinct that 
between them marriage is forbidden. The Rathva Kolis, originally 
settlers from Rath, a district in Ali R^jpur under the Bhopavar 
Agency in Central India, are found chiefly in the states of Bariya 
and Chhota Udepur. They live in the forests which they clear 
so quickly and well, that their axes are believed to have the virtue 
of never allowing a tree which they have once cut to grow again. 
They do not settle long in one place, moving from one tract to 
another, clearing them of wood and growing crops on them. In 



1 The elans are : ParmAr ; Vighela ; Rathod ; Munia ; Bhdbhar ; KaUra ; TAdvi ; 
Biriya ; Bimania ; Kinbia ; Pargi ; BilvAl ; Ninima; Bhuria; Makna; VAsania ; Ddmor ; 
A'malifo ; KAtuja ; Dungi ; Kisori ; Charpota ; Kalara ; GanAva ; Didor ; Singhdda ; 
Palis ; Mini ; Buka ; MaehhAr ; Hatila ; Ad ; TAbed ; Mohania ; Heval ; Bibaria ; 
Kivat ; KAval ; MAlivAd ; GarvAl ; Makv^na ; and VAhiga. 

" The tribes are : Pagi ; BAriya ; Dumor ; ChohSn ; Solanki ; RSja kiva ; Kutar ; 
Ddman ; Katira ; Patel ; DAera ; Senvii ; GSmor ; Dh4kania; Budel ; Gadil ; BheUm ; 
Biltnania ; Tiraas ; Dabhol ; and Uithva. 



Qitjarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



33 



their habits and way of living they are more like Bhils than Kolis. 
They wear no dress except a loin-band^ langoti, and are very dirty. 
The Kolis' food, dress, and houses are of the same description 
as tbe Bhils', with only this difference, that the Talabda Kolis, who 
thiak themselves superior to other Kolis, do not eat beef or the flesh 
of any animals that have died a natural death. Most of the Kolis 
are peasants, but idle and unskilled far below the Kanbis. Nearly 
as thriftless as Bhils, they are deeply indebted to the village Vanias, 
who, leaving them grain enough for food, seed, and rent, take the 
rest. They are more cleanly in their habits, and are not such 
simpletons as Bhils. Both classes are inveterate thieves; but the 
Kolis lay their plans with much more method, boldness, and 
canning than the Bhils. They have better organizing powers 
and much more skill in concealing their actions. They lie in the 
most unblushing manner, and, when found oat, they take their 
punishment with the greatest coolness and good temper. The Kolis 
are less superstitious and pay more respect to the Hindu religion 
than the Bhils. They worship all the Hindu gods, but chiefly 
Indra and Hatmal. They respect Brahmans and employ them to 
conduct their religious ceremonies. 

Polygamy is allowed among the Kolis, but it is not necessary 
that the bride should be younger than the bridegroom. When a 
Koli wishes to get his son married, he generally, although the 
marriage may have been- arranged long before, goes through the 
form of starting ofE to find a bride. On leaving his house, he must 
see a small bird, called Devi, on his right hand. Till he sees a 
Devi, he will not start, even though he is kept waiting for weeks 
or even months. After he has chosen a bride and made all 
the preliminary arrangements, he is asked to dine with her father. 
During the dinner, the women of the bride's family strew grains of 
corn on the threshold, and as the boy's father is leaving the house, 
they rush at him as if to beat him, and he, making for the door, 
slips on the grain and falls. This is all done intentionally that 
the boy's father may fall on the threshold of the girl's house, an 
omen so important that without it no marriage could prosper. When 
the marriage contract is settled, the bride/s father sends half a pint 
(^ set) of oil to the bridegroom, and keeps the same quantity at his 
own house to be rubbed on the bodies of the couple, until the 
marriage is over. The bridegroom generally goes to the bride'a 
village. On his approach, the patel with a lamp in one hand and the 
other on his mouth, comes out to receive the bridegroom and hia 
.party. Among Kolis, when a man dies leaving a widow, it is usual 
for his younger brother to marry her.. But if she wishes to marry 
some one else, she can do so, if her future husband pays the younger 
brother the deceased husband's marriage expenses^ 

The Kolis burn their dead. On the 11th day after the burning, all 
the fellow-villagers of the deceased, together with his friends and 
relations, meet at some river or pond and have their mustachioa 
ehaved. They then take a stone, and pou,ring water on it believe 
that the soul of the deceased has entered the stone. 
b561— 5 +- 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

Kolia. 



Cuitomt, 



[Bombay (}aietieer, 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
population. 



Dhivikia, 

V^lviB. 

Cbodbr^s. 

MaBalmdns. 



The Naikdas^ cling to the hills which separate BMya from 
Chhota Udepar, and are tn be found almost exclusively in these 
two states. They are considered lower than the Kolis and Bhjls. 
Their touch like the touch of Dheds and Bhangias is thought to 
defile. Of their origin two stories are told. One that their ancestors 
were grooms in the service of the Musalman nobles in the prosperous 
times of Chdmp&er, who took to a plundering life when the 
city became deserted. The other account states that they are the 
descendants of the Naeks, attendants sent by the Eaja of Eaglan 
with his daughter on her marriage with one of the Bajas of 
Champaner. They eat the flesh of all animals, except the crow and 
the donkey. They show no respect to Brahmans. The common 
belief is, that they consider the killing of a Brahman an act of 
merit ; as their proverb says that, by the death of one Tilvan, or 
man with a sect mark, tilu, a hundred are fed, referring to the 
feasts on the 11th, 12th, and 13th days after a Brahman's death. 
They worship Hanuman and female powers, mdtds. Formerly the 
Naikdas were celebrated freebooters, and even now ' May the 
Naikdas take you' is a common imprecation among bullock- drivers. 
In 1838 their raids became so formidable that it was found 
necessary to remove the superintendence of the Sagtdla district 
in which they are chiefly settled, from the Eaja of Bariya and place 
it under the direct orders of the Political Agent. Strong measures 
were taken against them, and the disorders were suppressed. In 
1868 they again gave some trouble, but the disturbance was soon 
quelled. Since then they have given up their predatory habits and 
begun to take to tillage. But they have still so bad a name that, on 
the restoration of the management of the Bariya state to the present 
Raja, the Naikda district was kept under the charge of the Political 
Agent. The organization of the Naikdas is much better than that 
of the Kolis and Bhils. Each Naikda community has a chief with 
a minister, vajir. At the sound of their chief's drum the Naikdas 
gather from all sides and without a murmur obey his orders. 

The Dhankas, a sub-division of Bhils, are found only in the 
Narbada basin. They and the Valvis and Chodhras have few. 
points of difference from the other unsettled tribes. 

Of the whole Musalman population of 20,104 souls, 4155 were 
returned as settled in the state of Balasinor, 3088 in Lnnavfi,da, 
808 in Kadana, 1038 in Sunth, 48 in Sanjeli, 1095 in Bariya, 
15.15 in Chhota Udepur, 2066 in Sankheda Mehvds, 5257 in 
|l4iJFpla, 1523 in Pandu Mehvas, and 11 in the Political Agent's 
camp. In addition to the four main divisions, Syeds, Shaikhs, 
liqghals, and Pathans, numbering altogether 6325, or 31'47' per 
c^at, of the total Musalman population, there were 1228, or 6'1]; 
per cent of other Musalmans, not natives- of India, consisting of 
47 Afghans, 482 Arabs, 131 Balachis, S44^akranis, and 24, Others. 
'The remaining pprtion of the Musalman population, 12,551 soujs. 



.. .>.Fn]l details oftheN^kd&s are given in the F»nch Mahils Statistical Account. 
Bombay Gazetteer, III. 223, 



Gujarat] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



35 



were mostly descendants of converted Hindus, consisting of 1667 
Bohoras, 21 Memans, 2 Khojas and 10,861 others. Most of the 
Pathans, Arabs, Balucliis, Makranis and Moghals are in the service 
of the different chiefs. The Arabs, besides fighting, guard their 
chiefs' treasuries and palaces ; the others are employed only as 
soldiers. The Syeds, as the descendants of Hasan and Husain, the 
grandsons of Muhammad, hold the highest place among Musalmans. 
The Maliks and Shaikhs are mostly employed as messengers. The 
Grhanchis, generally called Bohora Grhanchis, are Sunnis by 
religion, and probably descendants of Hindu oil-pressers.^ The 
Pirzadas are the descendants of Dariyaishah, the celebrated saint, 
pir, of Virpur in Balasinor. Besides the above, there are Hajams, 
barbers ; Kalals, liquor-sellers ; Bhistis, water-carriers ; Bhathiaras, 
professional cooks ; Tais, weavers ; Khatkis, tanners ; Ohitaras, 
painters ; Dhuldhoyas, gold-dust washers ; Attars, perfume sellers; 
Madaris, strolling players ; Fakirs, mendicants j Mirs, songsters ; 
and Kasbans, prostitutes and dancing-girls. 

Of the total Parsi population of 198 souls, 147 were settled in 
the Eajpipla state, 17 in Bariya, 17 in Chhota Udepur, and 17 in 
Sankheda Mehvas. They are chiefly engaged in liquor-selling and 
other trades. 

The five Christians were all native converts. 

According to the 1872 census returns, there was in the Rewa 
Kantha one town or village to about every three square miles of 
land, each village containing an average of 145 inhabitants and 
about thirty-two houses. With the exception of the people of three 
towns, numbering 28,266 souls (Nandod with 9768 inhabitants, 
Lunavada with 9662, and Balasinor with 8836) or 5*59 per cent of 
the entire inhabitants, the population of the Rewa Kantha lived 
in 3481 villages, with an average of 137 souls to each vUlage. Of 
the whole number of villages 2862 had less than 200 inhabitants j 
477 had from 200 to 600; ninety-nine had from 500 to 1000; 
thirty-four from 1000 to 2000 ; eight from 2000 to 3000 ; and one 
from 3000 to 5000, 

As regards the number of houses there was in 1872 a total of 
113,210 or on an average 26"65 houses to the square mile. Of the 
total number 18,014 houses lodging 75,930 persons or 15'02 per 
cent of the entire population, at the rate of 4-22 souls to each 
house, were buildings Avith walls of fire-baked bricks and roofs of 
tile. The remaining 95^196 houses accommodating 429,717 persons 
or 84"98 per cent with an average house population of 4'51 souls, 
included all buildings covered with thatch or leaves or whose outer 
walls were of mud or sun-di'ied brick. 

Rewa Kantha villages may be divided into two classes ; the better 
villages with houses close to one another, and the hamlets of 
the aboriginal tribes whose huts are scattered over a large extent 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Musalmdns, 



Firsis, 



Christians. 
Villages. 



Dwellings. 



Communities. 



' The word Bohora is here, as it pretty often is, used to mean Hindu converts from 
the Bon-armbearing classes. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



36 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 



Movements of 
the people. 



of ground. In Bliil and Koli villages there is no stafE except the 
patel or tadvi who is both the revenue and police head of the I 
village. Either the whole or part of his land is rent-free. In the 
better class of villages, besides the headman, there are watchmen, | 
rakhds or pagis, chiefly Kolis or Bhils whose duty it is to guard the 
villages. They are sometimes paid in grain by the villagers and i 
sometimes enjoy rent-free lands. In a few villages are havdlddrs, 
who look after the fields, see that no cattle trespass on them, and 
help the commandant, thdnddr, and accountants, taldtis. Each 
thdnddr has under him one or more taldtis who live with him and 1 
not in the villages under their charge. They sometimes go to 
their villages on duty and return to the tdluka town. The taldtis 
are paid by the state in cash. In some villages there are hotvdls, 
chiefly Bhils or Kolis who do miscellaneous work. Their place is 
sometimes supplied by Bhangias or Dheds who are either paid in 
grain by the villagers or enjoy rent-free land. Tracking is done by 
rakhds and pagis. The rakhds are bound to pay compensation for ^ 
thefts committed in villages under their charge, the amount being 
settled by a village committee or by the thdnddr or police officer. 
The village artisans known as settlers, vasvdyds, are chiefly 
potters, barbers, and tanners ; carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, and 
shoemakers are found only in large villages. They are generally paid 
in grain by the villagers, and by strangers or others in cash. The 
Chamadias supply leather to cultivators for buckets, being paid ia 
cash ; and sometimes when a cultivator gives up his buffalo's carcase 
to a Chamadia, he is entitled to receive from him leather in exchange. 
Except in Bhil villages where Eavalias act as priests and are on 
special occasions fed and presented with grain, there are seldom 
any village priests, gors. In a few villages shops are kept by 
Vanias and Bohoras, who sell what is required by the villagers and 
buy whatever local produce they can get cheap. These shop-keepers 
have houses ia other places where they go when trade is dull. 

Eewa Kantha Vanias seldom go to distant towns to trade. A 
few Lunavada Bohoras have shops in Bassein, Mahim, Bombay, 
and Poona, where they stop part of the year selling glassbeads, 
bracelets, and other petty wares. Ahmedabad, Kaira, and Kathiawar 
merchants come to Lunavada and Balasinor to buy grain, butter, oil, 
and leather. Grodhra Bohoras and Anklesvar and Broach Parsis 
come for mahuda flowers, mahuda berries, oil dolim, and timber. A 
few Anklesvar Parsis have opened liquor shops in some Kajpipla 
villages and live there part of the year. The Godhra Bohoras have 
shops in the states of Bariya and Chhota Udepur. A few Vanias 
of the Sankheda Mehvas and of the Gaikwar's territory trade 
to Chhota Udepur. Some merchants of Ahmedabad, Kapadvanj, 
and Baroda come here for Bombay hemp, san. A, few 
Ahmedabad Vanias come to LunavMa town every year to sell bits 
of Mnkhdb and silks for women's bodices. Some Visnagara 
Nagar Brahmans of Lunavada go during the rainy season to Malwa 
where they recite Purans or Veds. A few go to Kathiawar and 
obtain money by reciting the Veds. Some Audich and Mevada 
Brahmans of Lunavada go to Baroda and serve as cooks or water 



Gujar4t.] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



37 



carriers. A few Modh Brahmans of Balasinor go out on begging 
tours. Of artisans, barbers go to Baroda where tliere is a great 
demand for them. Carpenters seldom go out of the Rewa Kantha 
limits, while bricklayers find employment at times in a few of the 
Panch Mahals towns. Vagad stone-masons are sometimes employed 
in Sunth and Lunavada as they are thought more skilful than the 
local bricklayers. Marvadi blacksmiths who move from village to 
village pick up odd jobs. Some Marvadi immigrants have settled 
in the Eewa Kantha where they work as day-labourers. The 
Ahmedabad Vaghris occasionally come here and either beg or in the 
rainy season sow vegetables and sell them. The Bhils are migratory, 
often changing their place of abode. They sometimes go to other 
districts during the mahuda season to gather the flowers and 
berries. Kanbis and other better class cultivators seldom move 
into the Rewa Kantha, but Bhils from the Panch Mahals, and 
Rathvas from Malwa sometimes settle in the wild parts of the 
district. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Movements of 
the people. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



CHAPTER IV. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Chapter IV. Within the Eewa Kd,ntlia limits are great varieties of soil. In the 

Agriculture. ^°^^ ^®^^ *^® ^^^ ^^^ ™ *^® south near the Narbada are rich 
tracts of alluvial land. In Lun^vada and BdMsinor in the north, 
light brown, gorddu, though not so rich as that of central Gujarat, 
is the prevailing soil. There are also a few tracts of grey, besar, 
land, generally growing rice. Near the river Shedhi are some 
patches of land called bhejvdU, very damp and yielding a cold 
weather crop of wheat and pulse, but not well suited for cotton. 
In Sunth, the black, Mli, soil holds moisture well and without 
watering yields two crops a year. The Bariya lands, light brown, 
gorddu ; deep black, Icdli ; and sandy, retdl, are considered as good 
as any in Grujarat and capable of yielding any crop, except tobacco. 
The black loam of the Sankheda and Pandu Mehvas is nearly as 
rich as the cotton lands of Amod and Jambusar in Broach. Eajpipla, 
especially its Narbada districts, is exceedingly fertile. In the 
hilly parts the soil varies much, but in the open districts it is 
black throughout. Except a few tracts of rocky and inferior black 
soil, the Rewa Kantha is on the whole fertile. 

Tillage. In the open country, with Kanbis and other high class husbandmen, 

the tillage is the same as in central Gujarat. In the hilly and 
woody tracts inhabited by Bhils, Kolis, and other unsettled tribes, 
cultivation is of the rudest kind. Most families have a few fields 
and near every hut is a plot of ground called vdda or Icdchha, sown 
with Indian corn or some other food grain. Manure is used only 
for the plots near the houses, and is hardly enough even for them. 
In Bariya and Eajpipla, the want is to some extent supplied by 
burning dry sticks and leaves on the ground, shortly before the 
rains (June) . This system of wood-ash manuring is called vdhdlra 
in Bariya, and dddhia in Edjpipla. Among the Bhils, there is almost 
no irrigation. The river banks are too steep to allow of their water 
being used, and the people have neither the means nor the wish to 
build wells. In ordinary years the black loamy soil keeps moist 
enough to yield a cold weather crop and the want of water is not 
felt. Their field tools are a small wooden plough, the coulter and 
share formed of a bar of iron about three-quarters of an inch square, 
its lower end pointed and slightly bent towards the front. Besides 
the plough, they use a small pick, a hatchet, and a bill-hook. The 
plough is used only by the better class of Bhils in lowland clearings. 
Drawn by weak, ill-fed, oxen, it does little more than scratch the 
surface of the ground. When the land is too rough for the plough. 



Chdar&t] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



3d 



it is tilled with hoes and pickaxes j their rude carts are of wood 
without a bit of iron, occasionally with wheels formed of solid 
blocks of timber. The axle tree is generally of dhdman, Grevia 
asiatica, a very tough white and plentiful wood. 

The Tlewa Kantha Crops are, of Cereals : maize, makdi, Zea mays ; 
rice, ddnqar, Oryza sativaj Indian millet, juvdr, Sorghum vulgare ; 
millet, bwjri, Penicillaria spicata; barley, j ftv, Hordeura hexastiohon; 
wheat, gfrtttw, Triticum Eestivum; rdjgaro, Amarantas paniculatns; 
hodra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; banii, Panicum spicatum ; bdvto, 
Panicum frumentaceum ; hdng, Panicum italicum ;• chino, Panicum 
maliaceum. The wheat grown in the district is of two kinds, 
vdjia and kdtha. The rice is of a coarse description called vari. 
Of hodra a kind called minia hodra has a narcotic, property, 
which is to a certain extent neutralised by washing and drying two 
or three times before grinding. Of Pulses : tuver, Cajanus indicus j 
math, Phaseolus aconitifolius ; mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; adad, 
Phaseolus mungoj vdl, Dolichos lablab ; gram, chana, Cicer arietinum; 
peas, vatdna, Pisum sativum; and guvdr, Cyamopsis psoralioides. 
Of Oil seeds ; castor oil seed, divela, Ricinus communis ; gingelly 
oil seed, tal, Sesamum indicum ; and rape seed, sarsav, Brassica 
napus. Of Fibres, cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceumj and 
Bombay hemp, san, Crotalaria juncea. Of miscellaueous crops, 
sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum ; and tobacco, tamhdku, 
Nicotiana tabacum. Of Vegetables : potato, batdta or alohda, 
Bolanum tuberosum ; sweet-potato, saharia, Convolvulus batatas ; 
onions, hdnda, Allium cepa ; garlic, lasan, Alium sativum ; yam, 
ratdlu, Dioscorea alata, and shingoda, Trapa bispinosa. The other 
vegetables are, eggplant, vegan, vantidh or ringana, Solanum 
melongena acute ; angled cucumber, turia, LufEa acutangula j galhu,. 
Luffa petandria ; kdrela, Momordica charantia ; common cucumber, 
hdhdi, Cucumis sativusj the long white gourd, dudfd bhopla, 
Cucurbita longa ; and red pumpkin, kohlu, Cucurbita melopepo. 
The root of the dudhi bhopla is said to be alterative and the seed 
and juice of the bitter gdlku are violently emetic and cathartic. 
When given in infusion they are a bitter tonic and a powerful 
diuretic. The leaves of the bitter variety of the red pumpkin are 
said to be useful in cases of jaundice. Chihan, a wild species of 
kdhd>, is very cold and indigestible. Of Spices and Condiments 
there are, turmeric, haldi, Curcuma longa ; chilly, marclii, Capsicum 
annunm ; ginger, ddu, Zingiber officinale ; coriander, dhdna, 
Coriandrum sativum ; and cumin seed, jwu, Cuminum cyminum. 
Of Fruits, melon, shakarteti, hhadbucha, or gota, Cucumis melo; 
water melon, tadbuch, Cucurbita citrallus; guava, jdmrukh or 
jdmphdl, Psidium guava; custard apple, sitdphal, Anxiona, squamosa; 
and plantain, kela, Musa paradisiaca. The fruit of the wild 
plantain is too stunted and full of large seeds to be eaten. 

Kolis, Bhils, and Naikdas form the bulk of the agricultural 
classes. These are very indifEerent husbandmen and are in poor 
circumstances. The higher class cultivators are Kanbis, Kdchhiels, 
Malis, Pateliyds, and Rajputs. 



Chapter IV. 
Agricnltnre.^ 

Crops. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
40 STATES. 

Chapter IV. a hilly well watered land, its rough tribes accustomed to live on 

Agriculture. fruits, roots, and wild vegetables, Rewa Kantha, though it has 
Famines. passed through years of great distress, has never been entirely 

wasted by famine. The first famine of which the memory remains 
was in 1746-47. Hardly any rain fell, and the crops did not ripen. 
Many people died, but the wild inhabitants kept themselves and 
their cattle alive by eating forest roots and locusts which abounded 
at the time. The next year of scarcity 1790-91, caused by the 
failure of rain, appears to have been the nearest approach to a 
general famine on record. Poor people sold their children. The 
Bhils lived on wild roots and berries. Many lives were lost and 
much cattle perished, and the country was infested with bands 
of marauders. The chiefs doled out daily food to the destitute, 
but no public works were undertaken. Another failure of rain 
caused scarcity in 1802, but the distress was not so great nor the 
failure of crops so general. In the famine of 1812-13 the distress 
was almost as severe as in 1790-91. Millet was sold at eight pounds 
the rupee, and rice at six pounds, and as in 1 790, from the state 
stores doles of grain were distributed. Twelve years later the season 
of 1825 was one of scarcity, but of no widespread suffering. In 
1833-34 matters were worse. The rainfall was scanty and the small 
harvest was destroyed by swarms of locusts. Still there was grain 
in the country, and the people helped by their chiefs passed through 
the time of scarcity without much loss of life or of cattle. The British 
G-ovemment remitted £5295 4s. lid. (Rs. 52,952-5-3) from the 
tribute. Since 1834 there has been no famine. On account of 
scanty rainfall, £2790 6s. 9d. (Rs. 27,903-6-0) of tribute were 
remitted in 1839, and £426 18s. (Rs. 4269) in 1849. In 1864 
scanty crops and the very high value of cotton raised millet to 
twenty-two pounds the rupee, and caused much distress among 
the poorer classes. During the last two years (1877-78), the great 
exports of grain to the Deccan and Southern Maratha districts, 
and poor local harvests have once more brought back prices to famine 
pitch, millet selling in 1878 at fifteen, and rice at ten pounds the 
rupee. 



Oujarit] 



CHAPTER V. 

CAPITAL. 

The cMef money-lenders are Vanias and Bralinians. Of bankers 
there are only a few in sucli large towns as Nandod, Lunavada, and 
Balasinor. In smaller towns some bankers deal in grain and otber 
articles. Others bav^e shops in villages, living there part of the 
year, and making bargains with the people, advancing them money 
and seed. In the Rewa Kantha every Bhil or Koli has his own V£nia or 
other money-lender who has more power over him than even his chief. 
So much is this the case that sometimes a village is spoken of as 
so and so's village not because he is its owner but because its people 
are his debtors. In bad years the money-lender sometimes helps 
his debtors with new loans of money or seed grain. If he refuses, 
the Bhils apply to some one else and the first creditor would then 
have little chance of recovering his money. Debts are handed down 
from father to son, many of the poorer classes passing their whole 
life, sunk in debt. Harvest over, the money-lender with one or two 
friends starts on ■ a collecting tour. And while in his village the 
debtor, however poor, has to pay his share of the money-lender's 
expenses. With much wrangling, in which the ignorant Bhil is 
always worsted, the accounts are balanced, the debt running on 
while the original amount lent continues to increase. Money or 
grain is taken in part payment of debts, and however scanty his 
debtor's stock of grain, as much as can be seized is carried off. 
Except when his payments stop for two or three years, and he finds 
that his debtor has begun to raise money from some one else, the 
creditor seldom takes his debtor into a civil court. If he does, as 
a rule, he makes little by it, as the whole of his debtor's property 
is seldom enough to satisfy the decree. 

"When a lender is put in possession of a house or a plot of land, as 
a rule, no interest is charged. When a gold or silver ornament is 
pledged, the yearly interest varies from three to six per cent, and on 
personal security the well-to-do borrow at from six to twelve per 
cent. In the case of Bhils, Kolis, and others of the lower classes, at 
ddvdli in October the beginning of the new year, a quarter of the 
amount due is added to the principal, and if the whole is not paid 
during the year, at the beginning of the next, a quarter of the enhanced 
principal is again added. This system is known as savm or one 
and a quarter. For seed grain one-quarter or one-haK as much again 
as the original and sometimes even double the sum originally lent, 
is recovered either ia cash or in grain. Except alienated or part 
alienated holdings, from the large area of waste arable land and the 
uncertainty of tenure the right of occupancy haa no sale or mortgage 
B 236—6 



Chapter V. 

Capital- 
Capitalists. 



Interest. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



42 



STATES. 



Chapter Y^ 
Capital. 

Interest 



Craftsmen. 



value. Mortgaged alienated land may be redeemed at any time. 
Bhils and Kolis have no ornaments of value. Among them buffaloes 
or bullocks are the only movable property ever pledged. When 
cattle are pawned they generally remain with the borrower. Their 
huts would not be taken in mortgage. They are of no money value, 
and the timber and building site belong to the chief. Except when 
they have cattle to pledge, the poorer classes borrow either on their 
own or their friends' personal security. Their indebtedness is a 
by-word and their want of common care or thrift leaves them in 
their creditors' hands. A large number of money-lenders live on 
their debtors and a few grow rich. But the Bhilsj when too hard 
pressed, are ready to leave the district, and the interest actually 
recovered is said to be not more than from six to twelve per cent on 
the sum advanced. 

The district has few craftsmen. In the rural parts the Kolis, 
Bhils, and other poor tribes supply their own wants, making tools, 
carts, and huts, and in the towns the want of well-to-do customers, and 
the heavy labour and money taxes keep down the number of crafts- 
men. In some states when the chief wants work done, artisans are 
brought and forced to work without pay. In other states, when working 
for the chief, the better class of artisans, carpenters, bricklayers, and 
tailors are paid half their market wages, and potters and other lower 
workers get a day's supply of grain. In badly managed states this 
labour tax does not stop with the chief, but is levied by all state 
servants and relations. That these demands may be spread over 
the whole caste, the headman arranges that the members of the caste 
should work for the chief in turn. There are no trade guilds 
including the members of several castes. But among craftsmen of 
the same caste certain rules about work and wages are laid down 
and any one breaking them runs the risk of being thrown out of 
caste. If a caste-fellow dies, on the 11th, 12th, and 13th day after 
his death, and on caste-feast days, carpenters and bricklayers are 
not allowed to work. They may not take less than the regular 
wages, and in Lun^vada town, are forbidden under fine from taking 
work on contract. In these two castes the headmen arrange that 
the members should in turn work for any one unable to work for 
himself. No barber is allowed to shave any one but the people of hia 
own village. In the large towns the craftsmen show no lack of skill, 
and when well paid and given good materials, do as good work as 
in other parts of Gujarat. 

Carpenters are paid daily at rates varying from 9d.-2s. 
(6 as. - Re. 1).-^ When the lower rates are paid, they are 
generally given food in addition to their money wage. Their 
women do not help in their work. But when grown up their 
sons add to the family earnings. Bricklayers are paid less than 
carpenters, generally from 9^. - Is. 6c?. (6 - 12 as.) a day. Stone 
masons earn good wages Is. 6^^. (12 as.) a day with, when they 
come from Meywar, their food besides. A skilled goldsmith makes 



I A carpenter's wage in LunAvAda is now (1879) Is. ^id. (13 annas). 



Gnjardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



43 



from £30 to £50 (Rs. 300 - 500) a year, and one less skilled who 
makes brass and tin ornaments for Bhil women about £10 (Rs. 100). 
A skilled worker earns more, but an ordinary blacksmith's daily 
wage varies from 6fc?. - 9|c?. ( as. 4-3 to 6-4). A tailor's earnings 
range from 6f d. - 9^d. (as. 4-3 to 6-4) a day. If specially skilled 
they may rise to Is. (8 as.). An ordinary barber makes from 16s. - 
£1 (Rs. 8-10) a month. A specially good man may earn as much as 
£1 4s. or £1 10s. (Rs. 12 or 15). A cotton cleaner, pinja/ra, makes 
from 12s. - 16s. (Rs. 6 - 8) a month, and a shoemaker from 16s. - 
£1 10s. (Rs. 8-15). The monthly wage of a dyer is from £1 - 
£14s. (Rs. 10-12), and of a weaver from 16s. - £1 (Rs. 8- 10). 
Among these craftsmen those who work at home such as furniture- 
makers, turners, goldsmiths and blacksmiths, are helped by their 
women in parts of their work that need no skill. Tailors' and gold- 
smiths' wives do som.e ordinary work and add to the family earnings. 
The clerks, gumdstds, of bankers and well-to-do traders are paid 
from £5 - £25 (Rs. 50 - 250) a year. A day-labourer's wage is 
for a man from dd. - 6d. (2-4 as.) ; for a woman from 2|cZ. - 3d. 
(1| - 2 OS.) ; and for boys and girls from %d. - 2JcZ.(2 pice - 1| as.) 
Almost all wages, both of craftsmen and day-labourers, are paid 
either in cash or in grain, or in both. 

The current coins are silver rupees and copper pice. No rupees 
are coined in the district. The Baroda or siydsi rupee passes all 
over the Rewa Kantha and the Broach rupee in* the Rajpipla state. 
The Imperial rupee is used only to a small extent. Lunavada, Sunth, 
and Chiota Udepur have their own copper coinage passing only 
within their own limits. In Bariya the old or Godharia copper pice, 
and in Rajpipla Oambay pice, are current. The value of the pice is 
subject to great changes, the Baroda rupee representing at different 
times from seventy to ninety pice. When a half pice is to be 
paid the pice is cut or broken into two pieces, and one does duty as 
a half pice. The Imperial copper coins are current in all states, a 
Baroda rupee changing for fifty-six and a Broach rupee for about 
sixty-three Imperial pice. 

In former times, the absence af a local town population and the 
want of good secure roads, made grain- prices lower in Rewa Kantha 
than in any other part of Gujarat. But of late years the opening 
of the railway line to Pali, the making of good roads and the 
establishment of a better police have raised Rewa Kantha grain, prices 
to the level of other parts of the province. A statement of produce 
prices reaching as far back as 1834 is given below. Up to 1871 the 
figures refer only to Lunavada. Since then they are supposed to 
represent the average prices over the whole district. Excluding 
the years of scarcity the whole may be divided into three periods. 1834 
was a year of scarcity. 1835 to 1842 was a time of moderate rates, the 
price of hdjri,the staple grain, varying from twenty in 1838 a year of 



Chapter V 
Capital 

Wages. 



1 In the Sunth town of Rimpur, Indian com was once lower than 160 lbs. 
(4 mans) the rupee. Chafing under his loss of profit, a grain merchant struck a heap 
of com with his shoe, and for this insult to Annadev, the god of food, was fined by the 
Sunth chief. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



STATES. 



Chapter V. 

Capital. 

Prices, 



scanty rainfall, to seventy-eight and a half in 1841, and averaging 
fifty rone pounds. This was followed by eighteen years of cheap 
grain, prices varying from fifty-eight and a half in 1846 to 101 in 
1850, and averaging eighty pounds. The next sixteen years was a 
period of high prices varying from twenty-two in 1864 the American 
war time, known as the dhadinu dhdn or the ten ser year, to fifty-one 
in 1874 and averaging thirty-eight pounds. Lastly in 1877, from 
the famine in the Deccan and Madras, millet prices rose from fifty 
to thirty pounds, and in 1878 a local failure pf crops forced them up 
to fifteen pounds. 

Bewa Kdntha Produce Prices, 1834- 1878, i 1 



PRODnOK. 


SoAa- 

CMY. 


First Pbriod 
(1835-1842). 


Sbcond Period ^ > 
(1843-1860). 




1834 


1836 


1836. 


1837 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


184 


11842 


1^43. 


1844 


. 1846. 


1846. 


18'<7 


Indlanmillet, hajri. 

Indian com 

Bice 

Wheat 

Gram 

False, iwoer 


27 

32 

26i 

23 

32 


42 
49 
60 
26 
46 


68 
62 
80 
65 
75 


60 
75 

100 
62 

104 


20 
75 
85 
69 
102J 


61 

59 

47i 

52 

51 


60 
87 
62 
364 

6.64 


78 
101 
46 
33 
66 


4 674 
934 
70 
28 
85 


90 
100 
80 
62 
35 


85 
1124 

m 

874 
136 


81 
110 

774 

57 
100 


684 

SB 

674 

80 

80 


"7^ 
178 
824 
30 
74 




Sboonb VmiOB—amUraiei. 


FnoDUCE. 


1848. 


1849. 

99 
183^ 
60 
44 
724 


1850. 


1851. 


1852, 


1853. 


1854. 


1866. 


1856. 


1857. 


1868. 


13S9. 


1860 


Indian millet, bajri. 

Indian com 

Bice 

Wheat 

Giam 

Fulse, timer 


85 
62 
86 


101 

129 

35 

51 

>B7 


87 
120 
80 
67 
93 


90 
110 
75 
66 
96 


86 
1124 

97i 

76 
1114 


86| 
1034 
105 

50 

98 


80 

100 

95 

74 

110 


714 

674 

80 

55 

91 


71 

114 

90 

65 

120 


624 

1154 
66 
103 


70 
105 

82 

684- 
100 


60 
64 
60 

38 
80 




Thied Period (1861-1876). 


Proddcb. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1866. 


1S66. 


1867. 


1868, 


1869. 


Indian millet, bajri. 

Indian corn 

Eioe 

Wheat 

Gram 

PuUe, iuoer 


«4 

41 

50 

20 

43 


464 

62 

46 

30 

40 


39 

27 
42 


22 
39 
27 
17 
264 


23 

23 

26 

174 

25 


44 
60 
22 
23 
23 


36 

62 
42 
24 
39 


39 

534 

35 

204 

46 


324 

33 

30 

184 

33 




Third Pbeiod (1861 - 1876)— comKbwA 1 


SCARcnre. 


Fboducb, 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


Indian millet, bdjri. 

Indian corn 

Bice 

Wheat 

Gram 

Fulae, tmer 


31 

364 
29 
22 
874 


26 

46i 

40 

28 

42 


39 
49 
22 

45 
17 


40 
53 
284 

49 
20 


51 

864 
.31 

49 
23 


48 
61 
30 

60 
33 


50 
63 
29 

64 
48 


30 
31 
21 

60 
22 


16 
16 

10 

17 
12 





The weights and measures current in the Eewa Kantha are the 
same as those in other parts of Gujarat. The tola is equal to the 
weight of a Baroda rupee minus two ratis, and of an Imperial 
rupee minus 1^ vols. The ser is equal to forty Imperial rupees. 
Grain and mahuda are weighed in mans, and manis of twelve mans 



Gtijar&t] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



45 



each. A hundred manis make one mandsa and 100 mam.dsds make 
a handso. In Baroda, mahuda is weighed by the halsi equal to 
sixteen mans. In Lunavada a rmido of cement, chho, weighs fifty 
mans. A carpenter's and cloth vendor's yard, gaj, is twenty-four 
inches, and a tailor's twenty-six. Cloth is measured by the hath, 
rather variable, but on the whole corresponding with the cubit. 
In Lunavada, where the survey system has been introduced, 
land is measured by acres and fortieths, gunthds, and in Eajpipla, 
the Sankheda Mehvas, and a part of Pandu Mehvas, by 
kumbhds of nearly an acre, and in the remaining states by highds of 
about half an acre. The bigha seems to be of recent origin. In old 
title deeds land is marked either by its boundaries or by the amount 
of a certain seed that might be sown in it. The Rewa Kantha 
hv/mbha is said to be the same as the Broach measure, but in practice 
it would seem to be somewhat larger. The weights in ordinary use 
are pieces of iron or stone. In the states under British manage- 
ment, these weights are from time to time tested by the police, when 
anything wanting is made up by adding a piece of iron. 



Chapter V. 

Capital 

Weights and 
MeasureB. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 



£oad9. 



CHAPTER VI. 

TRADE. 

The Eewa Kantha trade and the Panel. MaMls trade are in many 
points alike. Botli have a through traffic between G-ujarat and 
Central India, and a local trade west with Gujarat and east with 
Rajputana, Central India, and Khandesh. And in both districts, 
whale the opening of railways through Gujarat has increased the local 
trade westwards, the through trade has dwindled, the old straight 
routes with their rough roads and heavy dues faUitig to compete 
with the safe railway journey by Bombay and Khandesh to Indor. 

Formerly Eewa Kantha trade westwards set towards the 
coast, most of it centering in the ports of Jambusar and Broach. 
It is now diverted to the line of the Bombay Baroda and 
Central India Eailway, the western limit of all the roads leading 
from the Eewa Kantha to Gujardt. Besides the main line of 
railway running north and south, two feeders, in the north one 
from Anand to Pali, and in the south one from Karjan to Chanod, 
pass east towards the Eewa Kantha.^ The Eewa Kantha roads 
end westwards in Pali, Baroda, Dabhoi, Chanod, Anklesvar, and 
Panoli, and eastwards in Dungarpur, Jhalod, Dohad, Ali Eajpur, 
Indor, and Kukarmunda. Though most of them are fit for carts, 
these roads, except the main line from Godhra to Dohad, are country 
tracks neither metalled nor bridged. They may be brought under 
four groups, centering at Pali, Baroda, Dabhoi, and Aiklesvar. 
At Pali seven roads meet : a Dungarpur road running south through 
Pandarvada, Virpur, Vardhari, and Balasinor ; 2, a Dungarpur road 
running south-west through Lunavada, Vardhari, and Balasinor ; 3, 
a, Jhalod road running south-west through Eampur, Lunavada, and 
Balasinor ; 4, a Jhalod roadrunning south through Sanjeli andShera;. 
5, a Jhalod road running further south through Eandhikpur and 
Godhra^ ; 6, the great high road from Dohad west through Piplod and 
Godhra ; and 7, a second Dohad road through Bariya and Godhra. 
Four lines center at Baroda : 1, several small tracts from the Mehvas 
estates northward along the Mahi; 2, the Dohad road leading 
south-west through Bariya and Kalol j 3, the Jabua road passing from 
Central India west through KakurkhUa, Sagtala, Eajgad, and 
Kanjari;and4, the ChhotaUdepurroadwestthrough Jetpur, Jabugam 

1 A third branch line is now being made from Dabhoi to Badharpur in Baroda 
territory. 

2 A new road has lately (1879) been made from JhAlod through Dudhia under 
Bariya, running into the main Godhra-Dohad ifoad. 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



47 



and Vagoria. Three roads center at Dabhoij 1, tte Cliliota Udepur 
road sou-thwest through Jetpur, Jabugamj and Sankheda ; 2, the 
Panvad road west through Vasna and Sankheda ; and 3, a second 
Panvad road passing through Karali and Sankheda. Five roada 
center at Anklesvar ; 1, the Ali Rajpur road south-west through 
Chhota Udepur, Karali, Vasna, Nasvadi, Tilakvada, and Nandod; 
2, a Panvad road joining the Ali Rajpur road at Karali ; 3, a Panvad 
road j oiniug the Ali Rajpur road at Vasna ; 4, the Kavant road 
running west through Nasvadi, Alva, Virpur, and Nandod, and from 
Nandod passing south-west through Avidha, Jagadia, and Grovali ; 
and 5, a road from Kukarmunda on the Tapti, west through Pat, 
Badadev, Patav, and Dharoli. Only one road reaches Panoli from 
Kukarmunda through Badadev and Luna. 

Besides these a road fit for carts runs 114 miles north and south from 
Kadana on the Mahi to within a few miles of the Narbada at Hamp. 
This road passes through Sunth eight miles, Rampur four miles, 
Sanjeli twelve miles, Randhikpur eight miles, Piplod twelve miles, 
Bariya eight miles, Sagt^la eleven miles, Chhota Udepur twenty-five 
miles, Panvad eight miles, Kavant eight miles, and Karapani ten 
miles. From Karapani ten miles on to the Narbada it is fit only for 
horses or bullocks. This and other roads crossing the main stream of 
traffics are, except as feeders, of small commercial value. 

The following details show the present traffic along the chief 
lines of road. Of the Pali roads the most northerly enters the 
Rewa Kantha at the village of Detvas in Kadana territory. Beyond 
Detvas there is hardly any cart traffic. Almost every thing is 
carried on pack bullocks, the Vanjaras bringing grain and opium 
to Gujarat and taking back salt, tobacco, and cloth. At Detvas 
the road divides, one branch turning to the west by Virpur, the 
other keeping more directly south to Lunavada. From Detvas the 
west branch passes through Pandarvada ten miles, and Virpur sixteen 
miles. Bach of these places is a local trade center, Pandarvada for 
the surrounding Lunavada district, and Virpur for the sub-division, 
pargana, of that name under Balasinor. From these two places 
the district produce, grain, mahuda oil, clarified butter, and timber, 
is sent to Grujarat, and tobacco, spices, iron, copper, salt, and cloth 
are brought back. From Virpur the road runs south twelve miles 
to Vardhari, where it is joined by the south branch. This south 
branch leaving Detvas passes through Khanpur twelve miles, crosses 
the Bhadar river to Madhvas eight miles, crosses the Mahi to 
Lunavada seven miles, to Champeli six miles, and crosses the Mahi 
again to Vardhari eight miles, or a total distance of forty-one 
miles. Of the two branches the west or Virpur, shorter, free from 
a double passage of the Mahi, and in every way better, is used by 
the through G-ujarat trade. The town of Lunavada (9662 souls) 
draws considerable local traffic along the south route. The third 
of the Pali roads, coming from Jbalod, enters the Sunth state at a 
village called Kundla four miles west of Jhalod. Until very lately 
this road passed through the state to Lunavada by Parthampur 
eleven miles, Anjanva twelve miles, and Baela seven miles, to 
Lunavada six miles, a total distance of 36 miles. After leaving 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 

Roads. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
48 STATES. 

Chapter VI- Parthampur it enters some difficult passes, where until lately 
Trade. travellers ran so great a chance of being robbed and ill treated, that 

Roaa ^®^y little traffic passed along it. Since the death of the Sunth 

chief (1872) a new road has been opened through Rampur five 
miles, from Parthampur to Sunth two miles, thence to Sarsav six 
miles, to Thamba seven miles, and to Lunavada seven miles. 
Though a little longer this road is safer and has the advantage 
of passing through Rampur, a local trade center of some consequence. 
From Rampur through Sunth to the plain country beyond, 
this road in four miles passes through no less than four ranges of 
hills. But crossing them by the help of gaps it is nowhere very 
steep, and is well guarded by police posts. Before 1872, bands of 
travellers used in fear and trembling to make their painful way 
on foot or horseback over a mountain path, now the post passes 
regularly and single carts can travel without an escort. The next 
important line of communication is the fourth of the Pali lines, 
the south Jhalod road by Sanjeli and Shera. This, much used 
by traders, passes through about eleven miles of Sanjeli territory. 
The fifth Pali line, the Jhalod and Randhikpur road, passing 
through some rather rough .country, carries much the same trade as 
the Jhalod and Shera line. The sixth Pali line, the great high road 
from Dohad to Grodhra, passing through twenty miles of Bariya 
territory is the only first class road in the whole of Rewa Kantha. 
It is bridged and metalled, and has a steadily growing traffic. 
Formerly travellers ran great risk of being robbed, now by clearing 
forests and placing police posts, all danger has been removed. Of 
its cross country feeders the chief are from Dudhia and Bandibar on 
the north, and Bariya on the south. A road now being made from 
Ashadi on the high road to Bariya will keep the Bariya traffic open 
throughout the year. Another road between Dohad and Godhra 
passing through Bariya, Damavav, and Simalia, is very rough, 
winding through several hill passes. Since the opening of the great 
high road, this route is, except for local Bariya traffic, little used. 

Of the roads that end in Baroda, those from the Mehvas 
estates on the Mahi, passing chiefly through Gaikwar territory 
are common country tracks. The Bariya and Baroda ,road 
leaves Bariya by the east gate and after a mile and a half 
crosses the Panam river j thence it goes through a moderately 
flat and wooded country eight miles to Damavav, and thence 
passing through Simalia three miles, where there is a police station 
and wood mart, and crossing the river Goma it passes into Kalol 
about thirteen miles from Bariya. The Jalena and Baroda road 
enters Bariya territory at Kakarkhila. Then passing over the two 
rough Khalta and Kansara ridges, it crosses the Valva river and 
passing two villages belonging to Ratanmal which are embedded 
in Bariya territory, it reaches the Panam river about twelve miles 
from the frontier. Up to this point the road is very rugged and 
before 1875 was not fit for carts. Since 1875 the passes have been 
put in order and carts can travel. After crossing the Panam the 
road leads through a wooded country almost due west to Sagtala 
twelve miles. Here in the heart of the Naikda country is a post, 
thdna, and from it a road leads north to Bariya eleven miles. This 



RBWA KlNTHA. 49 

road has lately been cleared of brushwood and by day or night can Chapter VI. 
be safely used. From Sdgtala the western route passes without Trade. 

difficulty sixteen miles west over high ground to Rajgad, the head- 
quarters of another sub-division. From Rajgad there are three »<>«<»• 
routes to Baroda, one through Kalol, another through Kanjeri 
two miles from Halol, and the third through Champaner. The 
second is the straightest and most used. The distance from 
Rajgad to the frontier of the Bariya state by any of these routes is 
not more than five or six miles. 

The remaining roads, that running east and west center in Dabhoi 
and Anklesvar, all lie to the south of Pavagad and the chain of 
hills which forms the water-shed between the Mahi and Narbada 
basins. The first in order is that from Malwa to Gujarat along the 
Or valley. This road comes from Ali Rajpur and enters Chhota 
Udepur at the village of Kharakvada. Winding through the hills it 
reaches to Or about ten miles from the frontier, and after crossing 
it runs close along its right bank to Chhota Udepur seven miles 
further on, thence still skirting the right bank of the river it passes 
through Jejgad eight miles, Jetpur five miles, to Jabugam seven 
miles, crossing the frontier three miles further on into Gaikwar 
territory. Thence there are two routes, one direct to Baroda 
through Vaghoria ; the other to Dabhoi through Makhni, Sankheda, 
and Badharpur. The former of these, not more than 250 miles long, 
is the shortest and most direct route from Indor to Baroda. If the 
chiefs through whose lands it passes were to improve the present 
rough track, save travellers from robbery, and lower their transit 
dues, this might be made a most important line of communication. 
At present it has not one-tenth of the traffic it might have. Indor 
and Baroda merchants prefer to send their goods from one place to 
the other by rail through Bombay rather than trust them to the 
rough usage and exorbitant demands on the direct route. Within 
Rewa Kantha limits the line presents no difficulties. The country 
is level, the soil light and sandy, and the rivers few and easily 
bridged. But for through traffic, unless some change can be made 
all along the line, it is of little use to improve the Rewa Kantha 
section alone. 

The next line is the part of the Mhow and Dabhoi road that passes 
through Chhota Udepur. This road enters Rewa Kantha three 
miles east of Panvad. West of this village the road divides, one 
branch passes north through Karali fifteen miles, and thence 
towards Sankheda seven miles, to the frontier. The other branch 
passes west along the Heran valley and by Vasna a Gaikwar 
village, eighteen miles from Panvad. Of these the north branch is 
less hilly and rugged, but neither of them is much used. Almost 
all the traffic finds its way through the Sankheda Mehvas, and 
crossing the Narbada reaches the Baroda railway at Anklesvar. 
Of these branches one from Chhota Udepur through Karali sixteen 
miles, and the other from Panvad meet at Vasna and continue in 
one line as far as Nasvadi, seven miles. Here they are joined by a 
lower road which passes through Kavant. This line enters Udepur 
territory about eight miles to the east of Kavant, and thence through 
B 561— 7+- 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



50 



STATES. 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 

Boads. 



Ferries. 



Palasni sixteen miles to Nasvddi six miles. From Nasvadi the 
united road passes south through Savli six miles, to Alva three 
miles, Uchhad three miles, and Virpur three miles, where it crosses 
the Narbada. Another route of about the same length crosses the 
Narbada two miles lower at Tilakvada. 

As the Narbada cannot be forded at either crossing the traffic 
'through the Udepur state and Sankheda Mehvas is almost entirely 
on pack bullocks. After crossiag the Narbada, the united road 
passes eight miles through country much broken by ravines to 
Nandod, the capital of Eajpipla. A mile west of Nandod it crosses 
the Karjan river at a ford, and thence passes through Partapnagar 
■eight miles, Haripura eight miles, Avidha five miles, Jagadia five 
miles, and Govali four miles to the frontier of the Eajpipla state 
three miles further on and about four miles from Anklesvar station. 
Between the Karjan and the frontier this road crosses many small 
streams and is used only during the fair weather. Lately (1875) 
the Raja of Rajpipla has had surveys and estimates prepared for a 
bridged road along this route. This when finished will be a great 
boon to the people of the district. 

The next important line is that from Kbandesh to Gujdrat 
through Rajpipla. This road after leaving Kukarmunda on the Tapti 
and passing through eighteen miles of Khandesh enters Rajpipla a 
little to the south of Sagbara, and through Pat five miles, and Kupi six 
miles, divides at Badadev, eight miles further on. Prom Badadev 
the upper road follows the course of the Karjan river for five miles 
to Vadvadra ; then turning west it passes through Motra ten miles, 
and Patar ten mUes to Dharol four miles, and reaches the western 
frontier of the state eight miles further on, and about the same distance 
from Anklesvar. The lower road after crossing the Karjan at Badadev 
winds through the hills to Khamb, nine miles, thence passing a range 
about 600 feet high it crosses the Tokri river, sixteen miles, and at 
Luna, three miles, crosses the Kim. Six miles further it reaches the 
west boundary of the state about seven miles from Panoli on the 
Bare da railway. Both these routes were once lines of great traffic, but 
are now very neglected. They are mere cart tracks passing through 
dense forest and hills, badly provided with water, and with no village 
accommodation for travellers. Prom the carelessness of the Eajpipla 
chiefs almost all through trade has left them. 

This completes the description of the chief lin.es of road between 
Rajputana, Malwa, and Gujarat. The increase of its local traffic 
shows how keenly traders feel the advantage of a thoroughly 
well made road like that from Godhra to Dohad. But east of 
Dohad the Central India chiefs do nothing to improve their roads 
and their heavy transit dues are, especially since the opening of 
the Indor railway, driving trade from the direct route round by 
rail through Bombay. 

The small streams and water-courses need no ferries. During 
the rains no carts can move, and foot and horse travellers can 
always easily ford the streams. At other times all traffic passes 
without hindrance. During the rains and the first months of the 
cold weather the Mahi and Narbada cannot be forded. The chief 



OiV'arit.] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



51 



places -where they can be crossed during the hot months have been 
mentioned under the head 'Rivers.' The Narbada can be passed 
without much difficulty. But its banks are so steep and its bed so 
heavy with sand and shingle, that to pass the Mahi is always a 
work of great labour. Across the Narbada, when it cannot be 
forded, at Chanod, Vadia, and Tilakvada, goods and passengers are 
carried in small well built ferry boats. On the Mahi at Lunavada 
and Kadana small uncouth canoes hollowed out of simla wood 
and generally tied two together take the place of ferry boats. The 
right of plying these canoes is every year farmed by the state to 
the highest bidder. At Lunavada when the Panam is in flood, 
under charge of ferrymen of the Bhoi caste, travellers put their 
clothes in three or four empty narrow-necked earthen jars, golds, 
tied together by the necks. These the fishermen force mouth-down 
under the water, and the traveller either sitting on them or leaning 
over them, as in swimming, is with the help of the Bhois ferried 
across. 

There are six post offices, four at Balasinor, Bariya, Lunavada, 
and Rampur maintained by the British Grovemment, and two at 
Chhota Udepur and Nandod by the Udepur and Rajpipla chiefs. 

The Rewa Kantha with its scanty unsettled population has little 
trade and few manufactures. Trade comes under two heads, home 
trade and outside trade. The home trade is carried on by Vanias 
and a few Bohoras and Parsi shopkeepers. These petty traders, 
advancing money or seed to the peasants, are paid in gi-ain at 
harvest time. This they either sell in the district, or send to other 
Gujarat market towns. Well-to-do husbandmen sell the produce 
of their fields to the local grain dealers or send it where they find 
the best market. The outside trade is carried on by the better class 
of husbandmen and by strangers, some of them from the Panch 
Mahals and Kaira, and others from Broach and Surat. These men 
especially in October, Divdli, at the early harvest time come in 
numbers into the hilly districts and barter with the Bhiis taking their 
spare stores of rice and pulse and giving cloth, tobacco, molasses, 
salt, salt-fish, and spices. Many Parsis chiefly from Anklesvar have 
settled among the Rajpipla Bhils, getting in exchange for liquor and 
rent advances, large quantities of grain and cl'arffied butter.^ Another 
branch of the outside trade is in the hands of Vanjaras and Charans. 
The Vanjaras whose head-quarters are in Malwa, Khandesh, and 
Meywdr bring droves of pack bullocks into Gujarat laden with 
grain and go back with loads of salt. On their way they do a 
little business with the Rewa Kantha Bhils. The Charans in smaller 
numbers come from Kathiawar and follow the same track as the 
Vanjaras. They also carry on a sin all trade with the Bhils giving 
them bullocks and buffaloes and getting the price either paid down 
in cash or in grain in the next year. 

The chief Rewa Kantha exports are of field produce, grain of all 
kinds, cotton, oil seeds including castor oil, diveli, sesamum or 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 

Ferries. 



Post 



Trade. 



Exports. 



' Bom. 007. Sel. XXIII. 316, 317. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



52 



STATES. 



Chapter VI. 
Trade, 

Exports. 



gingelly, tal, and rape, sarsav, safflower, tobacco ; of forest produce, 
mahuda flower and fruit, timber, firewood, bamboos, and catecbu, 
hatha ; of animal produce, clarified butter, honey, bees' wax, lac, wool, 
and bides ; and of manufactured articles, grind-stones, stone-platters, 
and soap. 

Grain, cbiefly millet, Indian corn, pulse, and oil seed, goes in 
large quantities from all Rewa Kantba states to the nearest railway 
station, or to any Gujarat market where prices are favourable. 
Cotton is grown chiefly in the Pandu Mehvas on the noth-west and 
in the Sankheda Mehvas and in some parts of Rajpipla in the south. 
Eajpipla cotton of an average value of about £30,000 (Rs. 3,o0,O00) 
is brought to Anklesvar, cleaned in steam European ginning 
factories, and sent to Bombay. Cotton from the Sankheda Mehvas 
■worth in ordinary years about £2000 (Rs. 20,000) is sent chiefly to 
Dabhoi, ginned there and forwarded by rail to Bombay. The Pandu 
Mehvas cotton is also sent to Bombay chiefly from the Baroda and 
Pali stations. Clarified butter and oil seeds go in large quantities 
to the neighbouring market towns of Gujarat. 

The most important Rewa Kantha exports are forest produce, 
timber, firewood, bamboos, and mahuda flowers. As regards timber 
cutting, except the old charge an export fee on every cart-load of 
timber, the rules vary greatly iu the different states. In Balasinor 
and the Pandu Mehvas in the north-east, and in the Sankheda 
Mehvas in the south, timber is so scarce that only a very little is 
exported. In Lunavada, only husbandmen are allowed to fell timber 
free of charge for their houses, carts, and field tools. Others have 
to pay for the timber cut. In Sunth any one may fell timber but 
only for local consumption. Prom these places little timber is 
exported. On the other hand in Bariya, Chhota Udepur, and 
Rajpipla, except that outsiders have to pay a fee, there is scarcely 
any restriction on the felling of timber. The hills to the north-east 
of Rajpipla, though they suffer froni yearly burnings, have some 
fine timber. But it is most difficult to get at, and, except a little 
floated down the Narbada to Chanod and Sinor, none is exported. 
The work of cutting timber and fioating it down the Narbada is 
followed by a special class of Bhils known as Kahddis ^ or timber 
carriers. Teak is chiefiy found in the south-east of Rajpipla, in 
Sagbara the teak, sag, land, and in Nansar, Panchmoli, and Ganva. 
It is cut about Holi time (April), after the forests have been fired, and 
during the rains is floated down the Tapti. Without its wood trade 
the people of Bariya would be very badly off. From very old times 
the husbandmen have been allowed to cut, and on the payment of a 
small fee to export, timber. So dependent are they on the wood 
trade that they are seldom able to pay the duty till on their way 
back after selling the timber. The chief sorts of wood exported are 
teak, liher, saciar, and biifa, all used in house building andboughtin 
large quantities in Baroda, Godhra, Pali, and other Gujarat markets. 



1 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 279 and 305, The word Kabddis comes from kabiid, 
timber. 



(}i\jar&t.] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



63 



Mahuda trees grow in great numbers in Bariya and Clihota 
Udapur. In Bariya alone there are bilieved to ba from 20,000 to 
25,oOJ trees.^ The Bhils and Kolis of those parts set so high a 
value on mahuda, trees that they are often the cause of bloody feuds. 
Most of them careless husbandmen and sunk in debt, their little 
store of grain is soon either wasted or made over to a creditor. 
They pay their rents from timber and live almost entirely on the 
proceeds of the mahuda flowers, which they gather at the end of 
the cold season (March) and sell to the nearest Vania or Bohora. A 
Bhil woman looks on the mahuda flower as her parent from whose 
kindness alone she can buy a petticoat, or a bit of cloth for a bodice. 
When mahuda flowers are scarce, or when the price is low, the 
Bhils are in a very bad plight, finding the greatest difficulty in 
keeping body and soul together.* 

Of minor forest produce honey is found in the wild parts of the 
Rewa Kantha. There are two chief sorts, a better called rice honey, 
dcbiigariu, made at the time of the rice harvest (November), white, 
very sweet, and about as thick as frozen butter, and a poorer sort 
called hesudiu, or khdkhru, Butea frondosa, honey made in spring 
(April) when that tree is in flower. The honey is gathered by Bhils 
and Naikdas, bought from them by Vanias and Bohoras, and sent to 
different parts of Gujarat, where especially the ddngariu fetches 
high prices. 

Grum, lac, and other minor forest products are largely exported 
by patty traders, who pay the state a small yearly sum for the right 
of opening shops in the Bhil, Koli, and Naikda villages. G-um, chiefly 
from the bdval. Acacia arabica, kher, Acacia catechu, and dhdvda, 
Anogeissus latifolia trees, is gathered by Bhils and Kolis and sold 
to Vanias who export it. At Lunavada hduali gum is sold at 3d. a 
pound (Rs. 5 a man); hheri at Qd. a pound (Rs. 10 a man) ; and 
dhduda at 1 fcZ. a pound (Rs. 3 a man) . The gum, supposed to be 
strengthening, is largely used, especially by women at the time of 
child birth. The dhduda gum is also used in dyeing cloth. The export 
of lac was in the seventeenth century * a very large trade, and is still 
of some importance. The chief la3-yielding trees are khdkhra, 
Butea frondosa, and fipla, Ficus religiosa. The lac is gathered by 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 

Exports. 



> Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 153. 

' The following details give some idea of the value of the BAriya mahuda crop, In 
187.3-74, at the rate of l^d. on forty pounds (I anna a man) the export mahuda duty 
yielded £865 10s. 6d. (Rs. 8555-40). This implies a total of (1,. 38,484 mans) or at 
the rate Is. for forty pounds, the local price in that year, a total revenue of £6924 4». 
(Ks. 69,2i2). During the last five years the price of mahuda in B >riya has varied 
from £2 to 8s. (Ks. 20 - 4), and averaged 18s. (Ks. 9). Mahuda is exported from the 
other Rewa KAutha states also, but in smaller quantities. 

' Sankheda (1638) produced every year 25,000 pounds of lac. Mandelslo in Harris, 
n. 113. Of the abundance of sealing wax made at Ahmedabad in 1660 the greatest 
part came from Sindi Kera (Sankheda). ' It drops first out of several sorts of trees 
not unl jke the thorn and plumb tree. When the wax is raw it is dark -brown, then it 
is beatea and melted with red, green, or black, and put on sticks and sent to Europe 
to seal letters. They varnish many ships with it as also tables, cabinets, and other 
articles.' Ogilby's Atlas, V. 214; Sankheda (1666) sent great quantity of lao to 
Baroda. Thevenot, V. 94. 



[Bombay Oaietteer, 



54 



STATES. 



Chapter VI. the unsettled tribes and sold to the Bohora and Vdnia merchants 
Trade. ^^ from thirteen to fourteen pounds the rupee, who export what is 

left after home consumption. Before exportation, the lac is heated 
and purified and mixed with various colouring substances. Of the 
whole supply a little is locally worked up into bracelets. It is also 
used by turners for lackering wood and by goldsmiths for filling up 
hollow ornaments. 

Imports. The chief imports, both for the local and the through trade are 

Europe and country piece goods, metals wrought and unwrought, 
grain, of all sorts, salt, tobacco, sugar, molasses, opium, cattle, 
groceries, and sundries. The import trade is generally in the hands 
of village dealers, and Vanjaras and Charans. In the mahuda and 
grain seasons, and on market days, hat, the wild tribes buy large 
quantities of cloth in exchange for mahuda, grain, gum, lac, honey,, 
bees'-wax, and other forest produce.^ 

Detailed trade returns for 1878 give, for the leading Eewa Kantha 
states, a total value of £831,969 (Rs. 83,19,690). Of thia 
£310,793 CRs. 31,07,930) was the value of the exports ; £166,881 
(Es. 16,68,810) of the imports; and £355,484 (Es. 35,54,840) of 
the goods in transit.* 

To the total amount of exports Eajpipla contributed £188,016,. 
Lunavada £18,355, Bariya £32,866, Ghhota Udepur £21,120, 
Balasinor £18,355, and Sunth £13,950. To the total amount of 
imports Balasijior contributed £45,647, Eajpipla £40,511, Lunavada. 
£37,368, Bariya £20,596, Sunth £14,764, and Ghhota Udepur £9185. 
To the total transit trade Bariya contributed £238,183, Balasinor 
£36,523, Chhota Udepur £33,489, Lunavada £21,300, Sunth £13,320, 
and Eajpipla £10,670. Among exports the chief were cotton, 
£139,149, timber £53,731, mahuda £27,257, grain £23,442, oil and 
oil-seeds £14,224, opium £12,784, and clarified butter £12,527. 
Among imports the chief were groceries £35,754, grain £34,437, 
cloth £31,361, opium £14,269, salt £10,249, and clarified butter 
£10,069. Among articles in transit the chief were groceries worth 
£200,040, grain £64,372, cattle £20,638, cloth £15,924, timber £b083, 
opium £7968, and oil and oil-seeds £7502. 

The following statement gives all available details. 



> Of the Bdriya trade in 1826 Mr. Willoughby iaa left the following details : 
The chief imports and exports are iron, copper, pewter, lead ; pearls, diamonds and 
other precious stones ; woollen and other European cloth ; Gujarit and Milwa cloth j 
grain, cattle, and spices of almost every kind, sugar and molasses, opium, tobacco, 
Bait, clarified butter, ginger, country medicines, catechu, mahuda flowers, oils of 
various kinds, timber, ivory, betelnut, safflower and Indian madder, surangi. 

' This return has been supplied by the assistant political agent Mr. Nandshankar 
Tnlj^hankar. Though much care has been taken from the extreme difficulty of 
getting correct trade returns, these values should not be considered more than rough 
estimates. 



Chijar&t.l 



REWA KlNTHA. 



56 



Sewa Kdniha Trade, 1878. 



Articlbs, 


Rijpipla. 


Chhota 
Tldepur. 


BiUsin or. 


Sunth. 


Lnndvdda. 


B4riya, 


Total. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




'Cattle 


1296 


270 


255 


318 


2190 


8 


43.37 




Cloth 


2fi:i4 


4498 


12,070 


4893 


6479 


1487 


31,061 




Cotton 


191,5 


83 


2778 


49 


126 


62 


5013 




OkriBedbutter ... 


1150 


6 




12i 


8658 


188 


10,019 




Grain 






12,304 


4375 


4364 


18,394 


84,4.37 


• 


Groceries 


32,103 


1362 


11,867 


112 




320 


36,754 


i 




as 


1 




26i 






808 


g ■! Memls 


77 


78 


"■ 98 


415 




'"78 


746 


1 


Molasses 


2031 






386 


"3674 


463 


6667 


M 


Oil and Oil-seeds... 


727 


8 




4 


2S2 


210 


1223 




Opium 


40f)2 


42 


"6521 


413 


41i5 


46 


14,269 




Snlt 


8116 


2065 




802 


1212 


3055 


10,249 




Timber 


12 




'"478 


1 


1617 




2108 




Tobacco 


808 


"647 




2082 


2100 


■"688 


6325 




.Sundries 


S23 


141 


'"276 


607 


8608 


602 


6617 




'Carnelians 


295 












295 




Cattle 


131 


" 82 


' " 38 


'"479 


'"466 


'"283 


1467 




Cloih 


15 


2 


72 


176 


832 


20 


1117 




Cotton 


137,085 


2042 


6 


12 


4 




139,149 




Clarified butter ... 


294 


423 




3114 


8230 


'"466 


12,527 




Grain 


66 


491 


12,980 


6668 


3007 


250 


23,442 




Groceries 


290 


463 


8728 


22 




83 


4686 


i 


Hides 


467 


41 


1348 


940 


... 


1545 


4341 




Mdhuda 


3866 


6544 




19 




16,828 


27,257 


b 


Mecals 


63 




'" 23 


153 




7 


246 


m 


Molasses 


17 






49 


'"737 




803 




Oil and Oil-geeda... 


2864 


"sou 




94,2 


785 


"1622 


14,224 




Opium 


2363 




" 36 


78 


10,308 




12,784 




Salt 








10 


77 


■" 14 


101 




Timber 


38,091 


"2666 


'" 65 


684 


860 


11,385 


53,781 




Tobacco 


1718 


1 




298 


320 


4 


2341 


LSundries 


401 


am 


'" 72 


318 


10,583 


357 


12,049 




'Cattle 


3602 


11,494 


211 


295 


70 


4966 


20,638 




Cloth 


663 


358 


4823 


1023 


668 


8499 


16,924 




Cotton 


738 


21 


175 




6 


2 


942 




Clarified butter ... 




84 




"325 


2478 




2887 




Grain 




6840 


"8170 


7511 


364 


42^467 


64,372 


i 


Groceries 


"'208 


26115 


18,611 


49 




178,507 


200,040 




3£ahutUi 


657 


1876 




296 






2828 


Metals ;:. ::; 


1 




"' 74 


149 




"l84 


408 


s 


Oi and Oil-seeds... 


4303 


'3199 










7602 




Opium 




16ii5 


"2000 


'" 47 


"4258 


>>• 


7968 




Salt 


"306 


1365 




400 


22 




2093 




Tiuber 


ii 


410 


"1634 


76 


2392 


"S630 


8083 




Tobacco 




3622 




837 


640 


,,, 


4499 




^Sundries 


"'251 


890 


'"825 


2795 


10,493 


29 


16,229 


_ 


Tnfrils ... 


239,497 


6:!,795 


1,00,526 


41,995 


94,8,53 


2,91,644 


8.31,969 



The following return shews for Bariya the approximate values of 
the imports, exports, and goods in transit during the seven years 
ending IS 76 : 

Sdriya Trade, 1870-1876. 



Akticleb. 


1670. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 


1876. 


1878. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




/Cattle 










... 








Cloth 


7748 


i^m 


4167 


2093 


102 


4096- 


6093 


s 


Gniceries 


2769 


95 i 


718 


904 


463 


1471 


1339 




Opium 


210 


386 


45; 


74 


220 


143 


103 


."alt 


458 


747 


600 


451 


280 


484 


656 


M 


Tobacco 


968 


465 


319 


272 


368 


446 


360 




LSundries 


2341 


2477 


2286 


1046 


3348 


1010 


1268 




rsH 


1014 


610 


516 


698 


230 


10:<4 


619 


^ 


Grain of all sorts.. 


8870 


4746 


4.131 


6677 


21 2<! 


2280 


6238 




MOfhuda 


16,761 


5.531 


8645 


4382 


4616 


10,213 


7062 


1^ Oil and Oil-seeds... 


1!86 


3683 


1,511 


1848 


830 


2418 


6194 


» Timber 

Sundries 


19,111 


15,370 


17,42rt 


16,443 


16,271 


12,548 


27.878 


384 


1286 


8160 


1283 


1764 


1007 


1568 


prattle 


9969 


ll.OiO, 


10,770 


8244 


8642 


6528 


4820 




Cloth 


20,099 


14,005 


15,887 


20,682 


1332 


13,241 


7413 


& 


Grain 


71,000 


51,499 


44.608 


1 7,802 


7198 


6519 


16,642 


£ ./ 


Groceries 


198,779 


194,637 


l,57,49l 


172,386 


105,803 


133,729 


177,025 


2 


Opium 


4017 


14,431 


27,147 


20,8,51 


2621 


17,719 


4160 


E^ 


Timber 


3000 


2726 


8219 


2390 


3930 


2875 


2815 




..Sundries 


3448 


709 


309 


375 


604 


659 


4360 




Total ... 


372,211 


329,612 


298,367 


277,894 


165,494 


218,323 


273,608 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 
Import!. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



56 



STATES. 



Chapter YI. 

Trade. 

Imports. 



Transit Duties. 



Alanufactures. 



For Lun^Tada and Sunth the following statement gives such 
trade figures as are available for the nine years ending 1878 : 

Lundvdda and Sunth Trade, 1870-1878. 







juna'va'da 






Sdktb. 




Yeab. 














Import. 


Export. 


Transit. 


Import. 


Export. 


Transit 




S 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1870 ... 


89,066 


60,462 


33,960 


..• 






1871 ... 


71,164 


68,178 


74,602 








1872 ... 


46,992 


37,635 


37,37!) 






..1 


1873 ... 


41,405 


38,0J8 


26,647 


6860 


26,836 


11,658 


1874 ... 


39,880 


36,680 


2J,480 


14,439 


15,120 


11,978 


1876 ... 


61,060 


34,698 


17,466 


18,819 


■23,010 


14,426 


1876 ... 


4o,43r 


47,888 


26,499 


11,459 


S2;647 


14,935 


1877 ... 


40,486 


35,751 


26,691 


11,413 


56,273 


16,526 


1878 ... 


37,168 


36,190 


21,300 


14,764 


13,949 


12.320 



A comparison of the available customs and transit revenue details 
gives the following results. In Rajpipla between 1776 and 1785 
they varied from £1300 to £4000 (Rs. 13,000 - 40,000), from 1794 ' 
to 1819 they averaged about £1 000 (Rs. 10,000), in 1821 they fell to 
£695 (Rs. 6950), and in 1827 to £770 (Rs. 7700). In 1878 they had 
again risen to £5560 (Rs. 55,600). In Bariya the duties amounted 
in 1818 to £1400 (Rs. 14,000) ; in 1825 to £1797 (Rs. 17,970); in 
1865 to £5133 (Rs. 51,330) ; and in 1878 to £7433 (Rs. 74,330), 
From July 1878, Bariya reduced its transit duties on the Godhra- 
Dohad road, and, instead of levying rates proportioned to the value 
of the merchandise, takes, as an experiment, a moderate toll on the 
carts passing through its portion of the high road. In Lunavada 
the duties amounted in 1870 to £2637 (Rs. 26,370) ; in 1874 to 
£2281 (Rs. 22,810); in 1877 to £2481 (Rs. 24,810); and in 1878 to 
£1352 (Rs. 13,520). In Sunth the duties amounted in 1872 to 
£853 (Rs. 8530) ; and in 1878 to £785 (Rs. 7850). 

The present duties are a great hindrance to trade, and, since 
the opening of railways through Gujarat and to Indor, have had the 
effect of driving the through trade from the roads to the railway. 
At present the states cannot well afford to give up so large an item 
of their revenue. But as tillage spreads and the land revenue grows, 
it wUl be more easy to free trade from the burden of transit duties. 

The Rewa Kantha manufactures are of little importance. In the 
Eatanpur sub-division of Rajpipla iron of excellent quality used to 
be smelted. But probably from the fall in the price of iron and 
the rise in the price of fuel, this industry has for some years 
ceased. From the Rajpipla village of Ratanpur or the gem village, 
considerable quantities of carnelians are sent to Cambay.^ To those 
given in the Cambay Statistical Account, the following local details 



> Bom. Gov. Sel. XXm. 318. 



Qujar&t] 



REWA KANTHA, 



57 



of the manufacture of Cambay stones may be added. Camelians 
were formerly burnt only in the village of Limodra in the Jagadia 
sub-division of Rajpipla, when the business was monopolized by a few 
Musalman families. Lately two other establishments have been 
opened, one under a Rajput at the village of Sultanpur, the other at 
Ranipur under a Kanbi. The miners are Bhils. The season lasts from 
October, Ashvin, to May, Vaishdkh. The miners, besides food, tools, 
and a little oil to burn in the pit are paid 2s. (Re. 1) for six baskets 
full, each on an average holding twenty-five pounds, sers, of stones. 
After the mining season is over, the stones are gathered at the 
villages of Ratanpu<r, Sultanpur, and Ranipur, and as described in 
the Cambay account, are baked with fire. During the rains (June - 
October) work is at a standstill, and the last year's pits are broken 
in by the rain, and new pits dug at the opening of the next season. 
Of the value of the outturn of the carnelian mines nothing certain 
is known. According to the Limodra dealers, they are paid from 
£2 10s. to £5 a man of forty pounds, and in a year sell from £800 to 
£2000 (Rs. 8000 - 20,000) worth of stones. Of the three colours, 
red, white, and yellow, red is the most valuable. During the last 
century, the carnelian revenue after falling, in 1810, to £150 
(Rs. 1500), and in 1825 rising to about £500 (Rs. 5000), had in 1876 
gone back to about £300 (Rs. 3000), the amount they yielded one 
hundred years ago.^ 

During February and the three following months the making of 
catechu, kdtho, from the bark of the kher, Mimosa catechu, tree 
employs manyBariya and Rajpipla Kolis andlSTaikdas. The process 
though rude is simple and cheap. Kher branches are cut, stripped of 
bark, and chopped into three or four inch pieces. These put into 
earthen pots full of water are bpiled, and the water passing off in 
steam leaves a thick sticky decoction. A pit is dug five or six feet 
deep and narrow enough to be covered by a small bamboo basket. 
The thick substance is placed in the basket, and as it strains, the 
water sinks into the ground, the valuable part stays in the pit and 
the refuse is left in the basket. The extract is then taken out, 
placed on leaves in the sun, and when dry is sold at Bariya at from 
3s. to 5s. (Rs. 1| - 2^) a man. From Bariya it is sent to Malwa and 
Gujarat. 

Soap like that made at Kapadvanj is manufactured in the towns 
of Lunavada and Balasinor. To make it, salt earth, us, is mixed 
with lime and water, and poured into the top of a row of cement 
cisterns built one above the other. Each cistern has a hole in the 
bottom and the water, charged with the soda and lime, soaks 
through and is collected at the foot. Mahuda oil, doliu, is thrown 
into an iron cauldron and heated. Into this the soda and lime 
water is poured, and after standing some time is allowed to flow out. 
This process is repeated daily for seven days when the oil becomes 



Chapter VI. 
Trade. 

Manufactures. 



1 The details are : from 1776 to 1785, Ks. 3000 ; from 1784 to 1803, Rs. 2000 ; from 
1804 to 1810, Rs. 1800 ; from 1810 to 1819, Rs. 1500. In 1821-22, Rs. 3500, in 1825-26, 
Rs. 5204, in 1826-27, Rs. 5001, in 1827-28, Rs. 4001. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 269. 

B 561—8 



Manufactures. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
58 STATES. 

Chapter VI. like thick butter. This paste is then placed in wooden troughs 
m^Ilg mixed with hot soda and lime water, softened by a wooden -ladle 

and laid on a cement floor to dry. Wien it has hardened, it is 
rolled into balls, stamped with a seal and sold for about four pence 
the pound (3 pice \ ser). This soap, sold in all Bohoras' shops, is 
much used for washing clothes. In 1876, soap worth about £5000 
(Rs. 50,000) was exported half from Lunavada and half from 
Balasinor. 

Coarse doti cloth and tape for cots are still rather important 
manufactures, and the Bhils make good bamboo baskets and matting. 
Other Rewa Kantha industries have of late years declined. Since 
its iron' furnaces stopped, the swords for which Nandod was once 
famous are no longer made. Machine-woven cloth has to a large 
extent taken the place of the old hand- woven varieties, and, unable 
to hold their own against European competition, the Nandod weavers 
have ceased to work their fine-cloth looms. 



Givjar&t.] 



CHAPTER VII. 



H ISTORY- 

Of the early Aryan conquest and settlement of the Rewa Kantha 
a few traces remain in its old name of Hidimba Vcm or the forest of 
Hidimba, a giantess, who according to the story married Bhim of 
Mahabharat fame (1400 b.c.?). Of this wedding the memory still 
survives in the north of Lunavada, where of several old ruined 
buildings, one is still known, as the marriage hall, chori, and a large 
stone lying near it as the mortar where the opium was prepared for 
the marriage feast. In another part of the district one of the hills 
of Balasinor is sacred to Bhim and his giant wife. 

Soon after the beginning of the Christian era Rajpipla must 
already have been a place of some consequence as Ptolemy (150) knew 
of its Sardonyx hill, 'where the sardonyx stone is found. '^ About two 
hundred years later, Godhrahaka or the Cow's Lake, the modem 
G-odhra in the Panch Mahals, seems from the evidence of a metal- 
plate inscription, to have been the head-quarters of a chief dependent 
on the Valabhi sovereigns.^ With the rise of the Anhilvada kings 
(746), a new power was introduced into eastern Gujarat, and 
Champaner became, and till the fall of Anhilvada (1304), continued 
the most important place in this part of the province. 

Under the first Anhilvada dynasty (746 - 942), except Champaner, 
almost all the Rewa Kantha lands were under the government of 
Bdrriyas, that is Koli and Bhil chiefs. In the eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth centuries, driven south and east by the pressure of 
Musalman invasions, chiefs of Rajput or part Rajput blood took the 
place of the old Koli and Bhil leaders. The first established of 
these Rajput houses was that of the Raja of Rajpipla. As early as the 
middle of the eleventh century (1064) Limodra, the head-quarters 
of the agate trade, was the seat of a Rajput chief .^ This Raja, if 
descended from Chokharana the son of the Raja of Ujain who first 
established himself in the village of Pipla, must have belonged to 

' Bertiua' Ptolemy, 199, 203. Ptolemy places the Sardonyx hill next to the 
Vindhyan range. But its position in his map and the remark in the Periplus of 
the Erythrasan Sea (66 - 160) that the Broach onyx stones came from Paithan in 
Ahmediiagar (McCrindle's Periplus, 127) would seem to place the chief camelian mines 
in the Deccan or Central Provinces rather than in Bijpipla. 

2 Ind. Ant. LXIII. 16. 

^ The chief's name was PrithipAl. The inscription is on the footstool of the image 
of Rikhavdev in the village of Limodra. 



Chapter VII. 
History- 
Legends, 



Karly Hindus 
to 1484. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



60 



STATES. 



CSiapter VII. 
History. 

Early Hindus 
to 1484. 



Mnsalmdn 

Ascendancy, 

1484-1700. 



Local Bevival, 
1700-1730. 



the Parmar tribe of Rajputs.^ Soon after this a part of the Lunavada 
territory would seem to have been under a Rajput chiefj with his 
head-quarters at Godhra or some place near^ whose family was, about 
the middle of the fifteenth century, partially overcome by the 
ancestors of the present Lunavada chief.^ In the middle of the 
fourteenth century a body of Khichi Chohans, driven south by the 
Mnsalmans, settled at Champaner, which since the overthrow of 
Anhilvada (1304) would seem to have fallen into obscurity.^ Under 
its Chohan rulers, until its overthrow by Mahmud Begada (1484), 
Champaner was one of the chief seats of power in eastern Gujarat. 

During this time the Musalman dynasty of Ahmedabad had been 
established and had brought great part of the Rewa Kantha under 
its sway. By the fall of Champaner and the establishment there 
for about fifty years of the head-quarters of Musalman power, almost 
the whole of the Rewa Kantha was brought under submission and 
much of it well tilled and enriched. After the fall of Champaner 
the descendants of Jayasing, the last Raval, founded the states of 
Chhota Udepur and Bariya. In the seventeenth century though 
trade and prosperity were not restored to the northern parts of the 
districts, an important trade route passed through the south into 
Kh^ndesh and Sankheda, and some other places were centres of 
considerable commerce. 

In the eighteenth century, though Musalman ascendancy in the 
Rewa Kantha was increased by the conquest by a 'member of the 
famous Babi family of the territory of Balasinor in the north-west, 
the power of the Gujarat Viceroys began to decline, and the Imperial 
claims, that had formerly included lands as remote as the Virpur 
sub"division of Lunavada, ceased to be regularly enforced. The local 
chiefs no longer paid tribute, and began to levy demands from villages 



' A person named Chokhdr^a the son of Saidivat Rija of Ujain, a Kajput of 
the ParmAr tribe, quarrelled with his father and retiring to the western hills fixed 
his residence at the village of Pipla, on the top of a high hiU, now calleAjuna or old 
Rijpipla to distinguish it from the new village of the same name. Bom. Gov. Sel. 
XXin, 263. Chokhtotoa's daughter, as is said, married Samarsi, the son of 
Mokhdiji the chief of Piram and Gogha, Chokhdrdna must have flourished in the 
middle of the 14th century. 

^ Traces of this older LunivAda family are found in an inscription dated 1129 in 
a Shaiv temple in the village of Dehjar and in another dated 1328 in the temple of 
Keddreshvar MahAdev in KAkachia on the Mahi. These chiefs are supposed to he 
still represented by the ThAkors of Mehlol in Godhra. According to an account 
supplied to Mr. H. A. Acworth, C. S., by the family bard of the Mehlol chief, the 
founder of the house a Solanki Kajput, Gadsingji by name, some time in the eighth 
century established himself at Godhra. The head of the family remained at Godhra, 
his territory being separated from Chimptoer by the small river that runs through 
Viialpur in KAlol. Bi time the family spread, one branch gaining an estate in the 
PAndu MehvAs and another at Sonepur in Thisia. Defeated by Mahmud Begada 
(1484) they retired from Godhra and about 1500 established themselves at Mehlol. 
They consider that they belong to the Rewa Kdntha not to the Panch MahAls. In 
Someshvar's Kirti Kaumudi it is mentioned that in the 13th century the chiefs of 
Godhra owned allegiance to the Vdghela chiefs of Dholka. One of them named 
Dhundhal insulted his superior, who sent an army against Godhra, plundered the 
town and making Dhundhal prisoner, carried him to Dholka where he committed 
suicide. BhagvAnlAl's History of GujarAt, 110, 111. 

3 According to bardic accounts Fdlhansing, the first Chohin of Chimpdner, ruled 
in the middle of the 13th century. 



Oujar&t] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



61 



Chapter VII. 

History. 

MarAtha Supremacy 
1730-1S20. 



from whicli they had long been shut out. This revival of local power 
did not last long. By 1 730 the Marath& had appeared in force, and 
conquering most of the plain lands, levied tribute from all but the 
poorest and remotest chiefs. At the same time the authority of the 
Marathas was never firmly established, and the chiefs paid their 
tribute only under the pressure of military force. 

During these outside changes, the younger branches of the 
chiefs' families had from time to time been forced to leave their 
homes and win for themselves new estates. These cadets of the 
larger houses, a few daring adventurers, and the descendants of the 
original chiefs, form the present Thakors or landlords of the 
Sankheda and Pandu Mehvas. During the early years of the present 
century under the weak misrule of Baroda these small chieftains, 
except under military pressure, refused to pay their tribute. They 
plundered the country round and as the Gaikwar failed to keep 
order, the charge of the district was undertaken by the British. 

In 1803 Ajabsing, Raja of Rajpipla, died leaving two sons 
Ramsing and Narsing. These two brothers contended for the 
chiefshiptill in 1810, Ramsing died leaving a putative son Pratapsing. 
As Ramsing was in possession Pratapsing was declared Raja. Soon 
after hostilities broke out between him and his uncle Narsing, and in 
1813 Narsing formally claimed the chief ship on the ground that 
Pratapsing was not Ramsing's son. Narsing's claim was not admitted 
and the struggle continued till, in 1816, under the plea of settling 
the points in dispute, the Baroda Government took over the whole 
management of the country. 

Affairs remained in this state till, in 1 820, Mr. Willoughby the British Supervision, 
Assistant Resident at Baroda was sent to Rajpipla to inquire into 1820-1879. 

the opposing claims. After inquiry he decided that Pratapsing 
was not Ramsing's son. In the same year an agreement was 
concluded with His Highness the Gaikwar, under the terms of which 
the control of all the Baroda tributaries vested in the British 
Government.^ At the close of 1821 Mr. Willoughby was placed 
in charge of Rajpipla and spent nearly three years in putting its 
affairs in order. In 1823 he also settled the position and tribute of 
the chiefs of the Sankheda Mehvas to the north of the Narbada. 
These arrangements were completed in 1825, and, in the same year, 
the Baroda authorities placed the territories of the petty chiefs of 
the Pandu Mehvas on the banks of the Mahi under British control. 
At the same time the political control of Sindia's Panch Mahals was 
made over to the British, and the Bariya state was transferred 
from the Bhopavar Political Agent. For the charge of these new 
territories, a special officer was wanted, and on the 6th February 1 826, 
Mr. Willoughby was appointed Political Agent of Rewa Kantha, 
including Rajpipla, Sindia's Panch Mahals, the Mehvdsi states on the 
Mahi, the Mehvasi states on the Narbada, Bariya, and Chhota 
Udepur. Soon after, the states of Lunavada and Sunth that, since 



' The Rewa KAntha states, though not specially mentioned, were virtually 
included. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 506. 



[Bombay Qazetteer, 



62 



STATES. 



Chapter VII, 
History- 
British Supervision, 
1820- 1879. 



Ndihda 
1838. 



1819, had been under British control were transferred from the 
Mahi Kantha to the Eewa Kantha Agency. In 1829 the appoint- 
ment of Political Agent was abolished, and for several years the 
Rewa Kantha chiefs, though nominally under the assistant to the 
Political Commissioner, were left very much to themselves. This, 
in 1836, ended in disorder, and in 1839 special control over the 
Naikda country was vested in the assistant commissioner .^ In 1842 
(12th January) under the order of the Court of Directors the office of 
Political Agent in Rewa Kantha was re-established, the criminal 
powers of the chiefs were graded, and, except of Rajpipla who was 
granted the power of life and death, the supplementary jurisdiction 
of the chiefs was vested in the court of the Political Agent.^ 
No further change took place till, in 1853, the state of Balasinorwas 
transferred from the Kaira Collector to the Rewa Kantha Political 
Agent ; and in the same year Sindia, for a period of ten years, handed 
over the administration of the Godhra Panch Mahals to the Rewa 
Kantha Political Agent. Again, in 1862, the Panch Mahals were 
exchanged by Sindia for districts nearer Gwalior, and became British 
territory. Two years later they were removed from the control of 
the Agent, and formed into a separate charge. Finally in 1876 the 
Panch Mahals were raised to the rank of a district, the officer in 
charge of it having control of the Rewa Kantha states.^ 

Since 1825 the peace of the Rewa Kantha has thrice been broken j 
in 1838 by a Naikda rising ; in 1857 by the presence of a rebel force 
from Upper India; and in 1868 by another Naikda disturbance. In 
1838 the Naikdas of Bariya, Chhota Udepur, Jambughoda, and 
Godhra were guilty of such excesses that the British Government 
was forced to take measures to bring them to order. Captain Outram, 
Political Agent in the Mahi Kantha, drew up the plan of a 
campaign, and a force was organized and, in February 1838 under 
command of Major Forbes, was despatched to the disturbed parts. 
Military posts were at the same time stationed at several places on 
the frontier, the fastnesses in which the Naikda leaders had taken 
refuge were surrounded, and inducements were held out to them to 
surrender. Before the close of the year, with the help of the chiefs 
of Bariya and Chhota Udepur and the rulers of Baroda and Gwalior, 
the leading Naikdas were either caught or had submitted. Several 
of them were sentenced to terms of imprisonment, and on giving 
security for good behaviour the rest were released. These 
disturbances were caused by two chief gangs of outlaws. Keval of 
Bara in the district of Bariya, his brother Jalam Rupa Naik, and his 
manager Onkarsing, the leaders of one of the gangs, helped by 
Makranis and some malcontents from Udepur and Jambughoda, 
carried ofE cattle and other property of the Raja of Udepur. The 
other gang under Viram Naik, Mahadev Naik his brother, and Amra 
Naik, laid waste and almost depopulated the lands of Rajgad. To 
prevent future disorder the lawless sub-division of Sagtala was 



1 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 200-217. 

2 Aitchison's Treaties, IV. 251. 

3 This change has not yet (1879) taken effect. 



Q^jard,t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



63 



detached from Bariya and placed under the direct supervision of the 
Political Agent. A post was fixed there, order was established, and 
the deserted villages resettled. 

On the 26th November 1858 Lieutenant Vibart, commanding at 
Dohad in the Panch Mahals, heard from the Indor Bhil Agent that 
a body of rebels had entered his districts, and that Tatia Topi had 
on the 24th been at Than on the Bombay road between Khorampur 
and Tulvada. Three days later (November 29) the Indor Bhil 
Agent sent a further message that Tatia Topi's force, about 3000 
strong, had on the 26th crossed the Narbada by a ford below 
Chikalda, and moved to Kuksi, a meeting place of roads from 
Gujarat, Malwa, and Nimar, and that on the next day (27th) a column 
under Brigadier Park had, at Moipur, crossed the Narbada in 
pursuit of the rebels. Shortly after, the manager at Amjhara 
reported that the rebels were at Kuksi on the 28th and that they 
intended to move on Dohad through AH Rajpur. At the same time 
the Political Agent heard that on the 25th Tatia Topi was attacked 
and defeated by a detachment from Malwa, that his troops fled 
towards Vadvadi ford on the Narbada thirty miles off, and were 
pursued on the 26th. On the 29th the rebel force entered the 
Udepur territory. Hearing of their approach the chief, then in the 
district settling the land revenue, returned to Udepur and shut the 
gates of its small fort. On the following day (30th November) the 
rebels arrived and plundered the town. But next morning at day- 
break Brigadier Park surprised and dispersed them. Small parties 
fled south and south-west and at Jhabugam several of them were 
made prisoners by a detachment from Baroda. A large body with 
Tatia Topi and the person called the Rao Saheb arrived at Bariya 
on the morning of the 2nd December much worn out, and other 
small parties wandered about in the Bariya forests. The main body, 
with all their elephants but one, had on the first alarm doubled 
back and made their way through the heavy forest east to Bhabra. 
Prom Bhabra they made their way to Bariya, the whole joining on 
the 5th at the Bariya village of Piplod. Meanwhile the Bariya 
party joining the other fugitives had moved south-west threatening 
the Halol and Baroda road and returned to Piplod. On the 6th, 
leaving a covering party at Piplod, the whole force began to retreat 
in the direction of Jhalod. On the next day Captain Muter's 
detachment advanced from Godhra to Piplod and on the evening of 
the 8th reached Dohad, the rebels retreating before them but not 
leaving till they had plundered the towns of Limdi and Jhalod. 
Brigadier Park's column arrived at Bariya on the 11th, marched to 
Lunavada on the 13th, and thence on the 14th went to Kadana, 
where Captain Thompson's detachment had arrived from Godhra. 

On the 17th news came that from ten to twenty thousand rebels 
were to be at Kuksi on the 18th; and a telegram from Sir 
Hugh Rose told that a body of 700 or 800 rebel cavalry, popularly 
known as the army "of the Peshwa, had crossed the Narbada. As it 
was rumoured that this force would enter Gujarat by the route 
taken by Tatia Topi, Captain Collier with two companies of 
Native Infantry was posted at Chhota Udepur. Jhalod was occupied 



Chapter VII. 

History. 

British Supervision, 
1820-1879. 

Tlie Mutiniet, 
1857. 



[Bombay Q-azetteer, 



64 



STATES. 



Chapter VII. 
History. 

British Supervision, 

1820-1879. 

The Mutinies, 

1857. 



Ndihda Rising, 
1868. 



by about eigbty men of the 33rd Eegimentj and Bariya by the rest 
of the 33rd and two guns. Colonel CoUings stopped at Dama 
Vav in Bariya so as to command the rebel flank^ should they 
advance from Udepur towards Baroda. Lunavada was protected by 
a British force, and Balasinor strengthened by 100 men of the Kaira 
police. The freedom of the district from any further inroad of 
hostile troops was probably due to the careful distribution of these 
forces. 

During the mutinies, besides from Tatia Topi's raid, Rewa 
Kantha suffered from local disturbances. Unsettled, perhaps incited 
by the mutineers, the Bhils and Kolis raised their hands against 
their well-to-do neighbours, and foreign mercenaries and outlaws 
defied their chiefs or tri^d to persuade them to rise against the 
paramount power. In Lunavada in June 1857, as his claims to the 
chiefship were not admitted, S'urajmal went into outlawry, attacked 
the town of Lun&,vada in July (1857), and failing in his attempt 
fled to Salumbar in Meywar. He remained in outlawry for some 
months. But at length, satisfied by the liberal terms offered by the 
Eaja, he returned to his obedience without causing any disturbance, 
In 1857 Jamadar Mustafa Khan, the head of the Sunth foreign 
mercenaries, advanced a claim of £467 8s. (Rs. 4674) for arrears of 
pay. This demand was accompanied with such threats that the 
chief applied to the Political Agent for protection. A party of the 
Gujarat Irregular Horse under the command of a European officer 
was, in August 1857, deputed to arrest the Jamadar. The Jamadar 
resisting the attempt to arrest him was fired at and killed. His 
followers fled and order was restored. 

About the middle of August 1857, one Syed Morad Ali attempted 
to raise a disturbance in Eajpipla and about the same time the 
chief oTvasdva of Sagbara also gave trouble. Later, in 1858, under 
the leadership of Keval Dama and Rupa Gobar, the Naikdas rose 
in open rebellion and were not put down till a large body of troops 
had acted against them for eight months. This disturbance waschiefly 
in the Panch Mahals to which the two leaders belonged. Within 
Rewa Kantha limits there was some fighting in Udepur and Bariya, 
but no action of consequence except on the 18th January 1859 a 
night attack on Lieutenant Richardson's camp. On the 10th March 
Keval Dama the leading outlaw surrendered to Major Wallace, and 
on the 23rd May, Rupa Gobar to Captain Hayward. Early in 1859, 
there were gatherings and threatening movements among the 
Sankheda Mehvas Bhils. In the month of March the Political 
Agent moved into the district, convicted nine of the ringleaders, 
and restored order. 

On the 2nd February 1868, Rupsing Naik of Dandiapur in the 
Panch Mahals district of Jambughoda, one of the pardoned 1857 
rebels, with about 500 men attacked the post of Rajgad in the 
state of Bariya. He failed in his chief object, the murder of the 
Bariya Superintendent, who had very shortly before left Rajgad. In 
other respects the attack was successful. Three of the defenders were 
killed and three wounded, and about £80 (Rs. 800) in money, the 
arms and ammunition of the post, two horses, and. much private 



Gujarat] 



REWA KANTHA. 



65 



property were carried away. After the attack on Eajgad, Eupsing 
retired into the Panch Mahals, and being joined by Naikdas and 
several Makranis, sacked Jambughoda and threatened Halol. Among 
Rupsing's companions was Joria Bhagat, who claimed supernatural 
power and was styled God, Parmeshvar. Such panic did he inspire 
among the ignorant people of the district that he gained his first 
fights without suffering any loss. Flushed with success, on the 6th 
February he attacked the post of Jetpur in Ohhota Udepur. But 
being met by the chief who with some followers was hunting close by, 
three of his men were killed. Though this loss to some extent shook 
the confidence of the Naikdas, their leader sent so defiant a message 
to the Udepur chief that, giving up the posts of Kadval and Jetpur, 
he centred his troops for the defence of Chhota Udepur. Before 
disorder spread further, the Bhagat's head-quarters were attacked 
by a British force, one of the leading men was slain and two wounded, 
and open resistance was crushed. Eupsing, the Bhagat, and 
Rupsing's son Galalia, followed up with untiring vigour, were caught, 
tried, and hanged.^ This rising was almost entirely confined to 
PanchMahalsNaikdas. Only a few of Eupsing's followers, and these 
men of no position, belonged to the Eewa Kantha states. 

With these exceptions the public peace has, during the last fifty 
years, remained unbroken. For the levy of the revenue and tribute 
the display of military force is no longer needed ; the favourite 
crimes of gang robbery and cattle-stealing have to a great extent 
been suppressed; and disputed boundaries, the fruitful cause 
of ill-feeling and bloodshed, have been fixed. The last questions 
to be settled belonged to one class, the relations of the Gaikwar to 
the smaller chiefs. Of these one of the most important was the 
settlement of the rival claims of the Chhota Udepur chief and the 
Baroda Government to the sub-divisions of Vasna and Jhabugam. 
These sub-divisions, Vasna with thirty-four and Jhabugam with 
eight villages, under the double management of Ohhota Udepur and 
Baroda agents, fell into such disorder that, in the interests of the 
public peace, they were in 1865 taken in charge by the Political 
Agent. In the management of the revenues no change was made. 
Rents were realized as they had been realized before, and the share 
of each claimant was handed over to him. At the same time steps 
were taken to record the rights of each party in the different 
villages, and at last in 1873, it was settled that the Jhabugam 
sub-division should be handed over to Chhota Udepur, and Vasna 
and a few villages to Baroda. Another difficult point, lately settled, 
is the control of the sacred town of Chanod, at the meeting of 
the Or and Narbada. The question of ownership and of civil 
and criminal jurisdiction was disputed between the Mandva chief 
and the Gaikwar, the disputes giving rise to much ill-feeling, ending 
sometimes in a breach of the peace. It has been decided that the 
town belongs to the Mandva chief, that civil and criminal 
jurisdiction rests with the Gaikwar, and that the Mandva chief can 



Chapter VII. 
History. 

British Supervision, 
1820-1879. 

lidihda Rising, 
1868. 



Changes, 
1820-1874. 



' Details are given in the Panch Mahils Statistical Account, 255-258. 
B 561—9 



IBombay Gazetteer, 
QQ * STATES. 

Chapter VII. exercise police powers only as Ms subordinate. Again, there is a 

History. wider phase of the same question in the disputes between the 

-o .. . . o • ■ Gaikwar Grovemment and the petty Rewa Kantha Mehvas chiefs. 
British Supervision, rm. i • j! i • j.i ^ ^ -^ ■ , t j j 

1820-1879, JLhe chiefs claim, as the former proprietors, lands and. revenues m 

Changes, Gaikwar villages, and these claims the Baroda Government has for 

1820-1879. years struggled, either altogether or in great part, to disallow. 

The interest of the earlier Rajput chiefs, in villages conquered 

by the Marathas, varies considerably. In many they still have the 

chauth vdnta, that is the ownership and control of one-fourth part 

of the village ; in others they keep the share of the land, but have 

lost control ; and in others both control and land have been lost, 

but the right to levy a cess remains. By degrees the shares of 

the original chiefs were divided among heirs and dependents who 

complicated matters by disposing of them by sale or mortgage. 

Besides these claimants directly or indirectly representing the 

original chiefs and landlords, there are the descendants of successful 

bandits and freebooters, who, with no hereditary right, had in 

unsettled times succeeded in extorting payments from the villagers. 

Thus it happened that in 1825 when the Eewa Kantha Agency was 

established, there was scarcely a village in the neighbouring 

Gaikwar territory, in which Rewa Kantha subjects did not possess 

a claim of some description.^ In 1825 under Mr. Willoughby's 

settlement, the Mehvasis' claims were guaranteed to them. For 

nearly forty years, chiefs and girdsids tilled their lands, gathered 

their rents and money dues, and parted freely by mortgage, sale, or 

gift with their interest in lands within Gaikwar limits. In 1862 

the late Gaikwar ordered the levy from alienated lands of a 

one-eighth share of their rental, and attempted to enforce this levy 

on the lands and money claims enjoyed by Rewa Kantha girdsids 

within Gaikwar limits. Had not the power of the Political Agent 

been exercised to prevent it, this demand would have provoked a 

breach of the peace. The Rewa Kantha chiefs were persuaded to 

remain quiet and leave their claims in the Political Agent's hands. 

The Baroda Government declined to admit that the guarantee given 

in Mr. Willoughby's original settlement was enough to establish the 

girdsids' claims ; and points connected with this question were for 

years in dispute between the Rewa Kantha Political Agent and the 

Baroda state. As matters made no progress towards settlement it 

was, in 1877, arranged that the gvrdsia claims should be inquired 

into and settled by a special British officer .^ The work of inquiry 

is still going on. 



' Rewa Kd,ntha Administration Report, 1870. 

^ No fewer than 2228 original suits and 26 appeals have been brought before this 
officer. 



GujarAt]' 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LAND ADMINISTRATION. 

Except such portions as they have given away the Eewa Kantha 
lands belong to the chiefs. The heads of the larger states take no 
share in the actual work of cultivation; some small chieftains, 
whose income is barely enough to meet their wants, have a home farm 
tilled by their servants ; and proprietors, talukddrs, whose estates 
are too small to let out to tenants, have no resource but to till their 
own land. Except that they have to pay no part of their produce 
to superior holders men of this last class do not differ from ordinary 
cultivators. 

To collect the land revenue the larger states are distributed over 
sub-divisions, taluhds or pargands,. each with a commandant, ihdnddr, 
who, besides police and magisterial duties,^ has, as collector of the 
revenue, to keep the accounts of his charge, and, except where 
middlemen are employed, to receive their rents from the villagers. 
Under the thdnddr to help in revenue work, one or more accountants, 
taldtis, are generally engaged. In the smaller states and in the 
petty mehvds estates, the proprietors helped by the village Vania 
or a clerk themselves perform these duties. In the small estates 
under direct British management the revenue is collected by officers 
called attachers, japtiddrs, with, if the estate is large, the help of 
one or two accountants, taldtis. 

Rewa Kantha villages belong to two main classes,, state villages 
held and managed by the chiefs, and private villages alienated or 
granted under some special agreement. Of private villages there 
are five varieties ; granted, indm ; held under an agreement, 
patdvat ; given as a subsistence,._;waX; ; temple, d'evastJidn ; charitable, 
dharmdda ; and held at a fixed rentyUdTiad. Granted, indm, villages, 
given for some public service to the chiefs, are, as a rule,, held 
either rent-free or on payment of a quit-rent, and are without any 
condition of service. Agreement, patdvat, villages are held on 
condition of rendering military and other service. When the 
Rajputs and other strangers overran the country their leaders, 
keeping the lion's share for themselves, distributed part of the land 
among their followers on promise of help in times of war. Village 
holders of this class, besides helping their chiefs in times of war, 
served with a certain number of horsemen as guards of honour, 
whenever the chiefs went out of their territories on pilgrimages or 



Chapte^VIII. 

Land 
Administration- 
Landholders. 



Management. 



Villages. 



' In the large states under the direct management of the British Government 
thdnddrs have no police or magisterial powers. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



68 



STATES. 



Chapter_VIII- 

Land 
Administration- 
Villages. 



otlier peaceful errands. They were also bound to attend the chiefs 
on festive or ceremonial occasions^ and to add to the grandeur of 
the Eajas' procession on the Dasera and other holidays. So much 
honour attached to a large following of these dependent gentry, that 
in this form of display many of the chiefs sacrificed a great part of 
their incomes. Villages held under this tenure pay a fixed revenue 
to the chief who has also the right to levy cesses from the lessees' 
tenants. These cesses are in most cases fixed, either paid by the 
lessees themselves or by the villagers direct. They are apportioned 
either to individual cultivators, or to communities of particular castes. 
In the latter case the amount is not enhanced even though the 
community receives fresh members from other villages. A chief may 
resume an agreement, pata, on the ground of the non-performance 
of service or other conditions, or on account of failure of heirs. 
Subsistence, ^wai;, villages, granted free of service, are held by 
members of the chiefs' families, or their relations. Though subject 
to resumption on the failure of heirs, the holder may generally on 
paying a fee, nazardna, adopt a successor. The land revenue, 
vaje, of subsistence villages belongs to the holder. But the chief 
has the right to levy cesses, vera, from the villagers. Temple, 
devasthdn, villages cannot be taken back at the wish of the chief. 
At the same time all are not free from the levy of certain trifling 
cesses. Charitable, dharmdda, villages were originally granted to 
members of the sacred classes, Brahmans, Bhats, Charans, and 
others in reward either for some religious or ceremonial act, or 
with the view of securing their blessing, or of gaining for the giver 
a name for liberality. Some of these villages, alienated by the 
original holders, are either held by the alienees or have been 
resumed by the chief. Fixed rent, udhad, villages are mostly owned 
by mehvdsis, the descendants of the Koli and Bhil chiefs, who held 
the country before the Eajput conquest. Holding under the 
condition of police and military service, these men own their villages, 
paying a sum which is not liable to increase. 

The following statement shows that in the eight leading Eewa 
Kantha states, of a total of 2544^ villages, 1832 or 71-95 per cent 
are state, darbdr ; 88 are grant, indm ; 241 are agreement, pafarai ; 
146 are subsistence, jivah ; 22 are temple, devasthdn ; 103J are 
charitable, dharmdda ; aiid 112 are fixed rent, udhad. 
Eewa Kdntha Villages,''- 1S77. 



State. 


State, 
darhar. 


Grant, 
indm. 


Agree- 
ment, 
patdvat. 


Subsist- 
ence, 

jimak. 


Temple, 

devas- 
thdn. 


Chari- 
table, 
dhar- 
mdda. 


Fixed 
rent, 
udhad. 


Total. 


Eijpipla 

Chhota Udepiir... 

BAriya 

Sanjell 

Svmth 

Kadfaa 

Luudvada 
B!lld;Siiior 

Total ... 


494 
464 
329 
6 
213 

80 
194 

52 


20 
2 

22 
3 
28 
13 


70 

4 

44 

"28 
11 

84 


38 
27 
11 

if 

28 
23 


S 
3 
3 

"3 

16 


48i 
8 
2 

16 
2 
9 

24 


"67 
24 

"2 

"29 


673J 
60i> 
413 
12 
291 
124 
348 
118 


1832 


88 


241 


146 


22 


103J 


112 


26444 



> Owing to the unsettled habits of a large class of the cultivators in every state, the number ol 
villages changes from year to year. The proportion of state, dariir, villages is highest in Chhota 
Udepur and lowest in Balasinor. 



Gajar&tv 



REWA KANTHA, 



09 



Land 
Administration ■ 

Staff. 



The state, darldr, villages, held and managed by the chief, have Chapter YIII 

generally a headman, an accountant, talati, in charge of a group of 

villages, a messenger, hcwdlddr, and some families of watchmen, 

rahhds or pagis. There is only one patel to a village, who is both 

the revenue, mulM, and police patel. A separate police patel is an 

exception. Assistant headmen, matdddrs, literally signers, are almost 

unknown. Carpenters, blacksmiths, and other village craftsmen, 

found only in a few large Kanbi villages, are. generally paid in grain by 

the villagers. A few of them enjoy rent-free lands. Except when a 

village has been farmed to them for a certain number of years, headmen 

do not collect the rent. In state villages the headmen generally 

accompany the other cultivators when they pay rent to the thdnddrs. 

Kanbi villages are seldom farmed and Kanbi or Rajput headmen rarely 

act as middlemen. In almost all villages, both state and private, 

the lands belong to two main classes, the alienated or part alienated 

and those held by the state or village proprietor. Of alienated 

lands there are three main divisions : share, vdnta ; subsistence, 

pasdita ; and reward, ranvatia or hddia. Besides the petty 

proprietors, tdluJcddrs, of the Sankheda and Pandu Mehvas who hold 

shares, vdntds, in Baroda and a few British villages, other Eajputs 

enjoy share lands from their chiefs nominally for service, but in 

practice free from any duty. In Lunavada and Sunth, if unsupported 

by a deed, sanad, these lands have been made subject to the 

payment of quit-rent. Lands of this class often include plots taken 

either by purchase or other means from the original alienees. 

Subsistence, pasdita, grants, in north Rewa Kantha known as lot, 

haram/ni, lands,^ are either held by village servants or craftsmen, the 

vasvdya lok or settlers. Some of them are religious or charitable, 

enjoyed by Hindu or Musalman beggars and strolling players, or 

are set apart to meet the expense of drawing water for the 

village cattle or for travellers. Hereditary service holdings, vatanfis, 

are unknown in the Rewa Kantha. There are no hereditary village 

accountants, hulkarnis ; and the hereditary village headmen, patels, 

instead of a vatan, have either a pasdita grant or are allowed to 

hold a certain area of land free of assessment. In Lunavada and 

Sunth, where a quit-rent is imposed on all alienated lands not held 

under a deed, sanad, pasdita lands enjoyed by watchmen and other 

village servants such as barbers, potters, and sweepers doing state 

service are excepted, while village servants, blacksmiths, carpenters, 

and tanners, who are useful only to the village community pay a 

quarter of the normal rent. Pasdita lands held by Brahmans and 

others without deeds pay a quit-rent of one-eighth of the normal 

rent. Patels enjoy their pasdita lands, if supported by deeds free of 

all state demands or else receive a cash payment in proportion to 

the size and revenue of the village. Though with no power to do 

so, the holders of service, pasdita, land have in many cases sold or 

mortgaged their holdings, and in many villages the money-lender 

holds the land, and the services are no longer performed. To put a 

stop to this abuse it has lately been decided to make all pasdita 



' Karamni lands are held subject to no condition, and cannot, as a rule, be resumed 
by the chief. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



70 



STATES. 



Chapter VIII. lands inalienable and to refuse to recognize any transfer by sale or 

liaM mortgage. Hddia is land granted by tbe state or the villagers in 

Administration, reward for tbe sacrifice of life on bebalf of village or public interests. 



Assessment. 



In state lands tbe form of assessment varies from the roughest 
billhook or plough cess to the elaborate system in force in British 
territory. The form of assessment levied from the rudest and 
most thriftless Bhils and Kolis who till no land, is known in Rajpiplaj 
where they live chiefly by forest work, as the axe, kohddi, or the 
billhook, ddtardi, cess. In Bariya the corresponding tax is k^own 
as the squatters', hethaUa, or non-workers', or the water, pdni, cess, 
that is on those who do nothing but drink the water of the village. 
The amount of this tax. varies from Js. to 4s. {ans. 8 -B.s. 2). 
Somewhat above the foresters and squatters are Bhils and Kolis, too 
poor to buy or keep bullocks, but who close to their huts dig a plot 
of ground, vdda or kdchha, with a spade or hoe and grow Indian 
com in it. These m.en pay a hoe, vdda or hoddU, cess varying 
according to the size of the plot and the condition of the digger 
from Is. to 4s. (ans. 8 - Rs. 2). Prom those a degree better off 
who are able to keep bullocks, a plough tax is levied, the amount 
on each plough varying according to the state and caste of the 
cultivator, the number of working men in his family, and the number 
of bullocks at his disposal. One pair of bullocks is estimated to till 
from 2^ to 7J acres (5- 15 bighds). In many places there is much 
arable waste and to tempt settlers, for the first year only a small 
charge is made rising gradually till, after three or four years, the 
full amount is realized. The plough rates vary greatly in different 
places. They are highest in some of the Sankheda Mehvas estates 
ranging in Kamsoli from £2 10s. to £5 (Rs. 25 - 50) a plough ; in 
Palasni from £1 5s. 6d. to £2 5s. 6d. (Rs. 12|-22f); and in 
Chudesar from £1 12s. to £2 8s. (Rs. 16-24). In the larger states 
the rates vary greatly; in Chhota Udepur from 10s. to £3 10s. 
(Rs. 5 - 35) j in Rajpipla from 10s. to £1 18s. (Rs. 5 - 19) ; in Bariya 
from 4s. to £2 2s. (Rs. 2 - 21) ; and in Sunth from 4s. to 18s. 
(Rs. 2 - 9). 

The next form of assessment is the crop-share system, bhdgbatdi. 
When the crops are ready to cut, the state managers, hdmddrs, 
examine each field, and with the help of experts make and record an 
estimate, kaltar, of the crop. On this estimated outturn the money 
value of the crop is calculated at the ruling price of grain, and the 
state share is taken in cash. In some cases the estimate is made 
after the crop is reaped and harvested. The state share varies 
according to the season, the price of grain, and the honesty of the 
assessors. It generally amounts to one-third of the rainy season, 
Jcharif, and one-fourth of the cold season^ rabi, crop. This system 
prevails in parts of Balasinor, Sunth, and the petty estate of 
Chudesar, and in the alluvial, bhdtha, lands of Mandva in the 
Sankheda Mehvas, Both under the spade or plough tax and under 
the crop share, bhdgbatdi, systems, the chiefs for their own granary, 
Jcothdr, take from some of their tenants, grain instead of cash. In 
such cases the value of the grain is always fixed at something below 
current market rates. 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



71 



Among some of tlie more settled and intelligent communities a 
rougli form of the separate holding, Ichdtdhandi, system has been 
introduced, and among others cash acre-rates, bighoti, are levied. 
In such cases the holdings are roughly measured into highds or 
kumbhds, the bigha generally representing about an acre or less, 
and the humbha varying in different states from one to five bighds. 
After measurement, the assessment is fixed at a certain cash rate on 
the bigha. This rate ranges in Rajpipla from 4s. to 30s. (Rs. 2-15) 
a bigha, or, the Rajpipla humbha being equal to about 2| bighds, 
from 10s. to £3 16s. (Rs. 5 - 37^) a humbha. In the district of 
Bariya this assessment is levied in a very few villages at from 4s. 
to 4s. &d. (Rs. 2 - 2^) a bigha, and the rate on sugarcane is £1 2s. 
(Rs. 11). In the state of Sunth it ranges from Is. to 5s. (Re. ^ - 2 J), 
and the rate on sugarcane from 12s. to £1 4s. (Rs. 6 - 12). 
In Balasinor it varies from &d. to 14s. {as. 4 - Rs. 7) a bigha. 
The rate in the estate of Dorka is from 2s. to 7s. 6d. (Re. 1 - 3f ) 
a bigha, and 10s. (Rs. 5) a humbha. In the estate of Mandva in 
the Sankheda Mehvas the rate is from 4s. to £1 7s. (Rs. 2-13|) 
a humbha, which is equal to about I5 bighds. In the estates of 
Vajiria and Chudesar in the same Mehvas, a humbha is equal to 
about 5 bighds ; and the rates per humbha in these two estates 
are from 10s. to £3 18s. (Rs. 5 - 39), and 12s. to £1 15s. (Rs. 6 - 17J) 
. respectively. In Jiral Kamsoli the rate per humbha which is equal 
to about l| or 2 bighds is from 6s. to £1 4s. (Rs. 3 - 12). 

In the state of Lunavada where the land has been regularly 
surveyed and classified, rates fixed, as in British districts, chiefly on 
the quality and position of the field, have been introduced under the 
sanction of the Government of Bombay. The rates vary in dry, 
jirdyat, lands from Is. to 5s. Qd. (as. 8 - Rs. 2f) an acre, and in 
addition a water rate of from Is. to 5s. (as. 8 - Rs. 2^) is levied. 
The assessment on wells varies from 14s. (Rs. 7) on each water-lift 
of unbuilt, hachcha, well, to £1 and £1 12s. (Rs. 10 and Rs. 16) on 
each water bag, hos, of a built well, that waters at least 2| acres of 
land. 

Except in the surveyed states, Bariya, Lunavada, and Sunth, 
where fixed rates are being or have been introduced, the rates 
levied under the hoe, plough, or crop-share systems are supplemented 
by cesses of different kinds. Of the cesses no longer in force in the 
three surveyed states, the most important were those levied to meet 
the tribute due to the British, the Gaikwar, and Sindia. In Bariya 
this, called a horse cess, ghodi vero, was supplemented by another 
known as chandi vero or horses' grain cess. It was levied in kind 
on every plough, the amount varying with the plough cess from 10 
to 130 pounds. ' In Lunavada it was known as the forcible one and 
a half, janmdno dodiyo, and in Sunth as the robber's cess, gammi 
vero.^ Another cess was the dnna tax, dm vero, a surety's cess of 



Chapter_VIII. 

Land 
Administration. 

Assessment. 



Revenue 
Survey. 



' Janmdno dodiyo, probably a corruption of julmdno dodiyo or the forcible one and a 
half, was called 1 J because the original amount was raised by one-half. Ghdnim ghoda 
vero, in Hindustdni the robber's cess, was applied by the Musalmins to all Mar^tha 
levies. In the Rewa Ktotha the phrase is restricted to taxes imposed by Sindia. 



[Bombay Gazetteer; 



72 



STATES. 



C!hapter VIII. 

Laud 
Administration. 

Cesses. 



one or two annas in the rupee of the regular assessmeptj payable 
partly to the state, partly to the Vania security. A third tax was 
the currency cess, pota vatdv, half a per cent on the regular payment 
to coTer loss from bad or damaged coin. Besides these taxes some 
villagers had to supply the state posts, thwnds, with grass either free 
or at nominal rates, supporting at the same time the men who were 
sent to gather in the grass. Butter and grain for the use of the 
state were also taken from the villagers at less than the market 
rates. In Sunth, besides the Maratha or robber cess, an October, 
Bivdli, cess varying from 10s. to £2 10s. (Es. 5 - 25) was, at the 
time of early harvest, levied on homestead tillage plots, vdda or 
hddicha. Other cesses were the funeral butter-cess, shrdddhia ghino 
vero, a money payment instead of the share of clarified butter wanted 
for the funeral rites of the departed heads of the state; the 
silver coin, mahmudi, cess levied from Rampur Brahman, carpenter, 
and Ghanchi cultivators, when they employ persons of other castes to 
help them in field work^; grain compensation, ped, a cess levied 
from certain heads of villages to make up to the state for the loss of 
its former privilege of taking grain at less than the market ratej 
the douceur, suJchdi chirda, cess levied by the state and partly paid to 
Vanias, who had formerly the right of collecting it ; ground-rent, 
ghar jhumpi; and the rope cess, rdshio, to meet the state expenses on 
ropes. In Lunavada the chief cesses were the service cess, hhijmati 
vero, levied from some Brahmans as a quit-rent on the lands enjoyed 
by them in return for seWices rendered to the state officials who 
estimated the crops ; Jcaltdnu, imposed on some villages instead of 
food supplied to the clerks sent to assess the crops ; hhardo samjd/voMi 
taken in a few villages for the trouble of telling the people how 
much rent they had to pay ; Tcali halsi, levied at the rate of one anna 
on each halsi of grain due under the assessment ; havdlo, levied on 
account of messengers, havdlddrs, in villages where no havdlddr was 
kept ; Tchichdi vero, levied instead of the expenses incurred by some 
villagers in entertaining the chiefs and their retinue when on tour 
through the district ; the sharers' cess, bhdgia vero, levied like the 
mahmudi cess on servants employed to help in field work ; ground- 
rent, ghar jhumpi, pdga and thdnddr Idgat, a fee paid to the revenue 
collector, thdnddr, and for the use of horses on occasions of marriage 
or other processions ; shrdddhia ghi, instead of butter supplied to the 
RajiS.s on occasions of funeral ceremonies ; a rope cess,rdshio; elephant's 
grass cess, hdthini ghds ; a marriage cess, khdjru^ ; Rajput vero, paid 
by some Rajputs on account of holding service land; the heir's cess, 
huar chirda, a fixed cess, originally in honour of the birth of an heir 
to the chief ; October cess, divdli vero, on homestead yards, vdda, 
levied at the time of the early harvest; horse tax, ghoda vero, to 
meet the cost of the chief's horses; charvdddr vero, to pay the 
attendants, charvdddrs, on state horses ; and a ghdsni veth, to bring 



' The mahmudi is worth 40 dolcdds. In EAmpur its present value is Re. 1 as. 2. 

2 Khdjru means a goat. It is probable that on marriage occasions the people 
formerly presented the chiefs with a goat and that this was afterwards changed into, a 
mone'v navment. 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



73 



grass into Lunavada. Special cesses were also levied on the occasions 
of marriages and other erents in the chiefs family. The Kanbis, as 
the best-off class of peasantSj bore the burden of these cesses. In 
Chhota Udepur the chief agricultural cesses are : the kukdi vera, 
instead of fowls presented to the chief when on tour ; vdgh vera, to 
pay the Eaja's tiger-shooting charges ; hhdt vera, to pay his bards ; 
and chcmdla vero, to pay for the marriageSj births^ and other 
ceremonies in his family. In Rajpipla and Balasinor the agricultural 
cesses are the same or similar, and in the state of Vajiria in the 
Sankheda Mehvas, a douceur, sukJidi, of Is. (8 annas) a hurribha, 
and interest at the rate of twelve per cent (2 annas in the rupee) are 
levied. 

In the Eewa Kantha the land revenue is collected directly by the 
state officials, or by farmers to whom villages are leased for a fixed 
or an indefinite number of years. The former, system of leasing 
villages to headmen or money-lenders is giving way to direct state 
management. The reason for the change is that, except those with 
few people and scanty tillage, where it is for their interest to 
attract settlers, villages have been found to suffer lasting harm from 
the contractors' exactions.^ 

In directly managed villages the want of method on the part of 
the chief and his officers and the poverty of the peasants make the 
services of a middleman necessary. The middleman's duties vary in 
different states. In some states the amount jiue by each husbandman 
is fixed, and the work of realizing the rental is left to the Vania 
or man of capital. He pays for those who cannot pay, and by 
degrees recovers the money advanced. Under this system the state 
promptly realizes the whole revenue ; but the poorer husbandmen are 
completely enslaved to the Vania. He credits their grain at what 
price he pleases, charges them for exchanging the grain into money, 
and levies interest on any outstandings at the close of the season. 
In other states the middleman, when an instalment of rent falls due, 
gives each cultivator an order for the amount of his assessment. 
This order is taken by the accountant, taldti, or the collector, thdnddr 
cashed, and paid into the treasury. Sometimes the order for payment 
does not even pass through the cultivators' hands but is paid by the 
middleman straight into the state treasury. The amounts of the 
different orders are entered against the cultivators' names, and as 
his debtors they are entirely in the middleman's hands. The state 
of affairs in Bariya in 1865 was thus described by Ool. Anderson 



Cliapter_VIII 

Land 
Administration. 



' In Rdjpipla, when in 1822 the British Government interfei-ed to clear off the chief's 
debts, Mr. Willoughby introduced the system of leasing villages. This may have at 
first been advantageous, but after some years it was found so to impoverish the 
villages that no leases were renewed, and the villages, as their leases fell in were 
managed directly by the chief. This change was in Mr. PoUexfen's opinion (1852-1855) 
a great gain. Abuses might remain, but anything was better than the lease system 
which had brought the people to such wretchedness that they had fled from their 
villages. The leaseholder's one aim was to screw what he could out of his tenants. 
And besides what he took himself, the people were crushed and robbed by his 
underlings. Such had been the oppression that in the N^nchhal sub-division of 97 
villages only 31 were inhabited; and the belt of rich land along the left bank of the TApti 
was almost entirely waste aad covered with brushwood. Bom, Gov. Sel, XXIII, 313. 

B S61— 10 



Rent How 
Realized. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



74 



STATES. 



CJhapter VIII. 

Land 
Administration. 



Instalments. 



Defaults, 



Reforms. 



Survey. 



the Political Agent. Tlie chief arranges with Vanias for the 
payment of the whole village rental leaving it to the Vania to levy 
the dues in detail. On all individual payments m^ore than eight 
months in arrears, the middleman is entitled to a share of the 
dni vera or surety^s cess. The middleman's payments are made 
through the thdnddrs either before or during January, yearly interest 
at the rate of nine per cent being charged on all sums outstanding. 
The system suits the middleman. At times he may lose by 
defaulters. But as a body the people are at his mercy, and he can 
make his own terms about cash advances and produce prices. 

No regular dates are fixed for paying the assessment. November 
and December, a month or two after the first harvest is gathered in, 
is the nominal time for paying either the first instalment or the 
whole rental. But cultivators are not generally punctual, and during 
the whole year the officials are at work gathering the revenue. 

Default is very common. The defaulter is generally kept in custody 
for a day or two at the nearest state post, thana, when he either pays 
or gives security. If he neither pays nor gives security, his movable 
property, except field tools and cattle, is attached and sold. Houses 
are seldom sold, as in most cases both the site and the timber 
belong to the chief. Occupancy sales are unknown. The large area 
of arable waste in almost all villages prevents land from having a 
sale value, and knowing that if he did so, he would suffer either in 
person or property, a Eanbi is very unwilling to take a Koli's or 
Bhil's land. 

At first, and for many years, the work of putting down disturbances, 
of checking gang robberies and cattle stealing, and of settling 
disputes between the different states occupied almost the whole 
time and attention of the Political Agents. Within the last ten 
years, aided by the minority of three of the larger states, Bariya, 
Lunavada, and Sunth, considerable progress has been made in the 
three important points of surveying, settling alienations, and fixing 
boundaries. 

For more than twenty-five years after they came under British 
supervision, except for military purposes, no attempt was made 
to survey the Rewa Kantha districts. The first regular survey was 
that of Rajpipla, undertaken in 1852 by Lieutenant J. J. Pollexfen, 
Assistant Quarter Master General. Lasting through three seasons 
(1852-1855), the operations included the survey of the lands 
of 550 villages of which 67 were alienated. A topographical survey 
of the Eewa Kantha and Panch Mahals was, under the charge of 
Kao Bahadur Khushalrai Sarabhai, the present daftarddr of the 
Eewa Kantha Agency, begun in 1854 and finished in 1861. The 
instruments used were the prismatic compass, and the perambulator. 
During the seven years the work lasted, the whole of the Eewa 
Kantha and the Panch Mahals, with the exception of Bhadarva, 
Umeta, Eaika, Dorka, and Anghad were surveyed, and a map 
prepared. During the past ten years, advantage has been taken 
of its being under direct management to survey the lands and fix 
the boundaries of the Lunavada state. A circuit survey of Bariya, 



Gujardt] 



REWA KANTHA. 



75 



Lunavada, and Sunth, and a field survey of Bal&inor was, by 
Mr. Hall of the Gujarat Revenue Survey, begun in 1867 and finisbed 
in 1871, at a cost to Bariya of £6915 12s. (Rs. 69,156) and to 
Lunavada of £4633 16s. (Rs. 46,338). The total number of 
stations taken in the survey were 10,110 in Lunavada and 16,1 77 in 
Bariya, and the total length chained was 956 miles in the former 
and 1510 miles in the latter. In Lunavada the boundaries of 334 
villages, and in Bariya the boundaries of 413 villages were surveyed, 
settled, and marked out. The whole of the Bariya fi-ontier was 
settled, and a length of 205 miles was marked by 2459 substantial 
stone pillars. A circuit survey of Sunth was carried out during the 
years 1873, 1874, and 1876 at a cost of about £1792 2s. (Rs. 17,921). 
The number of stations taken was 7571 and the total area chained 
392 square miles. Inner village boundaries were laid down partly by 
Mr. Hall's establishment and partly by two officers of the state. The 
twenty-one villages of the Vajiria estate in the Sankheda Mehvas 
were in 1870 surveyed and mapped, and their outer boundary line 
marked off. A field measurement has lately been begun, and the 
Mandva estate has also been surveyed. In Lunavada, besides the 
circuit survey, individual holdings in the 185 state villages were 
measured and classified on survey principles. The result of the field 
survey was to show that, of a total area of 168,841 acres, 18,026 or 
ten per cent were taken up by roads, ponds, and village sites ; 48,391 
or twenty- nine per cent were waste and forest lands; and 102,423 
or sixty-one per cent were arable. Of the arable land 74,078 acres or 
seventy-three per cent belonged to the state; and 28,345 or twenty- 
seven per cent were alienated. In Lunavada and Sunth the rules 
finally adopted for the settlement of claims to alienated lands were, 
in the case of lands held under a state grant of temple endowments, 
and of service grants to village servants useful to the state, entire 
exemption from payment ; a levy of one quarter (4 annas in the 
rupee) of the normal rent from craftsmen and other village servants 
not useful to the state ; and in all other cases the levy of one-eighth 
part of the normal rent. Under these rules an inquiry into titles is 
still going on. In Balasinor the field measurements show, that of 
a total area of 63,653 acres, 17,717 are waste not ava;ilable for tillage, 
and 45,936 acres are arable. , Of the total area 19,955 acres or thirty-one 
per cent are alienated and 43,698 or sixty-nine per cent belong to the 
state. These lands were measured and classified according to survey 
rules, but so far no attempt has been made to alter the old system 
of assessment. The Balasinor state is making inquiries into titles 
to abenations and levying quit-rents at various rates. 

In former times boundary disputes gave rise to a large number of 
murderous affrays. As jlate as 1864 the Lunavada and Sunth chiefs 
quarrelled over some boundary, turned out with their troops, and had 
a battle on the disputed frontier. The settlement of boundary 
disputes was first actively taken up in 1866. Long frontier lines 
were entrusted to single officers as commissioners, and, within three 
years, most of the disputes were settled, and for the rest the 
services of a single officer were found to be enough. Of the disputed 
frontiers, the one between Lunavada and Balasinor was the most 



ChapterVIII. 

Land 
Administration. 

Survey, 



Boundary 
disputes. 



[Bombay Gazetteeri 
76 STATES. 

Chapter^ VIII. important. The rival claims cMefly poncerned tlie forty- two villages 

Land of tte Virpur subrdivision. These were placed under attachmejit by 

Administration, the British Grovermnent and the result of a detailed village inquiry 

Boundary 'was to show that the Balasinor claims were much the stronger. 

Other rights of Lunavada in BaMsinor villages and of Balasinor in 

Lunavada villages were estimated, and the Virpur villages made over 

to the Balasinor chief on his agreeing to compound all claims ojj 

Lunayada for a certain sum, 



Giijard,tl 



CHAPTER IX. 

JUSTICE. 

Civil courts have only lately been introduced into theEewaKantha. Chapter IX. 
Civil disputes were formerly settled by arbitration, and money-lenders Justice, 

were allowed to recover their outstandings as they best could. 
So anxious were the chiefs to realize for themselves all that could be Civil, 

taken from the cultivators, that, however just his claim, they refused 
to help a money-lender to recover his debts. Occasionally, when a 
trader fell into difficulties, his creditors prayed the state to recover 
for them his outstanding debts, paying as a fee one-fourth part or 
more of the amount realized. 

At present (1879) there are twelve civil courts in the Rewa Kantha, 
eight in states under the supervision of the British Government, and 
four others, two in Bariya, and one each in Rajpipla and Balasinor. 
Of the eight courts under British supervision the chief is the appellate 
court of the Political Agent, which hears appeals from the decisions 
of the assistant political agent.^ The second is the original and 
appellate court of the assistant political agent with power to hear 
original suits of the value of £300 (Rs. 3000) and upwards in the 
Sankheda Mehvas ; of £100 (Rs. 1000) and upwards in Lunavada, 
Sunth, and the Pandu and Dorka Mehvas ; and of £10 (Rs. 100) and 
upwards in the Sagtala sub-division of Bariya ; and to hear appeals 
against the decisions of the deputy assistant political agents of 
Lunavada and Sunth, and of the Sagtala and the three Mehvas 
tJidnddrs. The third and fourth are the courts of the deputy assistant 
political agents of Lunavada and Sunth each with power to hear 
suits of less than £100 (Rs. 1000). The fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
eighth, are the courts of the tJidnddrs of Sankheda, Pandu, Dorka, 
and Sagtala, the first with power to hear suits of less than £300 
(Rs. 8000), the second and third of less than £100 (Rs. 1000), and 
the fourth of less than £10 (Rs. 100). 

In the towns of Lunavada, Rampur, Bariya, and Mandva, when 
immovable or house property is transferred, the state, on receipt of a 

• An appeal lies to the Political Agent in all suits relating to immovable property. 
When the subject of a suit is movable property an appeal lies to the Political Agent 
only when the property is worth more than £50 (Rs. 500) and the assistant political 
agent has modified or reversed the original decision. A further appeal lies to 
Government when the property in dispute is immovable, or if movable of more than 
^300 (Rs. 3000) in value, and the Political Agent has modified or reversed the 
assistant political agent's decree. Gov. Res. 3689, 9th August 1879. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



78 



STATES. 



Chapter IX. 
Justice. 

CivU. 



Criminal. 



fee varying from 6 j to 15 per cent of the value of the property, granta 
a deed, lehh, and enters a copy of it in a state register. It is also 
usual and in some cases compulsory on payment of fees of from three 
to five per cent, to register mortgage deeds of real property, wills, 
and deeds of gift. 

In the conduct of their work the civil courts follow the spirit of 
the British civil procedure code. Besides a small charge to meet 
the expenses of the court a fee of Q\ per cent on the amount in 
dispute is levied when a suit or an appeal is instituted. When 
a money claim has been established the debtor's movable and 
immovable property is liable to be sold. An exception is made in 
favour of his tools and bullocks, and in Lunavada when grain is 
attached a portion of it worth £2 (Rs. 20) is set apart for the 
debtor's maintenance. Imprisonment for debt is unknown. In the 
case of Bhils and other wild debtors a decree is seldom taken out. 
There is almost nothing to attach and a troublesome creditor 
runs great risk of being roughly handled. Cases of this kind are 
generally settled out of court, the debtor entering into a fresh agree- 
ment with the creditor. Most suits are brought against cultivators, 
and as the claim is generally the outcome of transactions lasting 
over several years, the rules of the civil procedure code are not 
strictly followed. An inquiry is made, a rough balance struck, and 
some arrangement fixed for the payment of what seems due. Cases 
of attachment and forced sale of property are rare. In the Rajpipla 
and Balasinor courts institution fees are levied and decrees satisfied 
out of the judgment debtors' movable and immovable property. 
From their decisions an appeal lies to the state Karbharis. 

As regards criminal justice the Rewa Kantha authorities belong 
to five classes ; the officers, thdnddrs, who have second and third class 
magisterial powers in the estates of the petty Mehvas chiefs; the third 
class chiefs of Kadana, Sanjeli, Bhadarva, and Umeta, who have the 
powers of a second class magistrate in offences committed by any but 
British subjects ; the second class chiefs^ of Bariya and Balasinor who 
can try all offenders except British subjects and the subjects of other - 
states accused of capital charges ; the first class chief of Rajpipla 
who can try all but British subjects for capital offences committed 
within his territory ; and the Political Agent and assistant political 
agent. Besides having power to try cases in which British subjects 
are accused, the Political Agent as a magistrate tries cases beyond j 
the powers of the thdnddrs in the Mehvas estates and the third class 
chiefs. In addition to this the Political Agent presides as a 
Sessions Judge in the Rewa Kantha criminal court which was 
established in 1 839. In this, assisted by assessors, he tries all British 
subjects accused of heinous crimes, and all such cases as the chiefs 
or the local authorities are not competent to settle. He also hears 
appeals against the decisions of the assistant political agent and of 
the other inferior courts, and exercises a general supervision over 
the administration of criminal justice. The assistant political agent 



" The second class chief of Ohhota Udepur has recently been forbidden to try any 
but his own subjects. 



Gujardt] 



EEWA KANTHA. 



79 



is vested witli the powers of a first class magistrate. He tries all 
offences committed in tlie states of Lunavada^ Sunth, Kaddna, 
Sanjeli, and Sagtala that are beyond tlie jurisdiction of tlie second 
class magistrates, and decides all cases occurring in tlie above states 
as well as those of Bariya and Balasinor in which, the criminals 
happen to be British subjects. He has also the power of committing 
all cases triable by the Court of Sessions and is vested with the 
power of hearing appeals against the decisions of his deputies at 
Lunavada and Sunth and the thdnddr of Sagtala. The deputy 
assistant political agents of Lunavada and Sunth and the thdnddr of 
Sagtala have the powers of second class magistrates. The thdnddr 
of Sagtala has also been empowered to commit cases to the Court of 
Sessions. 

The chieif crimes are thefts and robberies. This is due not only 
to the character of the bulk of the people, poor, unsettled and lately 
brought into order, but to the nature and position of the country, 
rough with woods and hills, and surrounded by states which almost 
always refuse to give up offenders.^ The habit of letting unguarded 
cattle graze about the hills adds greatly to the number of cattle 
thefts, and the ease with which, by moving a few thorns in the side 
of one of their huts, a lover or petty pilferer may find his way inside, 
swells the list of housebreakings by night. The cases of simple 
and grievous hurt are almost all the result of the Bhils' excessive 
love for spirits. On the whole, considering the people and the 
country, the crime list is by no means heavy, and cases of heinous 
offences, murders, culpable homicides, and gang robberies are 
comparatively rare.^ 

As, except in murder cases, there are no arrangements between 
the Meywar and Rewa Kantha states for the surrender of offenders, 
claims by the people of the different states are inquired into by a court 
known as the 'International Panchayat' which holds its sittings 
every year in some frontier village. This court consists of the two 
British political officers in charge of the states concerned who have 
power to refer cases for settlement to a local panchayat. The chief 
rules for the guidance of the court are, that the claim must be made 
within a year of the commission of the alleged offence ; that 
travellers are bound to take guides, valdvds, and that if they neglect 



Chapter IX. 
Justice, 



Crime. 



Courts of 
Award. 



1 In the eastern Sunth villages parties of Bhils from across the MeywAr border 
armed with bows and arrows enter a village and drive off what cattle they find, 
or they wait their chance till a herd is grazing near the border, and, rushing across, 
carry them off. The police can do nothing as they cannot follow the offenders across 
the border. Mr. Presoott, Superintendent of Police. 

2 Mr. Presoott (1874) gives the following details of a daooity in Sunth. One 
morning in May, shortly before sunrise, a body of fifteen mounted and armed men, 
provided with four camels, entered the small village of Sarsan. The villagers offering 
no resistance, they forced their way into a monastery, robbed it of £800 (Rs. 8000), 
and left within an hour. Word was sent to a police post close by, and the police, 
raising the Bhils as they went along, pursued the robbers, and with the loss of three 
of their number killed and several wounded, kiUed two of the robbers, secured six 
more, and wounded some of the rest who made good their escape. Inquiry showed 
that the robbers had come from Jodhpur. They were probably induced to make the 
foray by some false tale of the monastery's wealth. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



80 



STATES. 



Chapter IX. 
Justice. 

Courts of 
Award. 



Police. 



tMs, no claim can stand ; that if the complainant is not present the 
defendant, if lie pleads not guilty, may be discharged, and if the 
defendant fails to appear, the complainant may gain his case by 
taking an oath as to the justice of his claim ; and that the state in 
whose limits the crime was committed' is responsible for the arrest 
of the offenders and for seeing that the court's sentence is carried 
out. All sentences are fines, payable as compensation to the 
complainant, and varying in amount according to the nature of 
the offence.^ When the officers agree there is no appeal. When 
they differ the case is referred to the Eajputana Agent to the G-overnor 
General. Decisions of local panchdyats, in cases referred to them 
by the political officers, are final. The working of the present 
system is not satisfactory. In 1874 the president reported that ' he 
had never seen such an amount of unblushing falsehood and 
undisguised subornation of evidence,' and in 1878 the E,ewa Kantha 
Political Agent urged that the border court should give place to 
an extradition treaty.^ 

In former times the duty of keeping order was entrusted to the 
mercenary troops, sibandi, both horse and foot, of which the total 
strength was, in 1854, returned at 1939.^ These troops, without 
method or discipline, were unfit to keep order. In several parts 
of the district, especially in the border villages of Gujarat and 
Meywar, the people were in a state of chronic hostility. Eeceiving 
little help from their chiefs, they refused to pay them revenue or yield 
them obedience, and were not brought to order till a special 
post had been established among them. Besides their police 
duties, this sibandi was useful in collecting land and other 
revenue, and served to swell the , retinues of the chiefs. In 1865, 
when Bariya came under the supervision of the Political Agent, 
efforts were made to improve the sibandi by introducing some of 
the method and drill of a regular police force. The attempt was 
repeated when in 1867 Lunavada came under direct management. 
Though some improvement was made the result was not satisfactory. 
There was no proper supervision. The native assistants had 
neither the training nor the leisure to look closely after the police. 
Accordingly when, in 1872, the neighbouring state of Sunth came 
under direct management, the Political Agent proposed to 
Government that the police of the three states should be formed into 
one body. This proposal was approved and a federal police, 441 
strong,* and costing about £5926 (Es. 59,260), was formed and 



1 Except in the case of murder, when according to the new rnles (29th September 
1877) instead of a fine the surrender of the offender can be demanded, the amounts 
of compensation are : for wounding, abduction of married women, forcible abduction 
of unmarried women, and unlawfully carrying oflf, arresting, or detaining a person, 
2s. to £30 ; for carrying off a riding camel £8 ; a baggage camel £5 ; a she and he buffalo 
respectively £3 10s. and £1 10s. ; a cow £1 10s.; a buUock £2 4g.; a riding pony 
£1 4s. ; a bull £1 ; a calf 10s. ; a sheep 4s. ; and a goat 4s. 

" Pol. Agent, Adm. Report, 1874-75 and 1878-79. 

'The details are : RAjpipla, 1002 ; BAriya, 83 horse and 158 foot ; Chhota Udepur, 
67 horse and 213 foot ; LunivAda, 43 horse and 162 foot ; Sunth 20 horse and 67 
foot ; and BAl&inor, 24 horse and 100 foot, 

■• The details are : 399 foot and 42 horse. 



Police. 



Gigarit.] 

REWA KANTHA. 81 

placed rmder tlie auperintendence of a Britlsli officer, and, in 1875, its Chapter IX. 

operations were extended to Kadana and Sanjeli. The result was Justice. 

satisfactory. There was a marked advance in order and method, 

and the bands of cattle-lifters and marauders who used to carry their 

raids into the heart of Sunth were afraid to pass beyond the border 

villages.^ In 1876 when the Bariya chief came of age his police 

contingent was withdrawn, and to reduce its cost the European 

officer was replaced by a Native. The Bariya chief engaging to 

maintain in efficiency 153 foot and 17 mounted police, the federal 

force was reduced to 276. Its cost, £3797 (Es. 37,970), was so 

heavy a burden to Lunavada and Sunth, that in 1877-78 it was 

further reduced to £3152 (Rs. 31,520). 

As regards the police of the other Eewa Kdntha states, in 
Eajpipla there are on police duty 100 sibandi, 70 of them foot and 
30 horse. The mounted police are armed with guns and swords, 
and are paid £2 (Rs. 20) a m.onth, out of which the keep of their 
horses is taken. The foot police wear a black uniform, and are 
armed with guns, swords, and batons. The Chhota Udepur police 
is 199 strong, 30 of them mounted and 169 foot. The mounted 
police, armed with guns and swords, are paid 14s. (Es. 7) a month, 
the state feeding their horses and meeting the cost of their keep. 
The Balasinor police is 110 strong, 25 of them mounted and 85 foot. 
The mounted police, of whom two are officers, are supplied with 
horses whose keep is met by the state and are paid 10s. (Rs. 5) a 
month. In the Mehvas tracts there is no regular police. The 
chiefs are too poor to pay for a proper force and too indifferent 
to exert themselves to keep order and punish offenders. The police 
of their estates is in the hands of the thdnddrs whose only force 
is the irregular body of horse known as the Gaikwar's contingent. 
This, 314 strong, was originally a force bound by treaty to 
accompany British troops on service and was afterwards posted 
to the different tributary districts. Its duties are ill defined. It is 
used more to stimulate the petty chiefs to arrest offenders than as 
an active agent in police inquiries. 

In the whole of Rewa Kantha there is no regular village police. 
The duties of revenue and police patels are generally united in one 
person, who holds service, pasdita, land or enjoys some exemption 
from the payment of plough-tax. They help the police ia catching 
offenders, mustering the bad characters of the village, tracking 
footprints of thieves, telling the police of accidental or suicidal 
deaths, and performing other petty police duties. The village 
watch, rakhds, generally Bhils or Kolis, are paid in the same way 
as patels, though on a smaller scale. In some cases where there 
is no state provision, the villagers pay them in grain, the watch 
agreeing in return to make compensation for all thefts and robberies 
that may be traced to their dishonesty or want of care. 



" Mr. Presoott, Superintendent of Police. 
B 561— H 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



82 



STATES. 



Chapter IX. 
Justice- 
Police. 



Jails. 



The following table gives tlie crime and police details for the five 
years ending 1878-79 : 

Sewa Kdniha Crime and Police, 1875-1879. 



Ybar. 


■ — 

Offencss ma Cokviciions. 


Pkopeett. 


Offences. 


Arrests. 


ConTic- 
tions. 


Percent- 
age. 


Stolen. 


Eeoovered. 


Percent- 
age. 


1874-75 
1876-76 
1876-77 
1877-78 
1878-79 


1630 
1247 
1631 
2008 
3091 


2531 
2143 
■ 2390 
3531 
6333 


1525 
1274 
1482 
2290 
4359 


60-25 
69-45 
62-00 
64-85 
68-83 


1560 
2062 
3005 
6379 
7004 


468 

434 

810 

1041 

1832 


29 
21 
27 
19 
26 



Till lately there were no jails in the Eewa Kantha. Priaonera 
were confined in rooms attached to the chiefs' dwellings, and, till they 
paid their fines, were kept in the stocks, ill fed and iU cared for. 
In the states under direct management, efforts have been made to 
improve the jail accommodation. New jails have been built in 
Bariya, Rampur, Eajpipla, and BaMsinor, and in Lunavada the state 
granary has been prepared to receive prisoners. There are nineteen ; 
lock-ups, and a jail is shortly to be built at Ohhota Udepur. In 
Bdriya, Sunth, Lunavada, and Eajpipla, the health of the convicts 
is looked after by medical officers in charge of local dispensaries. 
Except a few at Lunavada who make tape for cots the convicts are 
kept at out-door labour. 



Gnjar&t] 



CHAPTER X. 

REVENUE AND FINANCE- 

In former times the disturbed state and isolated position of the 
country, the rivalry among the chiefs to secure settlers, and the 
lavish grants of land to Brahmans, Bhats, and others, prevented the 
land from yielding any large amount of revenue. Between 1863 and. 
1865 the rise in the price of field produce fostered the spread of 
tillage, and increased the rental of rich lands. Since then, by the 
opening of railways and roads, the tillage area has continued to 
spread, and, except for the loss caused by the failure of crops in 
1878, the land revenue has steadily risen. 

Few details of the finances of the different states are available. 
The Eajpipla revenues which.from disorders and disputed successions, 
feU from £34,558 (Es. 3,45,580) in 1776 to £17,636 (Es. 1,76,360) 
in 1830, have since 1880 steadily risen to £27,000 (Es. 2,70,000) 
in 1854 and £67,967 (Es. 6,79,670) in 1876.1 Of the expenditure 
very little is recorded, and, as in all native states, pilgrimages^ 
marriages, deaths, or other chance events in the chief's family 
cause such sudden changes ia expenditure, that it is hard to say 
how far the great advance in revenue has been swallowed up by an 
increase in charges. The few available materials seem to show that 
the Eajpipla finances are prosperous. Between 1829 and 1833 
the expenditure far outran the revenue, £24,556 against £17,636; 
between 1833 and 1839 and again between 1840 and 1848 the 
balance was restored, and of £22,463 to £20,640 only about 
£18,000 were on an average spent. Since 1850 the great increase 
of revenue has been accompanied by a marked rise in expenditure, 
from £18,015 in 1848 to £60,935 in 1876. Still this amount falls 
about £7000 short of the estimated revenue, and much more of it 
than formerly is spent on works of public use, on roads, police, 
courts of justice, and dispensaries. 

The Bariya revenue figures do not go further back than 1825. 
In that year the revenue was returned at £6117 ; iu 1860 it had 
risen to £9375 ; and iu 1864 when the state came under British 
management it stood at £15,231. Prom this it rose to £16,028 in 
1870, £20,190 in 1871, and £19,823 in 1872, Afterwards, except in 
1874 when by the receipt of marriage dowries the total was swollen 
to £22,520, the revenue declined to about £17,000 in 1876 and 1876. 



Chapter X. 

Bevenne and 
Finance- 



Bdjpiplft. 



Bdriya. 



• The details are : an average of £34,558 from 1776 to 1785 ; of £25,940 from 1794 to 
1803 ; of £25,016 from 1804 to 1810 ; of £23,796 from 1810 to 1819 ; of £22,122 from 
1821 to 1828 ; of £17,636 from 1829 to 1833 ; of £22,463 from 1833 to 1839 ; of £20,640 
from 1840 to 1848 ; £27,000 in 1854, and £67,967 in 1876. The 1878 estimate is £80,000 



[Bombay Gaietteer, 



84< 



STATES. 



Chapter X. 

Revenne and 
Finance- 

Bdriya. 



Luniv&da. 



Snnth. 



Since 1876, owing to extended cultivation and better management, 
it has again risen to more than £18,000.^ When the state was 
taken over in 1864 it was burdened by a debt of £10,803. The 
expenditure was then £7935. Outlay on a revenue survey, roads, 
and other public works, raised the expenditure to £9421 in 1870, 
to £16,333 in 1871, to £16,937 in 1872, and to £12,259 in 1873. In 
1874 the double marriage of the chief increased the charges to 
£24,726, but in spite of this, in 1877, when his state was handed over 
to the chief, there was, instead of a debt of £10,803, a cash balance 
of £18,111. During the last two years, in 1877 on account of 
investiture charges, and in 1878 on account of famine charges ,1 
amounting to £4028, the expenditure has been in excess of the i 
income. Still the Bariya finances are prosperous and satisfactory. , , 

The Lunavada revenue rose from £6742 in 1852 to £8289 in 
1859 and £11,113 in 1866. Then under the management of the 
Political Agent it increased to £12,903 in 1872 and £14,830 in 1874. 
In 1876 it fell to £12,833, but has since, in spite of the last year of 
scarcity, slightly risen to £13,558.^ In 1867 when it came under 
direct management, the expenditure was returned at £12,429. Since 
then, in spite of economy, survey and other public works have 
prevented any reduction of charges, and in 1878 the marriage of the 
chief and the high price of grain raised the expenditure to £16,425. 
When it came under management, the state was heavily burdened, 
and during the first year the debt was greatly increased by the 
succession fee of £8256 to the British Government, and an outlay 
of £9537 on funeral and other family ceremonies. In spite of these 
and other heavy charges, £10,280 for the revenue survey and 
£4000 for the marriage of the chief's sister, by 1877 the debt was 
reduced to £6466. In that and the next year expenses connected 
with the scarcity and the chief's marriage have again raised it to 
£12,129. But it is hoped that during the present season this 
debt will be reduced by about £3000, the proceeds of a special 
marriage cess, chdndla vero. 

The land revenue of Sunth was in 1854 returned at £1317. 
During the next eighteen years of his rule the late Raja raised 
it to £6000 or an increase of 460 per cent. In 1868 the total state 
revenue was returned at £8297. The state came under Agency 
management in 1872. Since then, by the sale of some state stores, 
rising to £19,331 in 1873, the revenue has fallen to £11,180 in 
1874, and to about £9000 in 1876 and 1878.3 The expenditure in 
1868, returned at £5680, rose from special causes to £14,814 in 
1874, and has since been reduced to £9160. Well managed by its 
late chief, the state was, in 1872, handed over with about £24,000 



1 The details are : £6117 in 1825 ; £9375 in 1860 ; £15,231 in 1864 ; £16,028 in 
1870 ; £19,823 in 1872 ; £17,976 in 1873 ; £22,520 in 1874 ; £17,001 in 1875 ; £17,209 
in 1876 ; f 18,6i4 in 1877 ; and £18,226 in 1878. 

2 The details are: £6742 in 1852; £8289 in 1859 ; £11,113 in 1866 5 £12,842 in 
1868 ; £13,500 in 1870 ; £12,988 in 1871 ; £12,903 in 1872 ; £11,465 in 1873 ; £14,830 
in 1874 ; £14,794 in 1875 ; £12,833 in 1876 ; £13,720 in 1877 ; and £13,558 in 1878. 

» The details are : £8297 in 1868 ; £19,331 in 1873 ; £11,180 in 1874 ; £12,404 in 
1875 ; £9385 in 1876 ; £10,147 in 1877, and £9252 in 1878. 



Oajar&t-l 



REWA KANTHA. 



85 



(Baroda Es. 2^ Idhhs) in cash and jewels. Under Agency 
management, in spite of heavy family charges and considerable 
sums spent on a revenue survey and on police, the finances of the 
state have on the whole continued prosperous. 

The few details available for other states seem to show a 
marked increase in wealth. In Chhota Udepur revenue has risen 
from £8000 in 1841 to £10,000 in 1854, and from that to £25,000 
in 1878; in Balasinor, since 1854, from £4000 to £8000; in Sanjeli 
from £100 in 1841 to £140 in 1849, and to £510 in 1878; and in 
Kadanafrom £120 in 1841 to £250 in 1849, and £1000 in 1878. In 
these states no expenditure details are available. 

Import, export, and transit duties are levied on an uncertain 
number of articles, additions and changes being made at the caprice 
of the chiefs. Besides those levied by the larger states, the smaller 
chiefs charge toUs, vasdvo, on traders' carts and on pack bullocks. 
Merchants refusing to pay, seldom escape without being robbed. 
In Sunth a hurtful grain export duty is levied, but it is difficult 
to remove it without causing serious loss to the state revenues. 
Of other cesses the chief is a license tax, kasab vero, levied from 
almost all traders and artisans.-^ In Mandva, in the Sankheda 
Mehvas, a cess is levied on all second marriages. In Chanod from 
10s. to £5 (Rs. 5 - 50) is claimed on newly made doors or 
windows, and at fairs from £1 to l^d. (Rs. 10-1 anna) is taken 
from each booth or stall. In Bariya, wandering comb-makers pay 
for the wood they use in making combs, and from outside timber- 
dealers a wood cess is recovered. In Sunth the holders of service, 
patdvat, land pay a yearly sum in commutation of service, and in 
many states, villagers who have no land pay a cess for the use of 
the village water, pdni vero. Of other cesses one at the rate of Is. 
(8 annas) is levied on the burning of bodies brought from other 
districts, and another of £1 2s. (Rs. 11) on Br^hmans who, at holy 
places on the Narbada, lay the spirits of the dead and perform 
other ceremonies.^ Other yearly cesses date, according to the 
common story, from some chance injudicious gift. A Lunavada 
chief stopping to dine at one of his villages, the Brahmans brought 
him a set of leaf plates and so established the precedent for a yearly 
demand for plates, afterwards commuted into a money payment. So 
too from the gift by some calenders, of robes for the chief to sit on, 
was founded a yearly claim for clothes and money; and a yearly 
grass cess dates from the chance supply of fodder for the chiefs 
horses. 



Chapter X. 

Beveaue 
and Finance. 

Sunth. 



' The tax is levied on carpenters and blaokamitha ; on tanners ; on hand-loom 
weavers ; on soap makers ; on Narbada boatmen ; on goldsmiths ; on oibuen ; on 
fishermen ; on dust-heap searchers ; and on potters. 

2 This, called the Ndriyan offering, Ndrdyan bali, ceremony, consists in the 
performance of shrdddh ceremonies in honour of some dead relative, who, it is 
believed, has not attained bliss in the other world. Childless persons also perform 
this ceremony to propitiate TSi&T&yaa. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter ZI. 
Instruction. 

Schools, 
1878-79. 

Staff, 



Instruction. 



Private Schools. 



CHAPTER XI. 

INSTRUCTION. 

In 1878-79 there were sixty-seven schools^ or on an average one 
school for every fifty-two villages, with 3448 names on the rolls and 
an average attendance of 3335 or 1'3 per cent of 260,278, the entire 
population of not more than twenty years of age. Excluding 
superintendence charges, the total expenditure on account of these 
schools was £1723 (Rs. 17,230). 

Under the Director of public instruction and the Education 
Inspector, northern division, the schooling of the Rewa Kantha 
district was in 1878-79, conducted by a local staff 130 strong. Of 
these one was an assistant deputy inspector, with general charge over 
all the schools of the district drawing a yearly pay of £95 (Rs. 950} 
from the Rewa Kantha education and the B^riya tribute funds ; the 
rest were masters and assistant masters of schools, supported at a 
yearly charge to the states of £112 (Rs. 1120). 

Of sixty-seven, the total number of schools, in sixty-six Grujarati 
only was taught, and in one Hindustani. Of the Gujarati schools 
three were for girls, in the towns of Nandod, Lunavada, and 
Balasinor. 

There are no aided private schools in the district. Before the 
introduction of state education, almost every Rewa Kantha village 
had its private school taught by a Brahman. These could not 
compete with schools helped or supported by state funds, and their 
number fell in 1875-76 to nine with an average attendance of 269 
pupils. During the rainy season stray Brahmans sometimes open 
temporary classes in villages unprovided with state schools. But 
most of these villages are small, unable to supply an attendance of 
more than ten boys. For two or three of the rainy months and at 
harvest times the Brahman teacher is generally paid in grain and 
sometimes in money. His total receipts generally vary from £5 to 
£7 10s. (Rs. 50-75). Most private schools in towns have been 
established by the forefathers of the present Brahman teachers. 
On entering the school, a boy offers Is. (8 annas) to Sarasvati, the 
goddess of learning. Every day he attends, he brings the teacher 
a handful of grain, rmithi, and on holidays, %d. (i a/nna) in addition. 
When a boy is going to be married, his teacher gets 2s. (Re. 1) for 
teaching him marriage songs. Boys seldom stay at these schools 
after twelve and most of the pupils are under ten. Girls, as a rule, 
do not attend them. Between six and eight, boys are taught native 
numerical tables, anhs. Afterwards they learn to write by tracing 
letters, mulaksha/rs, on sanded boards, and by writing characters. 



Gnjar&t-] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



87 



ndma, with wet chalk on black boards. They seldom learn writing 
wellj but mental arithmetic, Msah, is taught to perfection, and this 
part of their teaching has been adopted in state schools. The boys 
go to their teacher's dwelling and as his house is often small, in the 
mornings and evenings the pupils sit in a group at the side of the 
street in front of the school- door, working sums or shouting out 
arithmetical tables.^ The position of the masters, and the religious 
elements ia some parts of their instruction, greatly help them ui 
their competition with the purely secular instruction given in state 
schools. 

In 1864-65 there were thirteen schools, eleven for boys and two for 
girls, with a total number of 1023 pupils. In 1878-79 the number 
of schools had risen to 67 or 515 per cent, and the number of pupils 
to 3448 or 887 per cent. The following table shows in detail the 
advance made in the last fourteen years : 

Rewa KdmtTia Schools, 1864 • 1879. 



Stats. 


SOHOOLS. 


Fufhs. 


AVERAOK 

AITBND- 

ANOB. 


Zeae. 


Cost. 


1864-65. 


1878-79. 


1864-65. 


1878-79. 


1878-79. 


1864-65. 


1878-79. 


Biriya 

Lanivdda 

Edjpipla 

Sankheda Mehvds 

Sunth 

Chhota Udepnr ... 

Bdl&sinor 

PindaMehvia ... 

Bhidarva 

DorfcaMehv&B ... 

Kadina 

Sanjeli 

Total ... 


(Boys 1 
1 Girls 1 

2 

(Boys 1 
I Girls 1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 


1 - 

Boys 12 

Girls 1 

(Boys 10 

t Girls 1 

7 

7 

5 

(Boys 2 

1 Girls 1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 


77 
} 166 
] 133 

*64 
93 

1 419 

"m 

31 


601 
788 

742 

287 
225 
146 

448 

25 
125 
31 
19 
11 


609-9 

f 698-0 

i 31-5 

C 726-1 

I 32-5 

242-8 

226-8 

133-8 

(■ 404-6 

I 86-3 

28-S 

1183 

160 

23-2 

9-0 


£. 
15 

}.5 

a 

"is 

21 
} 54 

"19 
16 


400 
354 

364 

162 
163 
114 

93 

27 
16 
17 
21 

2 


13 


67 


1023 


3448 


... 


167 


1723 



The 1872 census returns give for the two chief races of the district, 
the following proportion of persons able to read and write. Of 
93,904, the total Hindu male population of not more than twelve years 
ofage2836or3"02per cent; of 42,588 above twelve and not more than 
twenty years, 2599 or 6"10 percent; and of 122,679 above twenty 
years, 7796 or 6"36 per cent were able to read and write or were being 
taught. Of 82,085 the total Hindu female population of not more than 
twelve years of age, seventy-two or 0*08 per cent; of 32,124 above 
twelve and not more than twenty years of age, thirty-two or 0'09 per 
cent; and of 112,049 above twenty years, fiffy-eight or 0*05 per cent 
were able to read and write or were being taught. Of 8508 the 
total Musalman male population of not more than twelve years of 
age, 117 or 3'34 per cent; of 1703 above twelve and not more than 
twenty years of age, 1 75 or 10*28 per cent ; and of 5586 above twenty 



Chapter ZI. 
Instruction. 

Private Schools. 



Progress, 
1864-1879. 



Readers and 

Writers, 

1872. 



' The school hours are from eight to about twelve in the morning, and three to 
about six in the afternoon. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



88 



STATES. 



Chapter XI. 
Instruction. 

Readers and 

Writers, 

1872. 



Caste of FnpUs, 
1879. 



Libraries. 



years, 511 or 9"15 per cent were able to read and write or were being 
taught. Of 2951 tbe total Musalman female population of not more 
than twelve years of age, nine or 0"31 per cent ; of 1334 above twelve 
and not more than twenty years of age, eight or 0'60 per cent ; and of 
6022 above twenty years, 22 or 0'43 per cent were able to read and 
write or were being taught. The returns do not give corresponding 
details for Parsis. 

Of 3448 the total number of pupils in the Eewa Kantha schools, 
there were in 1878-79, 949 or 27-5 per cent Brahmansj 184 or 5-3 
per cent Kshatris; 3 or -08 per cent Kayasths and Parbhusj 740 or 
21"4 per cent traders, Vanias, Bhatias, and Modhias; 55 or 1'5 per 
cent Jains (Shravaks) ; 694 or 20"1 per cent cultivators, Kanbis, and 
Kolis ; 230 or 6'6 per cent craftsmen, goldsmiths, carpenters, and 
blacksmiths; 152 or 4*4 per cent personal servants, Dhobhis 
washermen, Bhistis water-carriers, and Mochis shoemakers ; 124 or 
2"6per cent bards and genealogists, Bhats andOharans; 208 or 6'03 
per cent Musalmans ; 5 Parsis ; 5 hill tribemen, and 3 Portuguese. 
There were no Dhed or Bhangia pupils. In Bariya, in the purely 
Bhil and Koli villages, no school fee is charged and every inducement 
is held out to parents to send their children. In the Taluka schools 
of Bariya and Lunavada pupil teachers are trained to be masters 
of primary village schools, and scholarships are awarded to those 
who wish to study in the Ahmedabad high and training schools, or 
in the Nariad high school. The Lunavada state has awarded a 
monthly scholarship of £1 to a native of that state who passed the 
Bombay University matriculation examination. 

There are three libraries, at Lunavada, at Devgad in the Bariya 
state, and at Rampur in Sunth. The Barton library at Lunavada, 
called after Colonel Barton the late Political Agent, was established 
in May 1870. It is accommodated in one of the school rooms, and 
is maintained by a yearly grant of £8 16s. (100 syhdsdi rupees). It 
contains 118 books, almost all of them vernacular. The Devgad 
library, known as the Native Library, established in July 1872 and 
containing 123 books, almost all of them vernacular, is maintained 
by a yearly grant of £8 16s. (100 syhdsdi rupees). The Rampur 
library, opened in 1877, has very few books, almost all of them 
vernacular. It is maintained by a yearly state grant of £5 (Rs. 50). 
All of these institutions subscribe to G-ujarati newspapers, and 
Gujarati and Marathi Bombay and Gujarat periodicals. There is no 
local press or newspaper. 



Gujarit.] 



CHAPTER XII. 

HEALTH. 

The chief diseases are fever, eye and skin complaints, and Chapter XII. 
diarrhoea and dysentery. Cholera not unfrequently appears in the Health, 

hot season. There have been three outbreaks during the last four Diseases. 

years. In May 1875, several cases of cholera caused such a panic, 
that in some places the people left their houses and spent a day 
or two feasting outside of the villages. Except for a short time 
in the estates of Bhadarva and Sihora on the Mahi and Palasni on 
the Narbada, the disease was nowhere of a virulent type. It lasted 
till September and proved fatal in about forty-five per cent of the 
cases. To help the people a hospital assistant was sent from 
Baroda, and medicine distributed free of charge. Among the 
wilder tribes the belief prevails that cholera is caused by old 
women who feed on the corpses of the victims. Formerly when a 
case occurred, their first care was to go to the soothsayer, bhagat, 
find out from him who was the guilty witch, and kill her with much 
torture. Of late years this practice has to a great extent ceased. 
The people now trace the outbreak to the wrath of the goddess 
Kali and to please her, drag her cart through their streets and lifting 
it over the village boundary offer up goats and buffaloies. Some- 
times to keep off the disease they pour milk round their villages or 
encircle them with cotton thread. 

In July 1876, there was another rather sharp, though brief, 
outbreak in Lunavada, Sunth, and the Dorka Mehvas. Of the 
seizures about forty-nine per cent were fatal. Again in 1878, 
cholera raged from March to November, and of 3934 persons, 1766 
or forty-five per cent died.^ It spread over almost the whole 
Agency beginning in Rajpipla, Balasinor, and the Sankheda 
Mehvas ; and passing to Lunavada, Sunth, Kadana and the Pandu 
and Dorka Mehvas. Places without dispensaries were provided 
with medicine free of charge. 

In 1879, there were dispensaries^ at five places in Nandod, Bariya, Dispensaries. 
Sunth, Lunavada, and Ohhota Udepur. All of them are provided 



' The details are : 


















— 


ESjpipla. 


Luni- 
T4da. 


Sunth. 


BaSr 
sinor. 


San- 
kheda. 


Pindu. 


Dorka. 


Kadina. 


Total. 


Number attacked ... 
Kumber recovered ... 
Percentage 


1332 
631 
47-0 


614 
340 
66-0 


672 
681 
86-0 


640 
243 
390 


313 

118 
39-0 


283 
13.5 
490 


64 

45 

70'0 


116 

76 

66-0 


3934 

2168 

55 



^ The building for a sixth dispensary at BAlAsinor is nearly ready. 
B 561—12 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter XII. 
Heliith. 

Dispensaries. 
NAndod. 



Sunlh, 



Lundvdda. 



Chhota 
Vdepur, 



Vaccination, 



90 



STATES. 



with special buildings. For the Ohhota Udepur dispensary no 
returns are available. In the other four, during 1877-78, 17,553 
persons were treated, 335 of them in-door and 17,218 out-door. The 
total cost was £730 (Es. 7300). 

In the Mary hospital opened in 1871 at Nandod and called after 
Mrs. Barton, the wife of the late Political Agent, during 1877-78, 
2484 persons were treated, of whom 2451 were out-door and 33 
in-door. Of these 2428 were cured, 29 left, and 27 died. The 
prevailing diseases were ague, dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, and 
skin diseases. The total cost was £167 (Es. 1670). 

The Bariya dispensary was opened in 1870 at a cost of £700 
(Es. 7000). Besides accommodation for in-door patients, it contains 
quarters for the medical officer and his subordinates. In 1877-78, 
3173 persons were under treatment, 215 of them in-door, of whom 
46 were cured, 30 left and 79 died, and 2958 out-door patients of 
whom 2054 were cured. The chief forms of sickness were venereal 
diseases, skin diseases, fever, cholera, ophthalmia, and diseases of 
the stomach and bowels. The total cost was £250 (Es. 2500). 

The Eampur dispensary in a handsome building at the west 
end of Sunth was at a cost of £400 (Es. 4000) opened in December 
1873, soon after the state was attached. Besides accommodation • 
for several in-door patients it contains quarters for the medical 
officer and his subordinates. In 1877-78, 4559 persons were under 
treatment, of whom 4492 were out-door and 67 in-door patients. Of 
the out-door patients 4122 were cured, 240 left, 94 died, and 36 
remained. Of the in-door, 50 were cured, 13 left, two died and two 
remained. The daily average attendance was 39. The chief diseases 
were fever, constipation, bronchitis, cholera, diarrhoea, ulcers, 
ring-worm, and ophthalmia. The total cost was £142 (Es. 1420). 

The Lunavada dispensary was opened in June 1873 in a large 
house belongijig to the state with quarters for the medical officer 
and rooms for in-door patients. Of 7337 persons treated during 
1877-78, twenty were in-door and 7317 out-door patients. The former 
were all cured. Of the latter 6100 were cured, 949 left, 125 died, 
and 143 remained. The daily average attendance was 63"2. The 
prevailing diseases were fever, cholera, rheumatism, neuralgia, 
conjunctivitis, ulcers, bronchitis, dysentery, diarrhoea, constipation, 
and ring-worm. The total cost was £171 (Es. 1710). 

The Chhota Udepur dispensary was opened in 1878-79. No details 
of its working are yet available. The building for a dispensary at 
Balasinor is nearly finished. It will cost about £500 (Es. 5000). 

The work of vaccination was, in 1878-79 under the supervision of 
the deputy sanitary commissioner eastern Grujarat, carried on by 
twelve vaccinators paid out of the funds of the states to which they 
are attached. The cost was £278 (Es. 2780) or an average of 5i. 
(3 as. 4 pies) for each operation. During the year, 13,339 persons 
were vaccinated, 13,247 of them for the first time. The percentage 
of successful operations was 96'54 in primary and 82'60 in 
revaccinated cases. 



Gnjardt.] 



CHAPTER XIII. 

STATES.' 

Ra'jpipla the largest of tlie Rewa Kantha states, lying between 
21° 23' and 21° 59' north latitude and 73° 5' and 74° 0' east longitude, 
with an area of about 1500 square miles, had in 1872 a population 
of 120,036 souls or 79-26 to the square mile, and in 1878 a revenue 
of £67,000 (Rs. 6,70,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the river Narbada and the Rewa 
Kantha Sankheda Mehvas estates ; on the east by the Khandesh 
Mehvas estates ; on the south by Baroda territory and the Surat 
district ; and on the west by the district of Broach. Its length 
from north to south is forty-two and its breadth from east to west 
sixty miles. 

As they enter Gujarat, the Narbada and Tapti, separated by the 
Satpuda hills, flow about twenty-five miles apart. Further west^ forced 
asunder by the two ranges into which the Satpudas break, the 
rivers swerve outwards, in the next twenty-five mUes doubling the 
distance betweeen them. Again as the hills fall into the Gujarat 
plain, the streams draw together nearly as close as they were at the 
eastern border of Gujarat. Except the south-west comer the 
country so enclosed belongs to, and forms the greater part of, the 
Rajpipla state. With some rich well tilled lands in the north and 
north-west this tract is, over almost two-thirds of its surface, rough, 
wild, and unhealthy, covered with forests and hills. Along the north 
and north-west, and ia the west as far as Yasravi and Mandvi, the 
country is flat and open. In the north along the Narbada is a rich 
alluvial belt about ten miles broad, with the town of Nandod and 
many large villages of settled, well-to-do, and skilled husbandmen. 
In the west and south-west the land, except for patches round its 
small Bhil villages, is untilled and covered with grass and brush- 
wood.^ Eastwards, beyond the sources of the Kim, the country 
stretches a rough upland covered with elephant grass, thorn- 
bushes, and timber, dotted with small hills, and crossed from the 
south and south-east by the Karjan and Tarav rivers. Its few 
inhabitants are Bhils, wild, poor and unsettled, growing only the 
coarser grains. Except to the west this central plain is, on all 
sides, surrounded by hills. To the north, beginning in the west 
with low isolated mounds, the land rises eastwards into a ten mile 



ChapterXIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

Boundaries, 



Aspect, 



' The states are arranged according to their size and wealth. 

' Colonel FuUjames calla it (1852) a thick forest. Bom. Gov, Sel. XXIII. 112. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



92 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 



Kirera. 



broad tract of hills, ridge behind ridge, with steep forest-clad sides 
and sharp rugged crests and peaks 2000 feet high. To the south-west 
and south, the hUls are low with tame waving outlines and broad 
flat tops. To the east the Sagbara and other high ranges rise with 
bold outline far above the west Rajpipla hills almost to the level of 
the main range of the Satpudas. In all these hilly tracts the 
climate is most unwholesome and the poor unsettled tribes of 
Bhils, with little and coarse tillage, live chiefly by cutting timber 
and selling gum, honey, and wax. Besides the tract between the 
T^pti and the Narbada the Eajpipla chief owns land on the north 
bank of the Narbada. This about twenty-one miles north and 
south by eight east and west is, except on the river side, 
surrounded by Mehvas estates and like them is rugged, wooded, 
and unhealthy. 

The drainage of the tract between the Tapti and Narbada flows 
along three main lines, north-west to the Narbada, south-west to 
the Kim, and south to the Tapti. Of these lines the most important, 
including the drainage of almost the whole central and eastern 
uplands, lies along the rivers that flow into the Narbada. Of these 
streams there are, in the extreme east, the Deva, and in the north- 
west and west the Madhumati, Bundva, Kaveri, and Amravati. 
Midway between them, rising about ten miles from the Tdpti in the 
highest part of the southern range, the Karjan flows north draining 
the central uplands, cutting through the northern hills, crossing the 
rich Nandod plain, and after a course of about fifty mUes, falling into 
the Narbada at Eundh. Among the hills with steep well-wooded 
banks and rocky bed, it passes into the plains about fifty yards 
broad, the stream generally knee-deep, flowing throughout the 
year clear and sparkling. Of many tributaries the chief are the 
Mohan from the left and the Tarav from the right. The Mohan, 
risiag in the southern hills not far from the southern source of the 
Vari, flows north-west and after a course of about fifteen miles, falls 
into the Karjan at Thava. The Tarav, a more important tributary, 
rising in the lofty hills near Ohich Amli, flows west for about twenty 
miles, and then, joined from the left by the Dainan, turns north, 
and after a winding course of about twelve miles, falls into the 
Karjan a few miles west of the fort of Eajpipla. Of the drainage 
westwards, the Kim, rising in two streams a few miles west of the 
Karjan valley, flows about twenty miles to the south-west. From 
the southern hills three rivers drain south into the Tapti, the Vari 
in the west, the Ajan in the centre, and the Dudan in the east. 
The Vari with two streams rising in the south-west corner of the 
southern hills, passes about twenty-five miles south-west and falls 
into the Tapti about five miles above the town of Bodhan. The 
Ajan, from the high Nanchhal hills, close to the source of the 
Karjan, with a winding rocky and uneven bed and steep banks, 
forces its way through the hills, and, joined by many streams from 
either side, falls into the Tapti at Magatrav about twelve miles 
above Mandvi. The Dudan, rising from the eastern slopes of the 
same hills, flows south-east through the Sagbara lowlands and falls 
into the Tapti at Umerda about thirty miles above the Ajan. 
Besides these rivers many small streams cross the country especially 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



93 



in the north-west most of them dry in the hot months though 
water is at all times easily found by digging in their beds. Built 
wells nowhere numerous are found only in the north and north- 
west. But their want is little felt as most villages are well supplied 
with water drawn from wells sunk in the beds of streams. 

The Rajpipla hills, covering about two-thirds of the whole area 
of the Rajpipla state, may be roughly divided into three tracts. In 
the north, a ten mile broad very rugged belt of hilly and thickly 
wooded country stretching east and west about thirty -six miles on 
the whole parallel to the Narbada ; in the south, a belt of low 
flat-topped sloping hills running north and south to the Tapti and then, 
along the course of the river, turning east for about twenty miles ; 
in the east, ranges of high hills that fill most of the space between 
the Narbada and the Tapti. From the Deva, Rajpipla's eastern, 
limit, the northern hills, crowded in steep narrow and forest-clad 
ridges about 2000 feet high, gradually sink westwards, till, 
breaking into low detached lulls, they are lost in the Gujarat plain. 
In the east the hill scenery along the south bank of the Narbada 
from Sarban about ten miles west to Gora, is very beautiful. And 
looking east and south from one of the hill tops, with bold quaintly- 
cut outlines, range stretches behind range, their steep green tree- 
covered sides furrowed with torrents. The southern hilly tract 
includes two main lines that together form one crescent-shaped 
range, a western part running north and south fifteen miles from 
the valley of the Kim to the valley of the Vari, and a southern part 
stretching twenty miles east along the Tapti from the Vari to the 
Dudan. Standing out from the valley of the Kim, in small detached 
hills and with slopes gentle enough for carts, the western hills rise 
about 800 feet in a tame unbroken line, whose broad flat top 
slopes slowly to the Mohan valley. The southern range, stretching 
with gently waving outline from the Vari to the Dudan, is, near the 
middle, cut through by the Aj an river. Prom the south its slopes, 
passable by carts almost to the top, rise about 1200 feet ending in 
a thickly wooded plateau but little higher than the northern 
Nanchhal uplands. The lines and blocks of hills that in the east, 
except in the valley of the Dudan in the extreme south-east, stretch 
from the Narbada to the Tapti, are highest to the north of Sagbara, 
where peaks and rugged ridges rise far above the level of the other 
Rajpipla hills. 

The climate, though unhealthy, is pleasant, cold and bracing in the 
winter months, and with cool nights even in the hot season. Of the 
climate in 1821 Mr. Willoughby wrote : It is very unhealthy and 
specially fatal to strangers. The unhealthiness is due chiefly to 
the water, tainted and in some cases poisoned, by the malarious 
tracts through which the streams pass. Every thing boiled in the 
Ratanpur water becomes a nasty, dirty yellow, uneatable, except to 
the very hungry. The unhealthiness of the climate is shewn in 
the meagre sallowness of the people and the dropsical look of 
strangers.! Of his experience while surveying, in the four 



ChaptCT^XIII. 

States. 

Ba'jfifla. 

Hills. 



Climate. 



' Bom. Gov. Scl. XXIII. 268. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



94 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ka'jpipla. 

Climate, 



Trees, 



Population. 



seasons ending 1855, Mr. PoUexfen has left the following details. In 
the first year about a month in December and January was passed 
without bad results either to myself or my establishment. Next 
year beginning work in the same place on the 1st December, by 
the 13th, myself, twenty-two of my establishment, and three-fourths 
of my servants, in spite of free use of quinine were so fever- 
stricken, that, we had to return to Broach. Two men died, and few 
shook ofi the fever for a year. Next season in forest parts work 
was not begun till February. And from then up to the middle of 
May, there was not a single case of fever. In the next year, though 
care was again taken not to begin till February, and though the 
people of the district seemed free from the disease, of seventy-five 
souls in my camp not ten escaped fever. In Mr. Pollexfen's 
opinion the district varied much in unhealthiness, Sagbara and the 
banks of the Tapti being much more feverish than the north. The 
chief source of disease seemed to be the water charged with 
vegetable matter gathered in passing through the thick close 
forests and brushwood. Though clear while flowing, if allowed to 
stand, a thick oily scum rose to the top. Even the natives disliked 
drinking it, unless it had filtered through a bed of sand. During 
the years of suirvey small-pox and cholera were committing fearful 
ravages among the people. 

Except in the rich western lands the whole of Eajpipla is covered 
with trees. The northern forests though full of teak, blackwood, 
and kher, are so damaged by yearly fires and are in so difiicult a 
country, that, except near the Narbada, their timber is in little 
demand. In the central uplands good trees are rare. But in the 
south, especially in Sagbara, there are valuable teak forests, whose 
timber is in great demand among the traders of Surat, Anklesvar, 
and Broach. 

A census taken between 1853 and 1855 showed a total population of 
108,812 souls. For census purposes the state was divided into three 
parts, the rich villages in the north, the poorer open lands in the 
west, and the wild central hill tracts. The seven rich sub-divisions 
bordering on the Narbada, with an area of 284*3 square miles, had, 
including the town of Nandod with 9500 inhabitants, an estimated 
population of 78,771 souls or 277-3 to the square mile. The open 
western districts of Ratanpur and Luna, with an area of 172 square 
miles, had a population of 10,920 souls or 63-4 to the square mile. 
The hilly tracts with an area of about 1360 miles had, as nearly as 
could be ascertained, a population of 19,121 souls or on an average 
14 to the square mile.^ The 1872 census showed a total population 
of 120,036 souls or 79-26 to the square mile, an increase in 
seventeen years of 11,224 souls or 10-31 per cent. Of the 
whole number 114,625 or 95-49 percent were Hindus; 5257 or 
4-38 per cent Musalmans; and 147 or 0-12 per cent Parsis. 
There were five Christians. Of the Hindus, 4360 were classed as 



> Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 319. 



Oujarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



95 



Br^hmansj 5803 as Kshatris, Rajputs; 2732 as Vaishas, traders 
and mercliants ; 30,145 as ShudraSj cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, 
and depressed classes ; and 71,585 as unsettled classes including 
62,163 Bhils, 9261 DMnkas, 41 Naikdas, 1 Valvi, and 119 
Chodhras. Of 114,625 Hindus, 15,974 were Vaishnavs, 2261 of 
them Virvaishnavs, 11,208 Eamanujas, 855 Svamin^r^yans, and 
1650 Kabirpantliis ; 8594 were Sbaivs ; 107 Sliravaks ; 373 Ascetics ; 
and 89,577 goddess worsldppers belonging to no special sect. 
Of the 5257 Musalmans, 5081 were Sunnis, 163 of them Syeds, 
548 Shaikhs, 464 Pathans, 8 Moghals, 2 Memans, 151 Bohorfe, 44 
Afghans, 151 Arabs, 129 Baluchis, 63 Makranis, and 3358 others. 
There were 176 Shias all of them Bohoras. Of the Par sis 104 were 
Shahansh^ is and 43 Kadmis. The five Christians were Roman 
Catholics. Therewere 591 villages or one village to about everytwo 
square miles. Of these 435 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 104 from 
200 to 500; 37 from 500 to 1000 ; 12 from 1000 to 2000 ; 2 from 2000 
to 3000 ; and one, the town of Nandod, had about 9500 inhabitants.^ 

In the rich alluvial soil in the north and north-west and in 
favoured patches in the west, tuver, castor-oil, millet both bdjri and 
juvdr, cotton, gram, sugarcane, rice, and to a smaller extent 
hemp, wheat, and tobacco are grown. Among the hills and forests 
where Bhils are the only husbandmen, the chief crops are tuver, 
coarse rice, kodra, hanti, and bdvta. The four last, in grain almost 
as small as mustard seed, are the BhiFs chief diet, though unless 
three or four times washed the kodra is slightly poisonous, causing 
giddiness and faintness. Few condiments or vegetables are 
grown and most of the tobacco and molasses is imported. Except 
that there is almost no irrigation the style of tillage in the rich 
western districts is much the same as in central Gujarat. Almost 
all the hill crops are grown in chance forest clearings. On these the 



Chapter^XIII. 
States. 

Ra'jpipla. 



Soil and 
Cropa. 



' Including the town of N"4ndod, there were, in 1855, 550 Rdjpipla villages. Of these 
four, Avidha with 735 houses, P^netha with 600, Bh^lod with 500, aud Jhaghadia with 
300, were places of some size, and in the rich Narbada districts there were from fifteen to 
twenty large villages. The rest were Bhil hamlets of rarely more than twenty huts, 
clustered together in the plains but in the hills spread over an area of three or four 
square miles. There were 23,956 houses and 22,245 enclosures, giving an average of 
19'4:6 houses and 18 '70 enclosures, to the square mile, and an average population of 
5 '01 persons to each house, and 5 'SO to each enclosure. Of the houses 1711 inhabited 
by 8194 persons were of the better, and 22,245 with 111,842 inhabitants of the poorer 
sort. In 1855, in the richer sub-divisions along the Narbada, the people were chiefly 
Kanbis, Kolis, Kajputs, and VdniAs with only a few Bhils. In the open western 
districts of Ratanpur and Luna about half the villages had a mixed population of 
Kanbis, KoUs, Rajputs and Bohords; the other half were Bhil villages. The population 
of the hilly tracts was entirely Bhil. The people of the richer Narbada villages 
differed little from those of other parts of central Gujarat. The Bhils of the hill tracts 
were of middle size, clean limbed, and muscular, wonderfully active and very clever 
woodcutters. They were quiet and harmless, patient and easily managed. ' I had 
'always thought of a Bhil,' says Mr. PoUexfen, 'as a lawless marauder, but I have 
' found them very different. Nothing was ever stolen from my camp, and, in some 

• cases, things left behind were found and returned. Their only vice is their fondness 

• for liquor. Their religion is a religion of fear. Nearly every hamlet has some hill 
' dedicated to its special god, who is duly propitiated with offerings. An epidemio 
' is thought to show that the god is angry and to please him, the village site is 
' generally changed. Their marriages cost them large sums plunging them in debt to 
' money-lenders and liquor-sellers. The Dhtokds found chiefly in the Gora sub-division 
' on the Narbada in the north-east seem to be closely allied to the Ndikdda.' 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



9G 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

Roads. 



Trade. 



timber is cut and burnt, and the soil, enriched with the ashes and 
loosened with a pick-axe, yields crops for two years and is then left 
for some fresh clearing. 

From Nandod, the capital of the state, a road crossing the 
Narbada at Chanod, passes north to Broach; a second very 
difficult, scarcely passable to carts, but much used by Vanjaras and 
probably leading to Mandlesar, passes east to Sulpan ; a third made 
about 1850, the only cart-road through the northern hills, runs south 
to join the Khandesh route, and a fourth goes west to Broach. In the 
south are several lines of traffic, unmade cross country cart tracts 
from Broach, Anklesvar, Surat, Bodhan, and Mandvi centering at 
Chitaldar about thirty miles north-east of Mandvi^ and then passing 
east to Kukarmunda eighty-nine miles from Broach and beyond 
that into Klandesh. Besides these through routes, near the Tapti, 
timber tracks run into the heart of the hills, used by carts though 
very steep, narrow and difficult. 

Along the maiu route by Kukarmunda passes a heavy through 
traffic between Gujarat and Khandesh. The carriers and traders 
are Vanjaras and Charans. The Vanjaras bring Khandesh grain 
chiefly wheat, and take tobacco and salt, and as they pass do a little 
business with the Bhils. Along the same route Charans pass from 
Kathiawar to Klandesh with Cutch alum and Kathiawar red earth used 
in dyeing. They take bullocks with them for sale and occasionally 
do some trading with the Eajpipla Bhils.^ Of local traffic there 
are two chief branches, a field produce trade from the rich Narbada 
districts, and a timber trade from the hilly tracts in the south and 
east. In the north rice and pulse, tuver, are sent in considerable 
quantities to Broach and wheat is brought back. Sdmh ar hiAea 
raw and cured, hemp raw woven and made into tape for cots, pati, 
and turmeric, are exported ; and in their stead longcloth, cMntz, 
iron, blankets, sugar, spices and salt are brought back. The trade 
of these rich northern districts is chiefly in the hands of Nandod 
Vanias. These men, once revenue contractors, ijdrddrs, and owning 
considerable capital, have the cultivators, especially the Bhils, very 
much in their power. Their money and grain advances are, at 
harvest time, paid back either in coin or kind with very heavy 
interest leaving the Bhil nearly destitute. To them also the Kanbis 
dispose of their grain getting money to pay their rents. Another 
set of traders are travelling pedlars who early in the fair season 
come in numbers to the hill districts, bartering with the Bhils, 
taking rice and pulse and giving cloth, tobacco, molasses, salt, and 
salt fish. A third set are the liquor-sellers almost all Anklesvar 
Parsis, who giving liquor and advancing money for rents get large 
quantities of grain and butter. But the chief trade of the district 
is in timber especially in teak from the Sagbara and other southern 
forests. About November, traders come in great numbers. Bringing 
carts from Broach, Surat, and Anklesvar, and staying in the forests 
till June, they hire Bhils to fell and strip trees and load them into 



» Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 318. 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



97 



carts. On tlie spot the price of a ready filled cart-load of two to six 
logs varies from 3s. to 4s. (Rs. H - 2), the traders having to pay- 
in tolls a further sum of 6s. to 8s. (Rs. 3 - 4) a cart-load.^ Besides 
heavy timber, teak rafters and bamboos at 100 for 2s. (Re. 1) are 
exported in immense quantities. The profits on the timber trade 
are very great. In Surat and other centres, bamboos sell at ten 
times the price paid for them in the Rajpipla forests. 

Iron of good quality used to be made at Pardvania near Ratanpur. 
In 1855, though the manufacture had for many years been given up, 
Nandod had still a good name for its knives and swords. In the 
richer districts the Dheds wove coarse cloth both cotton and linen, 
and tape for cots, pdti. At Dumkhal in the east some of the Bhils 
make catechu, hatha, the thickened kher tree juice that is eaten 
with betel-leaves, and others in the richer parts earn a little by 
plaiting baskets and bamboo matting. On the whole the Rajpipla 
manufactures are of the rudest and cheapest. 

For administrative purposes the lands of the state are distributed 
over seven sub-divisions, pargands, Rajpipla, Nandod, Panetha, 
Bhalod, Jhaghadia, Rupnagar, and Thava, each under a commandant, 
thdndd/r, with considerable revenue, police, and magisterial powers. 

The seven sub-divisions of the Rajpipla state may be brought 
under four groups. Four along the Narbada, on the whole rich 
and well-to-do ; one in the west open and rather barren ; one in the 
south a rough wooded upland ; and one including the hilly tracts and 
the half independent sub-divisions of Sagb^ra on the south-east 
and of Vadi on the south-west. The four Narbada sub-divisions 
are, beginning with the east; Nandod, Panetha, Bhalod, and 
Jhaghadia. Except a small rugged tract on the right bank of the river, 
Nandod, lying between the hills and the Narbada and watered by 
the Karjan and other small streams, is the largest and best sub-division 
in the state. Besides the town of Nandod it has 125 villages, some 
of them as Mangrol, Poicha, Shera, Jior, Vavri, Sisodra, Oli, Varkhad, 
Patna, Rundh, Narkhari, and Navagam, are large and flourishing ; 
others, especially the old petty division of Gardeshvar in the east, are 
little more than Bhil hamlets. Hilly and covered with forests in the 
east, the centre is rich and well tilled, and the west, formerly known 
as the Kanthal sub-division, is covered with palmyra trees and much 
broken by the beds of torrents. West of Nandod, Panetha with 
forty^six villages is, like Nandod, large and flourishing. The soil is 
rich, yielding crops of tobacco, cotton, maize, and millet. Among its 
large well-to-do villages the chief are Panetha, Indor, Velugam, 
Navra, and Umarva. The other two sub-divisions, Bhalod with 
twenty, and Jhaghadia with eighty-one villages, stretch from the 
rich Narbada bank to broken and forest-covered land. Rupnagar, 
with twenty villages, formerly the Luna sub -division, stretching 



ChapterXIII. 

States. 
Ra'jhpla. 



Manufactures, 



Administration, 
1878. 



Sub-divisiona, 



' There were (1855) chiefly on the main SAgbdra road twelve tolls, eleven chief 
tolls, jakdt, charging from Is, 6d. to 2s. (12 as. - Re, 1) a cart, and the twelfth a bar, 
ndka, charging 10. {anna 1). Payment at one toll carried the cart through the 
sub-division. But each sub-division had ts own toll. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 316. 
B 561—13 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



98 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ea'jpipla. 

Sub-diyisions. 



Vadi. 



west into the open and flat Broach plain, passes in the east 
into broken and forest-coTered tracts half way between the rich 
Narbada districts and the wild country to the east and south. 
East of Jhaghadia and Eupnagar come the Thava Panch Mahals, 
Netrang, Eundha, Thava, B^rg^ma, and Kukarda, most of them 
covered with low detached lulls. Netrang with forty-eight 
villages, stretching from Kanthal on the north to the Kim on the 
south, is in the north hilly and in other parts flat and covered with 
thick forests. The villages are nothing but small hamlets of Bhil 
huts with patches of tillage near them. Eundha with twenty-eight 
villages is almost all taken up by a chain of hills sloping gently to 
the west and ending in a broad table land. Except a few fields 
fringing each small Bhil hamlet, most of the country is covered 
with forest and brushwood. Thava with thirty villages has many 
small hills. Near the Karjan it is fairly well tilled but does not 
yield half what it would if properly peopled. Thava, in the time 
of Akbar, the chief town of the sub-division, and from its ruins 
evidently once a place of some consequence, is now entirely deserted. 
Bargama to the south-east, with twenty-one villages, is almost 
entirely covered with low hills that slope north to the Karjan. 
Except near villages the whole is thick forest. Kukarda to the east 
with sixteen villages is, except in the east, flat and covered with 
trees. Tillage is only in patches round the little hamlets. The 
five ' Hill Districts ' Gajargota with thirty-one villages, ESjbara 
with eighteen, Dumkhal with twelve, and in the south Navagam with 
seven, and Morjari with twenty are all in the north group of hills. 
The country is throughout wild and inaccessible, a mass of hills 
and forest with a few scattered Bhil huts. The thdnddr of these 
districts is stationed at Eajpipla. There remain two half-independent 
Bhil estates Sagb&"a in the south-east, and Vadi in the south-west. 
Sagbara with about twenty villages, about seventeen miles long and 
eight broad, the only part of the Eewa Kantha that passes as far 
south as the Tapti, is under the sway of a Bhil chief Damji Vasava. 
Like Sagbara several other small Bhil estates such as Kathi, 
Bhodaval, Govali, and Chikhli were originally under Eajpipla. 
But during the time of the Gaikwar's oppression (1786) they would 
seem to have freed themselves, and in 1817, when British authority 
was established in Khandesh, they claimed and received protection 
from the Khandesh political ofiicers.^ In settling Eajpipla in 1822 
Mr. Willoughby established an outpost at Sagbara. But from 
the chiefs influence over the Bhil population, Eajpipla authority 
has never been more than nominal. The people, almost all Bhils, 
live chiefly by wood-cutting. Sagbara, the chiefs head-quarters, is 
only a small village of a few grass huts lying under a hill 600 feet 
high. Vadi, in the south-west corner of Eajpipla, is a small estate 
of seven Bhil hamlets, the people almost entirely supported by 
gathering and selling forest produce. It is at present under direct 
management and in 1878-79 yielded a revenue of about £453 
(Es. 4530). 



' How much further east RAjpipla limits formerly stretched appears from 
Mr. Willoughby's statement (1821) that the eastern limit was 50 miles (33 kos) beyond, 
NAndod. The limit is now only 20 miles (13 kos). 



Gojardt.] 



EEWA KlNTHA. 



99 



Of ancient Rajpipla history no details have beBn obtained, and 
except tliat Eatanpur may be Ptolemy's' mountain of agates, none 
of its settlements sKow traces of any great age.^ Of its two 
divisions tlie plain and the hill tracts, it seems probable that the 
rich lands along the Narbada and the open western districts were 
included in the domains of the Anhilvada kings, and at the close 
of the thirteenth century were overrun^ by Ala-ud-din Khilji's 
generals (1295 -13^1 5). At that time, as appears from an inscription 
on the image of Eikhavdev in the village of Limodra,. the chiefs 
were Eajputs.* Early in the fourteenth century the ruling chief is 
said to Iraive given his daughter in marriage tO' Mokhdaji Gohil,'* 
the lord of Piram in the Cambay Grulf. In 1347, on the fall of 
Piram and death of Mokhdaji, his son Samarsi retired to Bhagva 
in the Olpad sub-division of Surat, and, according to the' common 
story, on the death of his maternal grandfather succeeded to the 
chiefship of Eajpipla.^ During the rest of the fourteenth century 
the Eajpipla chief was left unmolested. 

The establishment (1390) of a strong Musalmanr dynasty in Gujarat 
put an end to this- independence. Defeated and humbled by Sultan 
Muhammad I. in 1403, and in 141 6 foiled in a scheme of revolt,^ he wasj 
in 1431, attacked by Sultan Ahmad, andhis town of Nandod'' destroyed. 
Driven from his lands the- chief Harising- is said to have' remained 
twelve years an outlaw, and then to have been restored to his 
rights.* During the next 160 years the Eajpipla chief is seldom 
mentioned' and would seem to have held a very independent 
position, serving the state with 3000 horse and 1000 foot,^" but 
paying no tribute. At the- same tim-e this independent territory 



Chapter ZIII. 

States. 
Ra'jpipla. 

History. 
Marly Hindu. 



Musalmdn 
Ascendancy, 
1390-1720. 



' The account given in Arrian's Periplus (about a.d. 247) of the trade routes from' 
Broach to Paithan, Plithdma, and J-annar, Tagara, in the- Decoau; mentions that 
the way passes through a great space of -wild and desert country, and large mountains 
in -which, are leopards, tigers, elephants, vast serpents, hyaenas, and baboons.. 
Vincent's Commerce of the Ancients, II. 411. It seems possible as so many of 
Ptolemy's names are places of pilgrimage that th« Sarban (Map X. ) on the Mahi just 
as it leaves the hills, is Sarban on the Narbada. 

^ Mr. WiUoughby (1821) states that in 1296 an army -was several times sent 
against Rijpipla, but the Kija. being po-w-erful in. troops and money it did not prevail 
against him. They ho-wever obtained a footing at NAndod, built a mosque, caused the 
hutba to be read and coined money. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 264. This does not 
agree -withthe account given by Musalmdn historians, according to whomthe R4ja. 
of RAjpipla remained independent till the time of Sultin Mnhanmiad I. (1403)1 
Watson's History, 30. 

3 According-to the local story they -were Parmdrs of the house of Ujain, Bom.Gov.SeL 
XXin. 263. 

* According to Tod the Gohils first settled at Juna Khedgad on/ the Luna river, 
about ten miles from BhAlotra in Mirwdr; They took it from Khervo, its Bhil chief;, 
and after holding it for about t-wenty generations -were expelled by the Rithods, at 
the end of the 12th century. RijasthAn, I. 104. 

•5 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 264. According to the Rdjpipla chiefs' genealogical tree; 
the chiefs stayed at Bhagva during t-w-Q generations and' extended their sway over 
Olpid and Anklesvar. But this tree was only lately (about 1850) drawn up, and is 
said not to be a trustworthy guide; Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 322; 

6 Watson's History,, SI. '' Briggs' Ferishta^ IV. 36. 

8 B4sM41a, 264-267. 

' The only references that have beeit traced are homage- paid to Sultin BahAdur 
(1526-1536) when hunting nearN4ndod, and in the disorders that (1546) followed 
Sultan Muhammad II. 's attempt to complete its conquest. 

10 Bird's Mir4t-i-Ahmadi, 126. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



100 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States,: 

Ra'jpipla. 

History. 

1390-17S0. 



seems to have been confined to the wilder and more hilly parts of 
Rdjpipla and western Khandesh^ Nandod, probably including districts 
along both sides of the Narbada and south to near the Tapti, being 
one of the twenty-five districts among which the dominions of the 
Ahmedabad kings were divided.^ This arrangement continued 
after the transfer of Gujarat to the Moghal Emperors. In 1590, 
according to the Ain-i-Akbari 'Nadaut' with twelve sub-divisions/ 
some to the south and others to the north of the Narbada, was a 
regular part of the Imperial domain, showing under Todar Mai's 
survey an area of 270,908 acres (5,41,817 bighds), and yielding a 
yearly revenue of £21,994 (87,97,596 dams). Separate from Nadaut 
was the Rajpipla state, a hilly country, seventy-five miles by fifty-five, 
(50 kos by 40) and therefore stretching far into western Khdndesh, 
entirely under the management of a Brahman. The chief whose 
power was only nominal, was a Gohil who lived sometimes in 
Rajpipla and sometimes in Ghulva,^ a place of bad water but rich 
in honey and rice.* The chief had 3000 cavalry and 7000 infantry. 
It does not seem clear what terms Akbar made with the Rajpipla 
chief.^ Neither at the first (1572) nor at the second (1573) settle- 
ment is he mentioned. But in 1676 troops had to be stationed at 
Nandodto keep him in order^andin the following years (1583-1592) 
by three times giving a hiding place to the rebel prince, Muzafiar, 
the Rajpipla chief must have incurred the Emperor's severe 
displeasure.'' According to one account Akbar changed the 
condition of service into a tribute of £3555 12s. (Rs. 35^556).^ But 
this seems doubtful both from what is stated in the Ain-i-Akbari 
and from the fact that in 1609 when a post was established at 
Ranmagar, the Rajpipla chief furnished a contingent of 1000 men.' 



' Bird's Mir4t-i-Ahmadi, 111. One reason why EAjpipla and its chief are so seldom 
mentioned in Ahmedabad histories may be that they are spoken of under the name of 
KAja of PAl (Watson, 54, note 1). Pdl, probably derived from pdlo, leaves, and so 
meaning forest lands, seems to be used pretty generally for the wild hill and forest 
tracts of eastern Gujard^, and in this RAjpipla may sometimes be included. But 
the territory of the chief, oftenest mentioned as the R4ja of PAl, seems to have been 
much further north (Watson, 47 - 49 ; Bird, 285 and note) and was probably either BAriya, 
which is stiU known as BAriya P^l, (Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 151), or some tract 
near it. According to the Ain-i-Akbari (Gladwin, II. 72), Pil was a territory between 
Dungarpur and BAnsvada near Meran and Mangrich through which the MaM ran. 

^ The sub-divisions were, according to Gladwin (11. 239), Amroli, Avdha, Besroy, 
Badal, Tilkovareh, Tehva, Jemugim, Kyar, Murghedereh, Manden, Nddaut and 
Nutrung. Of these Amroli is probably the place of {he same name in the Sankheda 
MehvAs ; Avdha seems to be Avidha or Arudah, also called Varita (Bom. Gov. Sel. 
XXIII. 265), another name for BhAlod in the north-west near the Narbada, mentioned 
(1855) as having a mosque and outpost. (Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 296) ; Besroy 
has not been traced ; Eedal is perhaps BudAval (Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 296) ; 
Tilkovareh is Talakvdda on the Narbada ; Tevha is Thava, one of the southern 
sub-divisions, ' the town deserted but with ruins' ; JemugAm is Jimbug4m, another 
name for Luna in the west (Bom. Gov. Sel. XXm. 296). Neither Kyar nor Murghe- 
dhere has been identified; M4nden is perhaps Mindal in VasrAv ; Nadaut is NAndod ; 
and Nutrung is Netrang in the south of Ratanpur. 

^ Ghulva is probably GovAli near SAgbira on the high road to KhAndesh, not the 
GovAli in the west on tlie Narbada. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 325. 

* Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II. 73. 

' At the time of Akbar's settlement Jayasing was the chief of EAjpipIa. RAs MAla, 299. 

6 Bird's Mir4t-i-Ahmadi, 343. 

' Bird's Mirat-i-Ahmadi, 353-375 ; Bloehmann, 335 ; Watson, 64, 65. 

8 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 265. » Watson's History, 68. 



Gnjardtl 



REWA KANTHA. 



101 



During tlie rest of tlie seventeentli century, either by service or 
by tbe occasional payment of tribute, tbe chief continued to 
acknowledge his dependence. 

As late as 1715 mention is made of the grant of the district of 
Nandod to Haidar Kuli Khan.^ Between this date and 1754 the 
Rajpipla chief seems to have recovered from the Moghals almost 
the whole of the Nandod district. In this attempt to increase his 
power he found a dangerous rival in Pilaji G-aikwar, who, in 1723, 
from his castle at Songad, overran south Gujarat and built several 
forts within Rajpipla limits.^ Later on, in 1763, the Peshwa 
allowed Damaji G-aikwar, whose share of Gujarat yielded less than 
had been expected, to add to his revenues by annexing small Rajput 
estates and by levying tribute on the larger chiefs. With this 
object he advanced against Rajpipla whose chief Raisiag was only 
a boy of seven, and forced him to give up one-half of the four rich 
sub-divisions, of Nandod, Bhalod, Variti, and Govali. Shortly 
aft^r, Damaji, on receiving the chief's niece in marriage, agreed, 
instead of a share in the four sub -divisions, to take a yearly money 
payment of £4000 (Rs. 40,000), keeping at the same time three or 
four villages near the Narbada and building a mud fort in each 
of the four sub -divisions.^ Matters remained on this footing till, 
in 1781, Raising's minister intriguing with the Baroda Court, 
Fatehsing Gaikwar with an armed force advanced to Nandod and 
raised the tribute to £4900 (Rs. 49,000). In spite of these 
exactions Rajpipla was at this time prosperous. With moderate 
land rates and cesses the average yearly revenue was £34,558 
(Rs. 3,45,580) .* A strong chain of posts with an average strength 
of about 50 horse and 230 foot kept order over the whole country. 
Of the posts one of the chief was at Sagbara to protect the 
Khandesh trade route, along which passed so considerable a traffic 
that the dues yielded a yearly revenue of from £4000 to £5000 
(Rs. 40,000 -50,000) .5 

In 1786 Raising was succeeded by his brother Ajabsing an 
imbecile prince, whose feeble rule of over seventeen years (1786-1803) 
was most disastrous to Rajpipla. Taking advantage of Ajabsing's 
weakness the Gaikwar, on Raising's death (1786), raised the tribute 
to £1500 (Rs. 15,000) to be paid every second year, and again in 1793 
increased the amount to £7800 (Rs. 78,000) . At the same time Umed 
Vasava, the Bhil chief of Sagbara revolted, and with the aid of a 
large body of Arab and Sindian mercenaries® held five of the hill 
districts, and stopping all traffic along the Khandesh route reduced 
Rajpipla revenues from about £34,558 to £25,940, Quarrelling with 
his father, Ramsing the son of Ajabsing retired to the petty state 
of Mandva to the north of the Narbada. Helped by the chief Jie 
raised some troops and attacked Rajpipla, but was defeated and 
forced to fly to Mandva. Here he married the chief's daughter, 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

RA'jPrPLA. 

History. 

MardtJia 
Interference, 
17^0- 1820, 



> Watson's History, 91. 
2 Watson's History, 97. 
» Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 265. 



« Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 280. 
= Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 723. 
« Bom. Gov. SbI. XXIU. 281, 273. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



102 



STATES. 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 

Ka'jpipla. 

Histoiy, 



BrUiek Supervimn, 



and afterwards returning to Rajpipla on a promise of pardon, was 
seized and imprisoned, and JSTarsing his younger brother was 
named as the heir. On Ajabsing's death in 1 803, the troops, refusing 
to accept the younger brother, raised Ramsing to the chiefship. On 
succeeding to power Eamsing gave himself up to debauchery, and, 
seldom free from the effects of intoxicating drugs, left to his 
minister the whole management of the state. Taking advantage of 
his weakness the G-aikwar in 1805 sent a force to Rajpipla, extorted 
a succession fee, nazardna, of £15,000 (Rs. 1,50,000), and raised the 
tribute to £9600 (Rs. 96,000), adding shortly afterwards a further 
yearly demand of £400 (Rs. 4000). In 1810 the Gaikwar, with the 
consent of the British Government, deposed Ramsing, choosing as 
his successor Pratapsing, Ramsing's supposed child by the Mandva 
chiefs daughter.^ This succession Narsing, Ramsing's brother, 
refused to accept, declaring that Pratapsing was not Ramsing's 
son, but was the child of a poor Mandva Rajput, passed off as her 
son by Ramsing's wife. In the same year (1810) Ramsing died, 
and Narsing began to plunder the country. Disorder continued 
tin, in 1813, a six months' truce was followed by the despatch to 
Rajpipla of a large Gaikwar force and the conclusion of an 
agreement, under which, leaving the management of the state in the 
Gaikwar's hands, Pratapsing and Parsing promised to keep the 
peace for two years and then submit their claims to arbitration. 

The Gaikwar, once in possession, made no haste to settle the rival 
claims, and four years passed before even a preliminary inquiry was 
made. For this reason and as the Gaikwar's officers had entirely 
failed to establish order, the British Government determined to 
take upon itself the settlement of the disputed succession. It was 
at first proposed that the arbitrators should be the Raja of Chhota 
Udepur and other Rewa Kantha chiefs. But as all the men of this 
class were under the influence of the Gaikwar, and as the Gaikwar 
was pledged to uphold Pratapsing's claim, the settlement of the 
question was placed (9th June 1820) in the hands of Mr. Willoughby 
the assistant resident. After very full inquiry Mr. Willoughby 
decided (20th February 1821) that Pratapsing was a spurious 
child and that Narsing was the rightful claimant, and this, with 
Bome hesitation the Gaikwar admitted. The British Government 
then assumed the management of Rajpipla, the Gaikwar handing 
over all control on the same terms as he had in ] 820 given up the 
supervision of the tributary states in Kathiawar and the Mahi 
Kantha.^ As Narsing was blind his son Verisalji, a youth of thirteen 
was appointed ruler, and on November 15th was installed by Mr. 
Willoughby in the Rajpipla fort.^ In October 1821 he entered 
into an engagement binding himself and his successors to act in 
conformity with the advice of the British Government.* 



• Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 265, 266, XCVIII. Tlie Bombay Government 
agreed to guarantee this arrangement, but on account of the death of Eimsing the 
guarantee was not actually affixed to the sanad. 

2 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 501-503. 

' Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 267, C. 

* Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 267, XCIX. 



Gujardt] 



EBWA KANTHA. 



103 



The seven years of the Gaikw^r's management had been very 
disastrous. The most glaring crimes went unpunished ; the hilly 
tracts continued waste ; no effort had been made to open the 
Sagbara line of traffic ; and the revenue, realized entirely from the 
rich northern districts had, though with rates raised from 6s. to £2 
and from £1 4s. to £5 an acre (Es. 3 - 20, and Es. 12-50 a 
Umhha), fallen from £25,016 to £23,796 (Es. 2,50,1 60 - 2,37,960).i 
The resources of the country were almost exhausted. The towns 
and villages were mostly in ruins, the lands untilled, and the people 
fled. Those who remained were sunk in debt, their lands mortgaged 
to money-lenders. 'From every side rose the voice of misery.'^ 
The look-out for the next season was most gloomy. Though the 
1820 collections had fallen short of £24,000 (Es. 2,40,000) ^ the 
contractor had for 1821 engaged to pay a sum of £29,000 
(Es. 2,90,000). Scared by the contractor's efforts to make good 
this amount, many of the chief men of each Nandod village had 
run away, placing large hahul branches in front of their doors, in 
token that till better times came they would not return.* 

The British Government interfered in Eajpipla affairs to ensure 
that the Gaikwar's dues were properly paid and that order was 
established. To gain these objects the British Government had to 
assume entire control over the state finances, and to undertake the 
task of reclaiming the wild hill tribes. The first step taken was to 
obtain from the chief a written agreement (26th November 1823) to 
limit his expenses j to adopt any plan proposed by the Baroda 
Eesident for meeting the Gaikwar's debt and tribute demands ; to pay 
any British troops that might be wantedto keep the peace in Eajpipla; 
to prevent or make good losses caused by Eajpipla robbers ; to harbour 
no breakers of the public peace ; to refer disputes for settlement to 
the British Government ; to protect travellers j to make his people 
accept the British settlement of their girds claims in the Broach 
and Surat districts ; and to comply with any arrangements the 
British Government might propose for the regulation of the opium 
trade. ^ To fix the next year's revenue demand a return for ten 
years 1796 to 1800, and 1816 to 1820, was drawn up and the 
average £22,928 (Es. 2,29,280) taken.^ Of this not more than 
£19,500 (Es. 1,95,000) were realized. The failure was due to a 
most disastrous flood that in September 1821 swept away entire 
villages from the banks of the Narbada, destroyed all the early 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

History. 

Staie of the 

Country, 

18S0. 



Settlement, 
18S1. 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 280. 

2 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 269. In Ratanpur of 64 villages in only 23 did any 
organization remain, and in them only about Jth of the land was tilled (p. 540) ; in 
Gora of 27 Government villages 11 were deserted (p. 541) ; and in the hill districts six 
of the sixteen sub-divisions were entirely waste (p. 542). 

' In the time of Rdising (1776-1785) with rents of from 6s. to £1 4s. an acre (Rs. 3-12 
ahumbha) the revenue was as much as £35,000 to £40,000 (Rs. 3,50,000-4,00,000) ; 
in 1820 the revenue was less than £24,000 (Rs. 2,40,000) though the rates had been 
raised from £2 to £5 an acre (Rs. 20-50 a kumbha). Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 276. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 276. 

•' Mr. Willoughby, 29th March 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 609-617. Aitohison's 
Treaties (1876), IV, 268-270, CI. 

» Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 532-587. 



[Bombay Qazetteer, 



104 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ea'jpxpla. 

History. 

Settlement, 

ISU. 



Odihwdr'a 
Demands. 



crops over an area from four to eight miles broad, carried ofE acres 
of tlie best land, and ruined 'large tracts by covering tte soil 
several feet deep with sand and gravel.-^ So great was the damage 
that under the former systems the probable revenue for the next 
year would not have been more than £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000). Under 
these circumstances it was arranged that the seven rich sub-divisions 
should for seven years be leased to men of capital, who, in the hope 
of large future gains, would be willing to pay for the first year 
more than they actually recovered. Care was taken to choose 
men of good position, to offer them every inducement to favour 
immigration and bring waste lands under tillage, and, by keeping 
the police in the chief's hands and making the contractor engage 
not to levy more than customary rates, to save the cultivators from 
ill usage .^ 

A sufficient revenue secured, it was decided (20th February 1823) 
to fix the G-aikwar's tribute at a yearly sum of £5672 (Baroda 
Rs. 65,000) .* To settle the Gaikwar's debt was a much harder task. 
The amount originally claimed, no less than £217,624 12s. 
(Rs. 21,76,246), proved on examination to include upwards of twenty- 
four per cent interest and an unjust item of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000). 
With very little demur the Gaikwar lowered his claim to £92,002 
(Rs. 9,20,020). Even then there were many unjust and overcharged 
items, and, as it was hopeless to expect the Rajpipla state to pay such 
a sum, the Gaikwar agreed, on condition that as much as possible 
should be paid in ready money and the rest in yearly instalments, to 
reduce the whole claim to £80,000 (Rs. 8,00,000). Of the £80,000 a 
sum of £14,033 (Rs. 1,40,330) was disputed by the chief who asserted 
that the Gaikwar's managers had recovered it when Rajpipla was 
in their hands. The whole admitted debt was thus reduced to 
about £65,967 (Rs. 6,59,670). Of this in the first year by borrowing 
£24,402 (Rs. 2,44,020) ^ the sum of £40,569 (Rs. 4,05,690) was paid, 
leaving £25,398 (Rs. 2,53,980) outstanding. It was estimated that 
in the next six years the new loan would be discharged and a surplus 
remain to clear off the rest of the Gaikwar debt.^ Of the £14,033 
in dispute between the Rajpipla chief and the Gaikwar it was after- 
wards settled that one-half should be admitted. In 1825 all claims 
were finally adjusted and it was arranged that the balance due to the 
Gaikwar should be paid in the eight years ending 1833-34. 



1 Assistant in charge to Government, 3rd July 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel.XXHI. 587,588. 
Details are given in a letter to Government dated 30th November 1822, 

2 Mr. Willoughby to Govenunent, 20th Feb. 1823, and other correspondence ending 
with Government letter, 15th March 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 587-605. 

3 Of the installation Mr. Willoughby gives these details. After a few religioug 
ceremonies two KotUh Bhils, supposed to. be the descendants of former rulers, 
repeating a blessing and performing the rite of chdndla, or brow marking, took the 
young chief in their arms and, stepping on a platform about three feet high, seated 
him on the state cushion amidst acclamations and distributions of sugar. Letter of 
19th Nov. 1821. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 507. 

* Of £24,402, £22,500 were, under British guarantee, raised from Baroda bankers, 
and £1902 were borrowed from the Edjpipla state banker, potddr. Bom. Gov. SeL 
XXin. 623. 

» Mr. WiUoughby to Government, 21st June 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel, XXIII, 

621-628. 



Gnjarit.] 



EEWA KANTHA. 



105 



The second great object of British interference Was by some 
conciliatory settlement to change the disorderly Bhils into peaceable 
and industrious subjects.^ Mr. WUloughby's inquiries showed that 
in Raising's time (1763 - 1785) before disorder had spread^ the Bhils 
were kept quiet by the establishment all over their districts of strong 
military posts. Misbehaviour on the part of the Bhils was always 
severely punished. If a whole village was in fault it was generally 
attacked and burnt to the ground^ and its people of both sexes and 
every age put to the sword. For Bhils guilty of treason or other 
heinous crimes the punishment was death by impaling^ by burning 
over a slow fire, by blowing from a gun, and by beheading. Lighter 
offences were punished by maiming, floggingj imprisonment, or 
fine. Suspected persons generally confessed choosing punishment 
rather than face a trial by ordeal. Some of the more powerful Bhil 
chiefs, on condition of service, held their villages free from any 
payment, except a small house tax. Again the head^ vasdvaj of a 
Bhil village, on condition of feeding Government officers when on 
duty^ held under the name of valtar, as much rent-free land as his 
household could till. The village head had also the right to levy 
a small cessj kunti, on every merchant halting for a night in his 
village.^ 

In 1821 Mr. Willoughby's inquiries into the state of the Bhil^ 
led him to divide them into two classes, the quiet Bhil of the plain 
and the unruly hill Bhil. Quiet Shils were found in G-ora> 
Gardeshvar, and Kanthal in the north-east; in Eatanpur and 
Jhabugam in the west, and in parts of the southern sub -divisions ^ 
They were orderly and obedient husbandmen, paying rents either 
by a bullock or field tool cess.* In districts held by Bhils of this 
class it would, in Mr. Willoughby's opinion, be enough to see that 
their rights were respected and that they were in no way oppressed j 
that posts were established strong enough promptly to put down 
disturbance ; that over the whole district, each settlement should^ 
for its good behaviour, furnish the security of its two neighbouring 
villages; and that the chief Bhil of the sub -division should stand 
surety for all the villages under him.* The hill Bhils could be 
managed only by strong military posts at Sagbara, Rhocha, and 
Rajpipla. The districts were too thinly peopled and the Bhils too 
unruly to be able to give any useful security.* 

Besides general measures for quieting the Bhils, special steps 
had to be taken to bring to order certain chiefs who were either in 
open revolt or who claimed a half independence. Of these the 
most important were Kuvar Vasava of Sagbara in the south-east. 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 

Ea'jpipla'. 

History. 

Unruly Bhil$, 



Dependent 
Chiefs. 



1 Resident of Baroda, 28th October 1821. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 701. 

2 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 726,727. 

' The rates for every pair of bullocks varied from 16s. to £1 12s. (Rs. 8-16), taken 
half in money, half in rice ; the rates on tools were for a hatchet, kuhvddi, 5s. 
(Rs.2i); for a pickaxe, koddli, 5s. (Rs. 2J), and 2s. id. (Rs. 1-2-8) on a sickle, ddtardi. 
Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 743,744. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXm, 728, =Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 730. 



B 561—14 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



106 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

History. 



Chiefs. 



Raising of Rhoclia in the south-west, and Baji Daima of Talakvada 
to the north of the Narbada. On the 26th January 1822 Kuvar 
Vasava came and presented himself at Mr. Willoughhy's camp. 
This man, about twenty-six years of age, above the common order 
of his tribe, and able to write a tolerable hand,^ was the son of 
the Umed Vasava mentioned above, who, during the rule of Ajabsing 
(1786-1803), going into rebellion, raised a large force of Sindian 
and other mercenaries, and, till he was assassinated, kept his hold 
over five of the hill districts. Before giving himself up in 1822 
Kuvar Vasava had for some time been quiet, but he was believed 
to be planning fresh raids, and had still about eighty men under 
him, half of them Bhils and the rest Sindians and Arabs.^ On 
a promise of pardon and of a settlement of his claims, Kuvar 
agreed to live quietly in Sagbara as a Eajpipla subject; to pay 
customary dues ; to obey the orders of the Government command- 
ants; to give up lands to which he had no right; to refer 
disputes and claims to the settlement of Government; to be 
responsible for robberies in which he was proved to have had a 
share; to seize or give information of any bad characters that 
might hide in his territories ; and to entertain no foreign troops. 
On Kuvar's completing this agreement, it was arranged that tka 
head of his Sindi troops and twenty-five of the men should be 
employed by the Eajpipla chief; that a monthly grant of £12 10s., 
(Rs. 125) should be given to Kuvar's brother, if with twelve BHls 
he came and settled in Nandbd ; and that a post of forty horse and 
eighty foot should be established at Sagbkra.* Of greater power, 
though much less given to open disorder than the Sagbara Kuvar, 
was his father-in-law Raising of Rhocha, a chief about fifty years 
old, very difficult to deal with, fawning and crafty, with 'sweet water 
in his mouth and black blood in his heart'. Raising who was said 
to be very rich* had in his service upwards of fifty men ; and though 
not in outlawry, refused for long to come to the Political Agent's camp. 
At last he came in, gave up all his troops except eight, and offered 
security for his good behaviour. The third chief was a Molesalam 
freebooter Baji Daima who, with two other outlaws, Nasir Khan 
and Umed Khan and troops of Dhankas ' a cruel and bloodthirsty 
tribe ' of Bhils,® living at Talakvada on the Narbada, had, as the 
price of abstaining from plunder, extorted sums of money from 
many villages in the eastern Narbada districts.^ 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 714. ' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 712. 

3 Bora. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 712. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 736. The origin of EAising'a wealth is said to have been 
ia 1809 when,, on condition of giving them an asylum in one of his villages, he was 
paid a large share of the plunder by Bohords who were in hiding after the disturbance 
at Mindvi. He afterwards, on a promise that no inquiry should be made about 
the plunder, gave up the Bohords, enriching himself, it was said, by about £10,000 
(Ks. 1,00,000). 

' Dhdnka would seem to be another name for Ndikda. 

« Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII, 267. Gora (January 1822) was very distressed.many of ite 
villages being in the entire possession of, and the whole greatly harassed by, the 
TalakvidaMdivdsis (p. 541).. Inquiry afterwards showed that BAji had a claim on 
some of the villages to which he had advanced money (p. 745). 



Oujarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



107 



In November 1823 Mr. Willougliby was sent to make a settlement 
witli Baji Daima and the two other Talakvada outlaws. Helped 
by the ruggedness of their country, and encouraged by former 
successes against Baroda troops, these chiefs refused to surrender. 
Very active steps were taken to bring them to order, the supplies 
were cut off ; a Bhil chief was hired to track them ; and a reward was 
offered to any one who would seize them ; at the same time they were 
told through a Bhat that if they surrendered, their lives would be 
spared and their claims settled. Of the three chiefs, Nasir Khan was 
the first to come in (December 1823). He was followed after about 
eight months (7th July 1824) by Timed Khan, and he about a month 
later by Baji Daima.^ On surrendering, the chiefs agreed to behave 
as peaceable subjects, to pay revenue, to accept the Government 
settlement of their claims, to harbour no outlaws, to remain in 
Baroda for five years, and to give security for their good behaviour.^ 
Two other Bhil chiefs Kuvar Jiva and Kalia Ohamar from the 
Khandesh frontier are mentioned as coming in (January 1824), and 
signing agreements for good behaviour.^ Between 1821 and 1827, 
though the Political Agent exercised only a general supervision, 
Rajpipla had much iniproved.* Order was kept and from Broach 
and Baroda complaints of Rajpipla raids had ceased.* The country 
was on the whole well and mildly managed, and the revenues, in 
spite of one year of flood and two of drought, had, during the five 
years ending 1827, risen from £15,661 to £25,948.6 

For four years after 1827, British supervision was relaxed and 
the management of the finances left to the chief and his minister. 
The result was a drop in the revenue from £25,948 to £17,636 2s. 
(Rs. 2,59,480- 1,76,361). An inquiry into the cause of this decrease 
showed that large amounts had been embezzled. On this Government 
had again to interfere, and letting out the districts in farm for seven 
years realized an average revenue .of £22,463 6s. (Rs. 2,24,633). 
At the close of this farm, the entire management of the finances was 
again handed over to the chief, and again the revenue returns fell, 
the average of the nine years ending 1848-49 being only £20,659 
(Rs.. 2,06,590). An inquiry showed that the actual revenue was 
considerably greater than that entered in the state accounts. 
Pressure was put on the chief to settle the claims for which the 
British Government had given its guarantee. And in 1850, when this 
was done. Government finally withdrew its supervision. In 1852 an 
engagement was mediated by the British Government between the 
Gaikwar and the Raja of Rajpiplaj by which some old disputes were 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ba'jpipla. 

History. 

Order Restored, 



18^-1831. 



J Bom. Gov. Sol. XXIII. 771. = Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 775. 

» Bom. Gov. Sel XXIH. 747. 

* Crimea though stiU committed were much less general and much surer of detection, 
and daily over the whole district large numbers of people were flocking back. Bom. 
Gov. Sel. XXIIL 730,731. 

" In 1825 Mr. Eomer the Agent to the Governor in Surat complained that the 
Mdndvi chief had suffered much from Rajpipla robbers. But the people who were 
to blame would seem to have been the VasrAvi Bhils. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 
780. 

« The details were: 1823, £15,661; 1824, £19,915; 1825, 19,986; 1826, £24,336; 
and 1827, £25,948. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 843. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



108 



STATES, 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

History. 



1851, 



Sdghdra 

yrouhUs, 

1859. 



settled by tlie transfer of certain villages in wliicli both governments 
had shares to the Gaikwar and the Eaja respectively, and the 
admission of the right of the Raja of Eajpipla to collect certain 
customs on payment of £1165 (Baroda Rs. 13,351) yearly .^ 

A few years later at the time of survey (1852-1855), the district, 
though backward, thinly peopled, and suffering from an ill-managed 
system of revenue leases, was much richer and more prosperous than 
fifty years before.^ Order was well established and cases of crime 
were few. Most of the Bhils were quiet and well behaved.^ Nandod 
had become a prosperous town of 20,000 inhabitants, with well built 
high houses, a manufacture and export of great numbers of quaintly 
shaped well tempered knives, and a considerable trade chiefly in 
forest produce, honey, bees' wax, sdmhar hides, and bamboos.* The 
hill tracts in the centre and east were still covered with thick 
forest and had very few people and very little cultivation,^ and the 
southern and south-western districts had still large forest tracts 
broken by patches of tillage. But near the Kim the land was well 
tilled, and all along the Narbada it was rich and prosperous. 

About the middle of August 1857, the chief prayed the Government 
to help him, stating that he had found a certain Syed Morad Ali 
tampering with his troops and trying to organize a disturbance in 
Nandod. On receipt of this message (August 1 7) Mr. Rogers, the 
Collector of Broach, taking with him 200 men of the 1st Grenadiers 
and a detachment of 50 Europeans from the 83rd Queen's, then 
detained at Broach by stress of weather, started for Nandod. 
Hearing of their approach Morad Ali fled, and the risk of an 
outbreak was at an end. A detachment of 200 men was left at Nandod, 
and till the mutinies were over Rajpipla gave no further cause for 
uneasiness. On the 20th January. 1859, Government decided that 
Rajpipla should pay a yearly sum of £2000 (Rs. 20,000) towards the 
maintenance of this force called the Gujarat BhU Corps. This was 
subsequently converted into a police corps, and as no part of it was 
employed in Rajpipla, the Raja on the 1st May 1865 was freed from 
any demand on its account. If however the troops are employed 
in Rajpipla, the chief is liable to such contribution as Government 
may think fit and reasonable.^ 

In 1859 Kuvar Vasava of Sagbara, who had been blind for some 
years, died, leaving two sons Lashkario who had managed the estate 
and a younger son Dungario. Shortly after, Damji the son of 
Dungario, imprisoned his uncle Lashkario and in spite of the orders 
of the chief and of the Political Agent, declared himself head of the 
clan. He held his position till in 1 860 troops were sent against him 



' Aitchison'g Tre3,ties (1876) IV, 270.273, CII. 

2 The leaseholders had in some cases been guilty of so great an extortion that the 
people had deserted their villages. In consequence of this the chief refused to 
renew the leases, and, when they fell in, managed the villasea through his own 
officers. Bom. Gov. Sel,XXin. 300-313. s e 

3 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 320,321. 

4 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII, 313, sBom. Gov. Sel. XXIII, 302, 
» Aitcbison's Trea,ties (1876), IV, 253, 



Gujar&t.] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



109 



and he gave himself up to the Khiindesh Bhil Agent. After this 
Lashkario formally resigned the chiefship, and the heads of the 
neighbouring clans agreed in choosing Damji. The relations between 
Damji and the Eajpipla chief then came under discussion. In the 
end it was settled that, while admitting that the Eajpipla chief was 
his superior and had the right to levy customs, Damji should have 
the revenue and police management of his estate. The neighbouring 
Bhil chiefs became answerable for Damji's good behaviour, and 
matters have since gone smoothly. In 1860, with the permission of 
Government, Verisalji abdicated and his only son Gambhirsingji, the 
present ruling chief, was on the 1 7th November duly installed by 
the Political Agent. Though he had nominally retired, Verisalji as 
his son^s minist6r_, kept in his own hands all the power of the state. 
Gambhirsingji, as he grew up, chafed against this arrangement, and 
ill feeling rose to such a pitch, that in 1867 Government had to 
interfere. Verisalji was forced to forego all interference in state 
aiiairs and in the following year died. 

On the 16th June 1871 a slight disturbance broke out in the Bhil 
district of Vadi in the south-west of Eajpipla. Timed, the chief of 
Vadi, some time before his death entrusted the estate to Narsai, one 
of his younger sons. On Umed^s death, his eldest son Kagu claimed 
the chiefship ; and as the dispute threatened to become serious and 
the Eajpipla chief was unable to settle it, the Political Agent 
interfered, taking the estate under his direct supervision. Shortly 
after, Narsai the younger claimant, at the head of an armed force, 
made, a sudden night attack on his brother's house and the 
Government officer in charge. He was ultimately seized and 
sentenced to a long term of imprisonment, and the estate is still 
under the control of the British Government. 

The following table shows the chief members of the Eajpipla 
family for the last century ; 





Jitsing ^ 

(died 1754). 

1 






1 
PratApsing 
(died 1764). 




Raising 
(died 1786). 




1 

Ajabsing 

(died 1803). 

1 


Ramsing 
(deposed 1810), 




1 

Naraing 

(abdicated 1821), 

VerisAlji 
(abdicated 1860), 




- 


Gambhirsing. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ra'jpipla. 

History. 

Sdghdra 

Troubles, 

1859, 



Vadi 

Disturbance, 

mi. 



' The family bards make Jitsing the forty-flrst descendant of ShdllvShan. Their order is : Shalivdban; 
Narvdhan ; Hans ; AjaypSl ; AnangpSll ; Sursen ; SomsAhel ; Premdehji ; Ch^ohak Dev ; Sonpd ; 
KiiTerpil ; PrithirAj; Prat4pp41 ; DehpAl; Mokhda Gohel; ArjunsIiAyji ; Bhansinji; Gemalsingji ; 
Vijaypilji; Eimsilheji ; Prithirajji; DipSji; Ka™nbil,ji; HabherAj ; Sujansingji ; Bheravsingji ; 
Pi'ithirajji ; Dipsingji ; DurgsAheji ; Mohrajji ; Biiyasalji ; Chandrasen ; Gambhirsingji ; Sabherajji ; 
Jaysingji; Mulrdjji; Surmalji; Udeliaranji; ChandrabSji Chatras41ji; Mota VerisSiji; and 
Jitsingji, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



110 



STATES. 



Chhota 
Udepur. 



Boundaries, 

Aspect. 
Kvers, 



Chapter XIII. The Eaja of Eajpipla is one of the chiefs who in 1862 received a 
States. patent, sanad, allowing adoption. He is the only Rewa Kantha chief 

with first class jurisdiction, that is with power to try for capital 
offences all persons but British subjects. He is entitled to a salute 
of eleven guns and to a native guard of honour of inferior strength. 
The present chief, Gambhirsingji, born in 1846, is now (1879) in his 
34th year. Though opposed to change he has of late years considerably 
improved his police ; he has built schools, a dispensary, and a jail, 
and is now spending £20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000) on a road from Nandod 
34| miles to Anklesvar station. 

Chhota Udepiir, in point of size the second of the Rewa 
Kantha states, lies between north latitude 22° 2' and 22° 32', and 
east longitude 73° 47' and 74° 20,' and has a total area of 820 
square miles, a population of 62,913 souls or 76'72 to the square 
mile, and, for the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue 
of £25,000 (Es. 2,50,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the Bariya state, on the east by 
Ali Rajpur in Central India, on the south by the Sankheda Mehvas 
estates of the Rewa Kantha, and on the west by Baroda. 

The district is irregular in shape and for the most part covered 
with hills and forests. 

The principal rivers are the Or or Orsang, which, flowing through 
the lands of Sursi, Jetpur, Jhabugam, and Raj Yasna, by the towns 
of Udepur and Jhabugam, joins the Narbada between Chanod and 
KamaH ; the Heran, flowing through the Panvad sub-division, and 
joining the Or in the Graikwar's territory to the west of the Sankheda 
Mehvas ; and the Narbada, which forms for about fifteen miles the 
south-eastern boundary of the state. Besides these there are the 
Bhalaj, flowing through Tejgad, and Jetpur, and joining the Or; 
the Ani flowing through Tejgad; the Bamni through Panvad; the 
Kara through Kavant, and the Boch through Raj Vasna. 

Hills. Most of Chhota Udepur is covered with hUls. In Tejgad near 

the centre along the Or valley, though rugged in outline, they are 
of no great height. In the south-east a range of hills runs north- 
east and south-west through Panvad, and further south towards the 
Narbada, the whole of Kavant is covered with high rugged hills. 
At the back of Kar^li, noticeable for miles round, a flat-topped trap 
ridge stretching east and west for four miles, rises at its western 
end into two sharply marked peaks. Its top, a broad table-land, 
yields crops of millet and pulse. In Targol, in the north-west 
about ten miles south-east of Pavagad, rises the Jhund hill, once a 
favourite place of refuge for outlaws, and still, from the thickness 
of its woods, most difficult of approach. 

Climate. During the greater part of the year the climate is damp, 

unhealthy, and feverish. 

Crops. Grain, pulse, and timber, are the chief produce of the state. The 

principal articles of traffic are timber and the flowers of the mahuda 
tree, Bassia latifolia. 



Qttjar&t. 



EEWA KlNTHA. 



Ill 



The 1872 census showed a population of 62,913 souls, or 76" 72 
to the square mile. Of the whole numbePj 61,381 or 97'56 per 
cent were Hindus, 1515 or 2 "41 per cent Musalmans, and 17 
Parsis. Of the Hindus 276 were classed as Brahmans ; 2407 as 
Kshatris, Rajputs ; 1086 as Vaishas, traders and merchants ; 2974 as 
Shudras, cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes; 
and 54,638 unsettled classes including 37,682 Kolis, 1978 Bhils, 
9594 Dhankfe, 5377 Naikdas, and 7 Dumdas. Of 61,381 the total 
Hindu population, six were Vir Vaishnavs, 2675 Ramanujs, 733 
Vallabhacharis, and 340 Kabirpanthis ; 506 were Shaivs, 33 ascetics, 
and 57,088 unsectarian Hindus. Of the Musalmans 21 were Syeds, 
281 Shaikhs, 79 Pathans, 65 Bohoras, 50 Arabs, 191 Makranis, and 
828 were entered as 'Others'. Of the whole number 1460 were 
Sunnis and 55 Shias. Of the Parsis 13 were Shahanshais and 
4 Kadmis. The number of villages was 530 or 0"64 to the square 
mile; the average village population 118'70 souls. Of the whole 
number, 465 villages had less than 200 inhabitants ; 57 had from 
200 to 500 ; 4 from 500 to 1000 ; 3 from 1000 to 2000 ; and one, 
the town of Udepur, between 2000 and 3000. There were 14,506 
houses, or, an average of 17"69 houses to the square mile, and 4"33 
persons to each house. Of the total number of houses, 184 inhabited 
by 867 persons were of the better,and 14,322 with 62,046 inhabitants, 
of the poorer, sort. 

Chhota Udepur contains ten sub-divisions, pargands, Sursi or 
Dor, Tejgad, Kadval, Jetpur, Jhabugam, Panvad, Kavant, Karali, 
Raj Vasna, and Targol. Suesi or Doe in the extreme north-east with 
thirty-three villages, formerly belonged to Ali Rajpur, but was 
mortgaged, in 1807, to the Raja of Chhota Udepur for £10,584 8s. 
(Rs. 1,05,844), and has ever since remained in his possession. The 
Ali Rajpur chief has more than once attempted to recover the 
property through the mediation of Government. But the Government 
of India have settled that these villages must remain with the state 
of Udepur, till the whole sum for which they were mortgaged 
together with interest is paid. As interest has been running since 
the beginning of the century, there is little chance that such a 
payment will ever be made. The Ali Rajpur boundary has been 
marked off, and Sursi is now practically part of Chhota Udepur. 
Its people are almost all Bhils and Kolis, and except near the 
hamlets, the country is waste and covered with forests. The chief 
crops are, in the rainy season, maize the staple, a Uttle rice, and the 
coarser grains banti, hdvta, kodra, axLdjhdbi ; and in the cold weather, 
gram and wheat. The tillage is rude and careless. West of Sursi, 
Tejgad, with seveiity-seven villages including Udepur the capital 
of the state, has the Bariya hills on the north, Sursi on the east, 
the river Orsang on the south, and Jetpur and Kadval on the 
west. Like Sursi, the country is hilly and wooded, with scattered 
hamlets and patches of tillage. The population, crops, and style 
of tillage are much the same as those of Sursi. Palm trees both 
cocoanut and wild date, found all over Chhota Udepur, are commonest 
in Tejgad. They do much to lower the state of the Bhils, who 
having a right to the juice, when the sap begins to rise, camp under 



Chapter^ XIII. 

States. 

Chhota Udbpuk. 

Population. 



Sub- divisions. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



112 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

Chhota. CJdepur, 
Sub-divisions. 



History. 



one of the trees and by the help of a small store of maize flour, men, 
women, and children, live on the fermented juice. In the north-west 
corner of the state, Kadva'lj with sixteen villages, wild and beautiful 
with hills and forests, is very backward. South of Kadval and west 
of Tejgad, Jetpue, with seventy-six villages, has some of the best 
land in the state. Open, but thickly dotted with wild date trees, the 
soil is light and with thriftier less unskilled peasants would yield rich 
crops. At present the people and chief products differ little from 
those of Sursi. Pa'nvad, to the south-east of Tejgad, with eighty- 
five villages, is a rich well-watered tract crossed from north-east to 
south-west by a range of hills. Water is near the surface, and the 
soil is rich. In the rains, millet the staple, and rice grow well ; 
and in the cold weather there are luxuriant crops of wheat and gram. 
Cotton, if its cultivation was fostered, would flourish. South of 
Panvad are the fifty-four villages of Kava'nt. The country, crossed 
from north to south by a well planned road, is hilly throughout, and 
in the south is wild and rugged. The people and tillage are very 
backward. In patches near hamlets, Indian corn and millet are 
grown in the rains, and wheat and barley in the cold Weather, This 
sub-division contains two places of some interest, Hamph a place of 
pilgrimage on the Narbada (see p. 161), and three or four miles south 
of Kavant, Mohan^ an old capital of the Chhota Udepur chiefs. 
West of Panvad, the thirty-eight villages of Kaea'li, in the north, 
open and with good black soU,. stretch south into a hUly broken 
country. Though the crops are much the same as in other parts of 
Chhota Udepur, and though most of the people are BhilSj an 
intermixture of Kanbis has done something to better the style of 
tillage. To the north of Karali and between it and Jetpur, lie the 
eight villages of JSABuaA'M, watered by the river Orsang, in soil and 
products like Karali. These villages, formerly shared between the 
Gaikwar and the Udepur chief, were, in 1873, as part of a general 
settlement of claims, made over to Udepur. To the south of 
Jhabugam, are the twenty- three villages of Ea'j Va'sna, originally 
thirty-four, and reduced to their present number, in 1873, when the 
claims of the Gaikwar and the Udepur chief were settled. This 
sub-division, level and well supplied with water, and with a loamy soil 
partly deep black, partly light, is the richest and best tilled portion 
of the Chhota Udepur state, jdelding millet, pulse, gram, rice, 
cotton, and sugarcane. Tabgol, the last sub-division, a small tract 
of nine villages, lies to the west of Raj Vasna, isolated from the 
rest of Udepur by the small state of • Jambughoda in the Panch 
Mahals. The country is covered with hills and forest, the people are 
almost entirely Bhils, and the products little beyond inferior crops 
of maize, millet, pulse, and such coarser grains as Icodra, hanU, and 
hdvto. 

The Chhota Udepur chiefs claim to belong to the clan of Khichi 
Chohans, whose head Anhal is said to have been created by Vasishth 
Muni out of the Agni Kund on mount Abu. Ajayapal, one of Anhal's 
successors, founded the city of Ajmir, and another named Manikrai, 
settling at Sambhar, has landed down the title of Sambhri Eao or 



Gujarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



113 



Lords of Sambhar. Descended itoxa M^nikr^i, the Khichi Clioliaiis 
first settled in tlie remote Sind S^gar, a tract extending OTer 
about 100 miles (68 kos) between the Behat and the Sind, whose 
capital was Khichpur Patan. One of the successors of Manikrai 
was Bir Bilandev or Dharmagaj, who, in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, defended Ajmir against Mahmud of Ghazni. His 
successor Bisaldev or Visaldev, flourished from 1010 to 1074, and 
was the founder of the town of Visalnagar in north Gujarat. The 
successors of Visaldev were Sarangdev, Ano, Jepal, Ananddev, 
Someshvar, and Prithiraj Ghohan, the celebrated hero of Ohand's 
great epic the Prithiraj Base. After the defeat of Prithiraj, who 
fell in 1193 fighting against Shahab-ud-din Ghori, the Khichia 
settled in a part of Malwa called after them the Khichi Vada.^ In 
1800 Khichi Hamir, descendant of Prithitaj, distinguished 
himself by his gallant defence of Eanthambhor against Ala-ud-din 
Khilji.^ After the fall of Eanthambhor a body of Khichis moved to 
Gujarat, and there conquered the kingdom of Champaner at the foot 
of Pavagad hill. Here they continued to rule till, in 1484, their 
city and hill fort were captured by Mahmud Begada (1469 - 151 1) .* 
Jayasing, the last Chohan Baja of Champaner, the Patai Baval 
of the bards, was killed by Mahmud Begada in 1484. Of his three 
sons, Eayasing died during his father's lifetime, Limb£ji the 
second escaped at the fall of Champaner, and the third Tejsing was 
taken prisoner and became a Musalman. 

According to bardic accounts a son of Eayasing escaping from 
Champaner, settled at Hamph a small out-of-the-way hamlet on the 
right bank of the Narbada, Left unmolested in this wild country, 
he and his descendants established claims of tribute over a large 
tract of east Gujarat, and, later on, in the decay of the authority 
of the Ahmedabad kings (1540-1572), were able to spread their 
power, and move their head-quarters to Mohan in a richer and 
less remote part of the country.'* Commanding the pass into the 
difficult tracts on the banks of the Narbada, the site was well 
chosen, and its ruins show that Mohan was once a place of 
considerable importance. 

Along with Eajpipla and Godhra, Muhammadan historians seem 
to include Mohan, or Ali Mohan, under the name Pal. But at the 
close of the sixteenth century it was recognized as a separate 
district. Abul Fazl in the Ain-i-Akbari states that * to the east 
of Nandarbar, to the north of Mendo, to the south of Nadowfc 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Chhota Udbpuk. 

History. 



» Tod's RAjasthAn, II- 411, 416. 

2 The fort was not taken without much difficulty. Hamir and all the new 
Musalmina or converted Moghals, who were with him, were alain. TArikb-i-Firoz 
Sh^hi : BlUot, III. 179. , „, . 

' The names of the OhohAn rulers of Chdmpdner were R^ja Shri Rimdev, Shn 
Chtogdev, Shri Chichingdev, Shri Sonamdev, Shrf Pdlhansing, Shri Jitkaran, 
Shri Kampu Rival, Shri Vir Dhaval, Shri Savr^j, Shri Rdghavdev, Shri Trimbakbhup, 
Shri Gang Rijeshvar, and Shri Jayaaingdev. 

■* According to one account it was P4t4i Rival's grandson Prithirij, according to 
another account it was Kiyaji, three genera^iions later, who founded Mohan. 

B 561—15 



[Bombay Gazetteer* 



114 



STATES. 



Chapter ZIII. 

States. 
Chhota Udbpue. 

History. 



(Nandod) and the west of CL.ampaner, was a district ninety miles by 
sixty (60.by 40 hos), witb many wild elephants. It was under a Ohoban 
ThakoPj whose capital was Ali Mohan (Almydhan), and who had a 
force of 600 horsemen and 15^000 foot'.^ In course of time, probably 
during the decay of Moghal power in the early part of the eighteenth 
century,^ the capital was moved twenty miles north to Chhota 
Udepur on the banks of the Or. The site was well suited for trade, 
but it was a place of no strength and the chiefs were, before long, 
forced to pay tribute to the Gaikwar. Baji Eaval, who is said to 
have founded Ohhota Udepur, died childless, and Vas succeeded 
by his cousia Durjansing,^ and he by his grand-nephew Amarsing. 
After Amarsing came Abhayasing, and he, shortly after, being killed 
by a fall from his horse, was succeeded by Rayasing,* who in 1813 
built the Udepur fort. Dying in 1819, Rayasing was succeeded by 
his son Prithiraj, the ruling chief in 1822 when, on its guaranteeing 
a yearly tribute of £877 (Baroda Rs. 10,500),^ the control of the 
state was transferred to the British G-overnment by the G-aikwar, 
After his death, in 1832, his cousin Gumansing succeeded, who, dying 
in 1851, left as heir the present Raja Jitsing bom in 1834. On 
the 29th November 1858, Tatia Topi, then in rebellion against the 
British Government, appeared with a strong army before Udepur. 
Though the defences of the town were weak, the Raja shut his gates 
and stoutly refused to let Tatia Topi enter, threatening that if he 
forced his way in, he would kill his R^nis and children, and himself 
commit suicide. Tatia refrained and pitched his camp on the plain 
on the east side of the town. On the following day the rebels 
entered and plundered the town. Tatia had intended to halt at Chhota 
Udepur to recruit his men and to develop his intrigues with the 
Baroda Sardars, but Brigadier Parke, who was on his track, gave 
him no respite. On the 1st December 1858 he fell upon Tatia's rebel 
force and defeated it with great slaughter, his loss being trifling. 
This defeat caused great confusion in the ranks of the insurgents. 
Tatia abandoned his army and fled to the forest lands of Parona. 

The Raja is a chief of the second class and is entitled to a salute 
of nine guns. He pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £877 (Baroda 
Rs. 10,500), receiving in return a dress of honour. He also receives 
small sums aggregating £62 (Rs. 620) a year from villages in 
Gaikwar territory, in the Rewa Kantha, and in the Panch Mahals, 
and £50 (Rs. 500) a year from the Thakor of Gad. 

The following is, as far as can be ascertained, the Chhota Udepur 
family tree. It is defective in several respects. 



' Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, 11.72. A few years later (1609), the Ali Mohan contin- 
gent to the Gujarat frontier force was 350 men. Major Watson, 69. 

' Of the date of the change no record reinains, and the name of the chief B4ji KiTal 
who is said to have moved the capital, does not appear in the Chhota Udepur K4ja's 
family tree. 

' According to the ESjas' list, six Rijds reigned between the founder and Duijan- 
sing. These were : Karansing, Vajesing, Gumansing, Edyasing, Tejsing (who founded 
the town of Tejgad}, and Jasvantsing. 

* The names of Amarsing and Abhayasing are not mentioned in the RijAs' list, 

" Aitchison'a Treaties (1876), IV. 275-277. 



Gujar&tJ 



REWA KANTHA. 



115 



Jayasing P^Ui B^val. 
Rdyasing. 



Pritliirij.> 



Dungarsing 
(BAriya). 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

ChHOTA UDEPtTE. 

History. 



BAji EavaP 
(founder of Chhota 
Udepur). 



Durjansing. 



Amarsing. 
Abhayasing, 



RAyaaing 

(died 1819). 

I 

Prithirij 
(died 1822). 



Guminsiug 
(died 1851). 



Jitsing 
(the present Chief). 

* Another account puts Pratdpsing between Jayasing and RAyasing, and makes Prithirdj and 
Bungarsing the grandsons of Eayasing by his son Trimbal^ing, Bom. Crov. Sel. XXIII. 118. 
3 One account makes Bdji Rdval sixth in descent from FrithirSj. Bombay Chiefs, Rewa Kdntha, 9. 

Ba'riya, called after tlie Bariya Kolis wlio held it before the Rajput Ba'kiya. 

conquest, between 22° 21' and 22° 58' north latitude, and 73° 41' 
and 74° 18' east longitude, has an area of 813 square miles, a 
population, in 1872, of 62,421 souls or 64"48 to the square mile, 
and, during the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of 
£17,500 (Rs. 1,75,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the Rewa Kantha estate of Sanjeli ; Boundaries, 
on the east by the Jhalod and Dohad sub-divisions of the Panch 
Mahals ; on the south by the Rewa Kantha state of Chhota Udepur 
and of Kathivada under the Bhopavar Agency, and the Bhil estate 
of Jambughoda in the Panch Mahals ; and on the west by Kalol 
and Godkra in the Panch Mahals. Its extreme length from north 
to south is thirty-nine miles. 

Triangular in shape, about thirty -nine miles from north to south, 
and gradually narrowing from forty -five miles in the south to eight 
miles in the north, the country is, except some open plaius, covered 
with hills and woods. 

The chief rivers are the Panam and the Haraph. The Panam Rivers, 

flows north-west from the Ratanmal hills dividing the state into 
two unequal parts. The Haraph runs parallel to the Panam about 
twelve miles north of it. Two other streams, the Groma and Karad 
flowing west to the Mahi from the south of the state, are of little 
consequence. The supply of water is from wells, village ponds, 
and river beds. 



[Boml>a7 Gazetteer, 



116 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ba'biya. 

EUlB. 



Climate. 
Products, 

PopnUtion, 



8ub-di visions. 



In the west, the country, generally flat, is here and there broken 
by isolated hUla. To the south and east, the hills are higher and 
more connected, until, along the south frontier, they form an 
unbroken line stretching from east to west, and forming the water- 
shed between the Mahi and Narbada. A similar line of hills 
stretches north from the Ratanmal range, and forms the water-shed 
between the Mahi and the Banas. Prom this range, many side 
spurs run west, falling in height and importance, as they stretch 
further from the table-land. North of the Panam, long liaes of 
hog-backed hills run north-west nearly parallel with the boundary of 
the state till it reaches Sanjeli. None of the hills rise to more than 
1200 feet above the sea. 

The climate is damp and unhealthy, with much fever. 

The chief products are timber, maize, pulse, gram, wheat, hanti, 
hdvto, hodra, oil seeds, and, in a few places, sugarcane. There are 
no mines and no manufactures. 

In 1869, a rough census gave a population of 49,220 souls, of 
whom 48,127 were Hindus, 1081 Musalmans, and 12 Parsis. The 
1872 census showed a population of 52,421 souls or 64-48 to the 
square mile. Of the whole number, 51,309 or 97-87 per cent were 
Hindus, 1095 or 2*09 per cent Musalmans, and 17 Parsis. Of the 
Hindus 441 were classed as Brahmans ; 542 as Kshatris, Eajputs ; ' 
1374 as Vaishas, traders and merchants; 5315 as Shudras, cultivators, 
craftsmen, labourers and depressed classes; and 43,637 as unsettled 
tribes, including 26,524 Kolis, 13,713 Bhils, 3397 Naikdas, and 
3 Jats. Of the 51,309 Hindus, 1565 were Vaishnavs, 427 of them 
Ramanujs, 78 Svdminarayans and 1060 Vallabhacharis, 412 were 
Shaivs, 19 Shravaks, 47 ascetics, and 49,266 of no special sect. 
Of the Musalmans 25 were Syeds, 377 Shaikhs, 157 Pathans, 84 
Bohoras, 2 Khojas, 45 Arabs, 179 Makranis, and 226 were entered 
as 'Others'. Of the whole number 989 were Sunnis, and 106 were 
Shias. Of the Parsis 7 were Shahanshais and 10 Kadmis. The 
number of villages was 478 or 0"58 to the square mile; the average 
village population 109-66 persons to the village. Of the whole 
number, 424 villages had less than 200 inhabitants ; 48 from 200 to 
500 ; 5 from 500 to 1000 ; and one, the town of Bariya, from 2000 
to 3000. There were 12,404 houses or an average of 15-25 houses 
to the square mile and 4-22 persona to each house. Of the total 
number of houses, 544 inhabited by 1739 persons were of the better, 
and 11,860 occupied by 50,682 persons of the poorer, sort. 

The lands of the state are distributed over seven sub-divisions : 
Randhikpur; Dudhia; Ilmaria; Haveli; Kakadkhila; Sagtala; and 
Rajgad, Randhikpue in the north has fifty-nine villages moat 
of them small, poor, and almost entirely peopled by Bhils. ^ Dudhia 
has sixty-seven villages, where tillage, though rude and imperfect, 
is better than in Randhikpur. Some of the husbandmen are Kanbis, 
induced to settle in Dudhia by the late chief, who gave many 
privileges, freeing them from import and export duties. Umaeia 
Is a wild hill and forest tract of forty-four villages, its people al^jiost 
all Kolis and Bhils. Haveli is the largest and next to Rajgad the 
most flourishing of the Bariya sub-divisions. It has seventy-three 



Oujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



117 



villages including the capital, Devgad Bariya. Ka'kadkhila has 
fifty-seven villages, the people in nearly equal proportion Bhils and 
Kolis, with a small sprinMing of Naikdas. The country is wild, 
waving hills and forests, and in the low ground patches of cleared 
land with here and there detached Bhil or Koli huts. Sa'gta'la to 
the south of Bariya, has forty-five villages peopled almost entirely by 
Kolis and Naikdas. Ra'jgad is the best tilled, and for its size the 
most productive of the Bariya sub-divisions. This is in part owing 
to a fair sprinkling of Brahman and Kanbi husbandmen, partly to 
the greater richness of the soil, and partly to its neighbourhood to 
the ancient capital of Champaner and to the more modern and 
thriving district of Kalol. In 1865 of 153 wells, the total return 
for the whole state, 110 were in Rajgad. Of late years sugarcane 
tillage has greatly spread. Many Naikdas live in the lonelier parts, 
but the bulk of the people are Kolis. 

The Rajas of Bariya are said to belong to the same class of 
Khichi Chohan Rajputs as the Rajas of Chhota Udepur. It has 
been shown in the historical sketch of Chhota Udepur, that after the 
fall of Patai Raval of Champaner, his grandson Prithiraj took refuge 
in the village of Hamph on the Narbada, where he established himself, 
and plundered the neighbouring districts. To keep him quiet the 
Gujarat Viceroys allowed him a fourth share, chauth, of the revenues 
of Halol and Kalol. His son Dungarsing conquered Bariya from 
the Bhils. According to another bardic account Pratapsing, the son 
of Patai Raval, established himself at Hamph, and his son Rayasing 
founded the principality of Chhota Udepur. Trimbaksing, the son 
and successor of Rayasing, conquered Bariya from the Bhils,^ and, 
about 1670, before starting on a pilgrimage to Gaya, divided his 
possessions among his two sons, giving Chhota Udepur to Rayaji the 
elder, and Bariya to Dungarji the younger. Dungarsing's successors 
were Udesing, Rayasing, Vijaysing, and Mansing about whom 
nothing certain is known, except that Mansing's reign ended about 
1720. At his death, a Beluch soldier seized the government, and the 
Rani, taking her young son Prithiraj, fled to her father the Raval of 
Dungarpur. Here Prithiraj stayed for twelve years, and then (1732) 
returning, drove out the usurper, built the present town of Bariya, and 
called it Devgad or God's fort.* At this time the one-fourth share of 
the Dohad revenue was, in return for a money advance, ceded to 
Bariya by the chief of Sunth. About the middle of the eighteenth 
century, the Maratha armies under Udaji Puar, Malharrav Holkar, 
and Jankoji Sindia entered Bariya. They did not call on the chief 
to pay tribute, but, acknowledging him lord of his own lands, 
encouraged him to protect the country from freebooters and 
allowed him tq levy tribute from Halol, Kalol, and Dohad. 



Chapter^XIII 

States. 

Ba'biya. 

Sub- divisions. 



History. 



' Of the former Koli or Bhil rulers of Biriya, traces remain in the family of Bhils 
at BAriya, who take the leading part in the three-year festival to the Devgad gods, 
and in the BAriyis of Paroli in RAjgad who have the right of presenting each new 
chief with a dagger, and claim to have once held the country between Pivdgad and 
the river Pinam. 

2 His predecessors lived in another BAriya village, now known aa old Biriya, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



118 



STATES. 



Chapter^ XIII. 
States. 
Ba'rita. 
History, 



Prithiraj was succeeded by Rayadharji.^ To the otter three 
sons Samatsing, Harising, and Ramsing, and to the two daughters, 
grants of villages were made, which their descendants still keep 
on condition that the holders continue to live in the town of Bariya. 
Rayadharji was succeeded by Gangdasji, and he by Gambhirsing, 
who was followed by Dhiratsing, and he by Sahebsing. When, 
about the end of the 18th century, Mahadaji Sindia passed through 
Bariya in pursuit of Raghoba, the Raja was treated with kindness 
and presented with gifts. Sahebsing was succeeded by Tashvant- 
sing and Tashvantsing by his son Gangdas. During the reign of this 
chief, Bariya suffered from Maratha raids. In 1802 Nagoji Vahji, 
an oificer of Sindia' s, levied a sum of £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000), and, 
two years later, Sadashivrav exacted £8400 (Rs. 84,000). In 1805 
Sambhaji Angria, on the part of Sindia, extorted £1400 (Rs. 14,000) ; 
and in the following year Bhujangrav, an officer of the same 
government, levied £800 (Rs. 8000), and Mahipatrav,^ one of 
Holkar's commanders, coUecbed £3300 (Rs. 33,000). In 1808 Bapu 
Sindia not only exacted £2300 (Rs. 23,000), but plundered the 
capital.* From 1810 to 1815 Ramdin, Roshan Beg,* Bapu Raghunath 
of Dhar, andGovindravBolia levied contributions. Raja Gangdas was 
so imbecile, that the government continued to be under the control 
of his mother till, in 1817, she was treacherously murdered by a 
Brahman named Naranji Dave. This man, a dismissed manager of 
the Rajgad sub-division, had entered the service of Krishnaji the 
manager of Godhra, who gave him the command of 100 horse and 
400 foot. Shortly after, he made use of the chance given by 
Krishnaji's moving out to collect the revenues to plan an attack 
on Bariya. At Dohad, by a promise of £500 (Rs. 5000), he induced 
Krishnaji to agree to his taking a party of 100 horse and 300 foot to 
carry his designs into execution. With these he proceeded to Bariya 
and, on drawing near, left the main body and with only twenty-five 
followers entered the town. At night he privately entered the 
palace and, putting the Rani in fear of the Godhra troops, induced 
her to leave the palace and put her to death. He then plundered 
her estate, killed Ratan Sabhan her confidential servant, and, 
intending to destroy him, put the chief in confinement. Escaping 
to Ohhota Udepur, the chief was brought back (1817-18). And soon 
after, in a fight with Vithoji the brother of the Godhra manager, 
the usurper Naranji was mortally wounded. 

The connection between the British Government and Bariya 
state dates from 1803, when Daulatrav Sindia's Gujarat districts were 
taken by a British force commanded by Colonel Murray. The 
success of that campaign was greatly due to the friendship and 



• In Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. (New Series) p. 119, Edyadharji is stated to have 
succeeded Mdnsing ; the bardic accounts mention Edyadharji as the successor of 
Prithirdj. 

^ Malcolm's Central India, I. 264, 265. 

' Malcolm's Central India, II. 248. The name of B^pu Sindia is still, on every new 
year's day, cursed by the BAriya townspeople, 

* Both these were Holkar's officers. Malcolm's Central India, I, 276, 277. 



GKijar&t.] 



EEWA KlNTHA. 



119 



goodwill shown by Raja Gangdas,^ for wHch service lie was 
declared entitled to Britisli protection under the tenth article of the 
treaty of Sarji Anjangaon.^ Though enclosed by Sindia's Gujarat 
possessions, the Bariya state never became tributary to that chief. 
It was subject to attacks from Siadia's troops, and sometimes had 
to pay heavily before they withdrew, but it escaped a yearly tribute 
and maintamed its right to share in the revenues of Halol, Kalol, 
and Dohad, which, in 1819, was commuted into a yearly payment of 
£414 (Baroda Rs. 4750) . Raja Gangdas died in 1819. The miuister 
Rupji immediately seized the government, and raised to the chiefship 
a child called Bhimsing, the son of a Bhil, who had been adopted 
by one of the late chief's wives to the exclusion of Prithiraj, his lawful 
son. Soon after, Rupji was supplanted by his brother Jijibhai, who 
removed the spurious Bhimsing and raised Prithiraj to the chiefship. 
Jijibhai mismanaged the state so scandalously, that, in 1824, he was 
removed by Captain MacDonald, then in political charge, and his 
place given to Nathubhai a relation of the chief. Prithiraj was then 
seven years old. In 1824 the state agreed to pay for British 
protection a yeaxly sum of £933 12s. 6d. {Sdlamshod Rs. 12,000). 
This, which at first was to rise with the prosperity of the state, was 
fixed in 1849.^ This amount is still paid, but, under orders issued in 
1868, it is spent for the good of the country or in matters connected 
with the management of the RewaKantha Agency. In 1838 Keval 
Naik and his brothers of the village of Bara in the Sagtala 
sub-division of Bariya, with other Udepur and the Panch Mahals 
Naikdas, harassed the country. Government interfered, restored 
order, and took Sagtala under their direct management. Prithiraj 
died in 1864, and as his son Mansingji was only eight years old, the 
charge of the estate was entrusted to the Political Agent. It remained 
under direct management till, in November 1876, on his coming of 
age, it was handed over to the young chief. Since 1864, except for 
the Naikda rising in 1868, in which the Bariya post of Rajgad was 
burnt, order has been unbroken.* 

During the eleven years of direct management, Bariya made very 
great progress. The whole district was surveyed, and of its 439 
villages the limits were fixed, and the lands measured and mapped. 
By revising the rates, introducing better supervision, and abolishing 
monopolies and farms, the customs revenue was raised from £5132 
(Rs. 51,328) in 1864-65 to £6989 (Rs. 69,891) in 1875-76 ; the land 
revenue from £7869 (Rs. 78,688) to £8008 (Rs. 80,077) ; and the total 
receipts from £15,232 (Rs. 1,52,318) to £17,210 (Rs. 1,72,097), and 
though more than £71,684 (Rs. 7,16,845) were spent on works of 



ChaptOT^XIII. 
States. 
Ba'riya. 
History. 



Development, 
1865-1876. 



' When the war with Sindia broke out, the Bdriya chief freely and zealously 
aided the British commander by keeping open his communications and furnishing 
supplies. A body of Bariya Bhils was subsidized, and attached to the force during 
the campaign. Bom. Quar. Rev. Ill, (1856), 357. 

2 Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IH. 277. 

» Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 273, 274. 

4 Details of the Naikda rising are given in the FauchMahils Statistical Account, 
Bombay Gazetteer, III. 255-258. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



120 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ba'riya. 

Development, 
1865-1876. 



public usefulness/ a debt of £10,803 (Es. 1,08,030) was converted 
into a cash balance of £18,111 (Rs. 1,81,111). An efficient federal 
police was organized, and traders, where they formerly risked almost 
certain robbery, can now pass without escort or fear. A dispensary 
has been opened, and large numbers of children have been vaccinated. 
Schools have risen from one to fourteen and pupils from 100 to 632, 
The young Raja has been educated at the Ahmedabad Talukdari 
school, and the Rajkot Rajkumar College. He is a chief of the second 
class, and is entitled to a salute of nine guns. Probably from the 
late date at which the present family was established at Bariya, 
the state is very free from sharers and cadets, and the amount of 
alienations is small, chiefly confined to villages close to the capital. 
In this state there is a remarkable absence of nobles, sarddrs, 
vassals, patdvats, or cadets, bhdydds. 

The following is, as far as can be ascertained, the Bariya family 
tree. It is defective in several respects. 

Jayasing, Pdtii Raval, 

I 

E^yasing. 



Prithirdj 
(Chhota Udepur). 



Dungarsing.' 
Udesing. 
Eiyasing. 
Vijayaing. 
Minaing (died about 1720>.' 
Prithiraj (came to the throne 1732), 
Edyadharji.^ 

Gangd&ji. 

I 
Gambhirsing. 



Dhiratsing/ 



I 

Sdhebaing. 

Yashvantsing. 



Gangdd;s (died ISigy. 
Prithirij (died 1864). 

Mdnsing (the present Chieif, 

» See note' 1 Chhota tldepiir fajnily tree. 

'Ope account makes Mansing the grandson of D'nngarsing bj- hia son Prithirij, thns omiititig 
Mansing'a three predecessors. Of these four successors of Dungarsing little ia ^own except th^ 
Mtosing's reign ended about 1720. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 118. 

=> One account puts in Mousing between R6yadhar,ji and Prithirfij. Bom. Gov. Sel. XS.111. 119. 

* Some lists omit Dhiratsing, while others omit hia grandfather Gangd&aji. Bom. Gov, Sel. XX-III. 
119, 147: Bombay Chiefs, Hewa K4ntha, 13. 



^ These include twenty miles within BAriya territory of the Godhra and Dohad road 
at a total cost of £27,583 (Rs. 2,75,828) ; a substantial jail, dispensary, school, and 
an ornamental clock-tower in the town of BAriya ; and in the district, four rest-houses, 
six ponds, and fifty-five wella either built or repaired] besides thirteen school houses, 
offices, toll houses, and police posts. 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



121 



Luna'va'da, lying between north latitude 22° 50' and 23° 16' 
and east longitude 73° 21' and 73° 47', with an area of 388 square 
miles, had in 1 872 a population of 74,81 3 souls or 192*81 to the square 
mile, and, during the five years ending 1878, an estimated average 
yearly revenue of £13,940 (Rs. 1,39,400). ^ 

It is bounded on the north by the Rajputana state of Dungarpur, 
on the east by Sunth and Kadana in Rewa Kantha, on the south 
by the Godhra sub-division of the Ranch Mahals, and on the west 
by Balasinor in Rewa Kantha, and Idar in Mahi Kantha. 
Irregular in shape with many outlying villages, its lands are much 
mixed with those of Balasinor and the British Ranch Mahals. Its 
extreme length from north to south is thirty-four, and its extreme 
breadth from east to west twenty-five, miles. 

The soil is generally stony and the country open and rocky with, 
in places, low scantily wooded hills. 

Besides the Mahi, flowing through the district from the north- 
east to the south-west, and the Panam in the south flowing west 
into the Mahi, there are of local streams the Bhadar, which joins 
the Mahi, the Vehri which falls into the P^nam, and the Sheri 
which, taking its rise from the hills of Dhamod in the Vardhari 
sub-division, joins the Vatrak at the town of Kaira, and finally falls 
into the Sabarmati. Besides ponds there are near very many 
villages a large number of wells, 642 of them built and 297 unbuilt. 

The north of the state is very rugged, and in the south-east a 
chain of hills stretches from the town of Lunavada into Sunth. In 
the Vardhari sub-division, there is a central and a western ridge 
of moderately high hills, and in Nandarva are two nearly parallel 
ranges of crescent-shaped hills, steep but not very high. 

The climate is perhaps somewhat cooler than in the neighbouring 
parts of Gujarat. The prevailing disease is fever. The average 
fall of rain during the five years ending 1878 was thirty-nine inches. 
The highest and lowest ranges of the thermometer in the town of 
Lunavada during 1873 were 114° in May and 50° in February. 

Cereals and timber are the chief products. 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 
Luna'va'da. 

Position. 
Boundaries. 



Aspect . 



Rivers, 



Hills. 



Climate. 



1 Lundvdda Balance Sheet, 1818. 




RKCEIPT3. 


£. 


DlSBnBSEHBNTS. 


£. 


Land Revenue 


8680 


Establishments 


1998 


Transit Dutiea, sdyor 


1862 


PoUce ana Military 


2725 


Cesses 


738 


Jail 


562 


Excise 


430 


Education 


473 


Law and Justice 


263 


Medical 


205 • 


Medical 


74 


AUowancee 


653 


Miscellaneous 


418 


Public works 


635 






State charges 


1488 






Tributes and fixed payments 


3046 






Survey charges 


255 






Interest on Loans 


353 






Misoellaneons 


804 






Rdja's marriage charges 

Total ... 


3313 


Total ... 


11,955 


16,369 



B 561-16 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



122 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

LUNA'VA'DA. 

Population. 



Sub-divisions. 



Tte 1872 census showed a total population of 74,813 souls or 
192-81 to tlie square mile. Of the whole number 71,725 or 95-87 
per cent were Hindus, and 3088 or 4-13 per cent Musalmans. Of 
the Hindus, 7976 were Brahmans, priests ; 2577 Rajputs, cultiTatorsf 
2201 Vanias, traders J 11,760 Kanbis, cultivators; 162 Kachhidsi, 
cultivators; 856 Suthdrs, carpenters; 910 Luhars, blacksmiths; 193 
Kadias, bricklayers ; 944 Kumbhars, potters ; 507 Darjis, tailors ; 127 
"Golas, rice-beaters; 1014 Hajams, barbers; 701 Bhois and 1258 
Machhis, fishers; 124 Bharvads, shepherds; 198 Vanjar-as, carriers; 
808 Gosais, religious beggars; of unsettled tribes, 33,117 Kolis 
and Bhils ; and of depressed classes, 209 Turis, 207 Garudas, 112 
Dabgars, 4484 Dheds, 730 Chamadias, 135 Bhambhis, and 478 
Bhangis. 

Of the 71,725 Hindus, 15,564 were Vaishnavs, 4791 of them Vir- 
vaishnavs, 8852 Ramanujs, 543 Svaminarayans, 1329 Vallabha- 
charis, and 49 Kabirpanthis ; 10,846 were Shaivs; 468 Shravaks; 
5 Ascetics ; and 44,842 of no special sect. Of the 3088 Musalmans 
2450 were Sunnis, 74 of them Syeds, 490 Shaikhs, 420 Pathans, 14 
Moghals, 167 Arabs, 30 Makranis, and 1255 ' Others'; and 638, 
all of them Bohoras, were Shias. The number of villages was 437 
or 1-12 to the square mile, and the average village population 
171-11. Of the whole number 334 villages had less than 200 
inhabitants ; 84 had from 200 to 500 ; 14 from 500 to 1000 ; 4 from 
1000 to 2000 ; and one, the town of Lunavada, had 9662 souls, of 
whom 7206 were Hindus, and 2456 Musalmans. There were 
17,357 houses or on an average 44-56 houses to the square mile, and 
4-48 persons to each house. Of the houses 7614 with 33,172 
inmates were of the better, and 9743 with 41,641 inmates of the 
lower, sort. 

The lands of the state are distributed over five sub-divisions, 
Pandarvada, Khanpur,^ Haveli, Vardhari, and' Nandarva. 
Pa'ndaeva'da in the north, from being constantly exposed to the raids 
of its wild neighbours, is the least advanced part of the state. On the 
west lie the states of Magodi and Idar, on the east the wild villages ' 
of Kadana, and on its north the Pal or Bhil country of Dungarpur. 
The most northerly villages are peopled by different tribes of Kolis 
or Bhils, whose main object in former times was to hold" their own 
against their neighbours, and to refuse to pay tribute to any 
superior. This was especially the case with the large village of 
Chhani, -and its hamlets in the extreme north of the state., 
Stretching over seven square miles its possession was hotly contested'! 
by the chiefs of Dungarpur and Lundv£da. The villagers, knowing 
that the settlement of the quarrel would involve the loss of their 
freedom and the payment of tribute to one side or the other, fosteredl. 
the dispute by alternately giving evidence in favour of each of 
the claimants. After much delay the dispute was, in 1 872, decided in 
favour of Lunavada. Of the thirty-nine villages three are held on 
service, one on charitable, one on grant tenure, and thirty-four 



' Since this was written the sub-division of PdndarvAda has been included under 
1 new Khinpur sub-division. 



GujarAt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



12S 



pay rent to the state. The people are nearly all Kolis and Bhils. 
Kha'npue, south of Pandarvada, has forty-one villages, seven of 
them held on service tenure, three assigned to temples, three given 
as maintenance, jivdi, and two in gift, inam. The remaining twenty- 
six pay rent to the state. Some villages of this sub-division have 
a fair number of settled Kanbi inhabitants. Others as Khanpur and 
Karanta in a difficult country are peopled entirely by Kolis, who in 
former times refused to pay any allegiance. Karanta now a small 
village, in the angle formed by the meeting of the Bhadar and 
the Mahi, was formerly a place of considerable note, and plays a 
leading part in the legends of the state. It is said that it was 
formerly ruled by a man of very low caste, who fell in love 
with a Brahman's daughter,, and demanded her in marriage. 
The Brahman sought the help of Kutub Muhamniad,^ a saint who 
lived at Shiraj, and who was a lineal descendant of Abbas, the uncle 
of Muhammad. Kutub Muhammad came and completely destroyed 
the power of the low caste ruler of Karanta. He then took up his 
residence in the town of Karanta and worked many miracles. Crowds 
flocked to see him, and he healed the sick, stayed a pestilence, 
and caused water to flow in dry places. The neighbouring 
town of Yirpur was at that time ruled by a Koli named Vir, who 
jealous of the saint's influence, harassed him in various ways. 
Kutub Muhammad sought the help of some Solanki Rajputs of the 
family of Sidhraj Jayasing, the king of Anhilvada Patan, and with 
their aid drove out Vir from Virpur. The Rajputs established 
themselves there, and were the ancestors of the present Lunavada 
dynasty. The saint died, it is said, at Karanta full of years and 
honour, and his shrine was visited yearly by thousands of pilgrims. 
Afterwards, his remains were taken to the tomb of his grandson, 
Dariayi Saheb at Yirpur, and together they have been venerated.* 
It is said that the daughter of the Brahman, for whose sake Kutub 
Muhammad came all the way from Shiraj, threw herself, weary of 
life and of the strife of which she was the innocent cause, into a 
pool in the Bhadar river, and that her ghost S'till haunts, it. The 
Cha'tkabeli or Haveli sub-division to the south of Khanpur, in the 



Chapter^ XIII. 

States. 

Lttna'va'ba. 
Sub- divisions, 



' This acoqjmt of Kutub Muhanunad and his successors is taken from a Persian 
work Tukfat-ul-kdr-i-malfus, written in 1705 (1119 H.), by Mansur bin Chtod 
Muhammad of Ahmedabad. 

2 Another local legend tells how a blacksmith of the name of LdKa lived in 
Ahmedabad making axes and other Bhil tools. One day a Bhil came to him bringing an 
axe of Lilia's making, and complaining that it would not cut. I41ia on looking at it 
found that the blade was turned to gold. On questioning the Bhil, he found that he 
had tried to sharpen the axe on a stone he had brought with him, and LAlia immediately 
pearceived that the man was in possession of the philosopher's stone. He bought 
it, but before he could use it, the news came to the ears of the Muhammadan king 
of the city, who immediately tried to get it. Ldlia managed to escape, and arriving 
in the LunAvAda district built a fort near the village of Dhdmod, where for some time 
he opposed the army which was sent after him successfully. He eventually had to 
beat a retreat, and after various adventures took refuge near KAranta, where, it is said, 
he built a fort. But he could not stand against the king's troops, and finding that 
he would have to retreat again, and believing the stone to be the source of all his 
troubles, he threw it into a deep pool in the Bhddar river close to Karanta. The king's 
troops vainly tried to find it. They threw in some iron chains, and had undisputable 
evidence of the existence of the stone, by finding some of the links turned to gold. 
But the stone they never discovered, and there it is said still to lie. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



124 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Luna'va'da. 
Sub-divisiona. 



History. 



corner between tlie Malii and Panam rivers, is the richest and largest 
sub-division of the district. Besides Lunavada it contains 130 villageSj 
fifty of them state, khdlsa, the rest either wholly or partly alienated. 
The Vaedhaei sub-division to the west of the Mahi is much mixed 
with Balasinor villages. Of 50 villages 36 belong to the state, 10 are 
held under quasi-proprietary tenure, and 4 are private, indm. The 
lands in the valley of the river Sheri form the most fertile portion ' 
of the sub-division. The chief crops are rice, millet, and bahti. There 
are also grown bdvta, hodra, mag, tal, guvdr, adad, math, tuver, hemp, 
juvdr, maize, castor- oil, wheat, tobacco, and gram. Except in some 
villages with a fair sprinkling of Kanbis, the people are Kolis. 
There is no market town ; the only village of any trading 
consequence is Vardhari Dhamod on the extreme western frontier 
of the state. This is connected with the fortunes of Lalia an 
Ahmedabad blacksmith, who is said to have become the holder of 
the philosopher's stone. Pursued by the Ahmedabad king, he ' 
took refuge at Dhamod and gathering the Bhils, opposed the 
advance of the king's army. A fort consisting of several semi-circular 
bastions with a connecting parapet wall, is pointed out as Lalia's fort, 
and facing it, another building of much the same character is shown " 
as the stronghold of the pursuing force. A fine mosque still in good 
repair shows that under the Musalmans Dhamod was a place of 
. some importance. The Na'ndaeva sub-division, to the south of the 
Mahi and Panam, is bounded on the north by those rivers with 
the exception of a small space where a portion of the Sunth state 
crosses the Panam, and intrudes wedge-shaped into Nandarva. On 
its southern side it borders on Grodhra with whose villages it is 
somewhat intermixed. Of eighty-six villages, fifty-six are state, 
hhdlsa, and the rest are held on some quasi-proprietary tenure. On 
the top of a hill overlooking the river Panam, stands the very 
lonely temple of Dehjaria Mahadev. Its age is unknown. In old 
times the god is said, in answer to prayer, to have left near the 
temple anything his worshippers prayed for, on condition that they 
should return its value within a reasonable time. Many years 
ago some faithless votary forgetting to pay his debt, the god's 
favour was withdrawn. The staple grains are millet and rice, and 
the population is chiefly Koli, with here and there a small community 
of Kanbis. 

The Eajas of Lunavada claim descent from the Solanki or 
Chalukya kings of Anhilvada (942 - 1243). They are known by the 
name of Virpura Solankis,^ one of the sixteen branches, shuhhds, 
into which the tribe is divided. According to the bardic account, 
Eaj and Bij, two brothers of the Solanki clan, came to Patau on 
their way from Tunk Toda, the country between the Ganges and 
Jamna, to Somnath. Raj married Liladevi the sister of Samatsing, 
the last Ohapotkat or Chavda king of Anhilvada, and Mulraj the 
son of Raj, killing his uncle Samatsing, usurped the Anhilvada 
throne. Some lately-discovered metal-plate land grants of the 



' Tod's RiljasthAn, I. 91. 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



125 



Anhilvada Clialukyas, show that Mulraj the founder of the Solanki 
dynasty in Gujarat^ was the son of Raji the son of BhuvanMitya 
and Mng of Kalyan, the capital of the kingdom of Kanya 
Knbja or Kanoujj and he conquered Gujarat from Samatsing.^ 

According to the bardsj one Dhumaldev^ a Solanki^ went to Dholka 
in 1104 and to Karli^ in 1134, when Sidhraj Jayasing was king of 
Anhilvada. This Dhumaldev is probably DhavaP the founder of 
the Vyaghrapalli or Vaghela branch of the Solankis, whose first 
seat of government was at Dholka. Virbhadra, the great grandson 
of Dhaval,* left Karli and in 1225, killing Viro Bariya its chief, 
established himself at Virpur, a town about eight or nine miles 
west of Lunavada. His successors were Kikoji, Mahansing, Mahv- 
sing, Gomsing, Prathampalaksing, Vikramsing, and Vithalsing. 
Vithalsing moved his capital from Virpur to Diya, a village on the 
Mahi three or four miles from Lunavada, and his successor Bhimsing 
founded the town of Lunavada in 1434. Of Virbhadra's settlement at 
Virpur, a bardic legend states that at that time one Viro Bariyo, aKoli, 
ruled over Virpur,^ and that he wanted to marry the daughter of a 
Brahman of that place. The Brahman asked Virbhadra's help against 
the Koli, and it was arranged that the Brahman should give a seeming 
consent to the match, and should fix a day for the marriage, and 
that on that day Virbhadra should lie in wait with his followers 
and fall upon the Kolis. This plan was carried out. Virbhadra 
attacked the Kolis, routed them with great slaughter, and established 
himself at the Avichal Mata at Virpur. Nothing is known of the 
Virpur chiefs, except that they spread their sway east to the site of 
the town of Lunavada. The bard's story of the founding of Lunavada 
runs as follows. Bhimsing one day went hunting across the Mahi, 
and getting separated from his companions, found himself near an 
ascetic's hut. Eespectfully saluting the recluse, Bhimsing gained 
his goodwill and was told that there was a great future before 
him, and that passing east through the forest, at a spot where a hare 
should cross his path, he was to found a city. The JElana did as he was 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Luna'va'da. 

History, 



^ Ind. Ant. VI. 181, The bardic account is unworthy of credit except that it 
supports Dr. Biihler's contention, that the Solankis of Gujardt came from the north 
and not from the south. The idea of their having emigrated from Tunk Toda was 
very likely suggested to the bards by the fact that the ancestors of the present 
chiefs of Rupuagar in Meywar, who claimed descent from SidhrAj Jayasing, possessed 
themselves of IMnk Toda (Tonk in Raiputd,na) after the overthrow of the Solanki 
dynasty in Gujardt in 1297, whence they were driven out by the Afghans. Tod's 
RAjasthdn, I. 578, 592. 

2 Karli is a village in ChuvAl on the road to PAtan from Viramgdm. The 
ChuvAl bards trace some connection between the Chuvdl Solankis and the Chilukya 
Rijds of Anhilvdda. Detroj was the chief town of the ChuvAl Solankis, who 
afterwards intermarried with the Kolis. It is very probable that Dhaval and his 
descendants conquered Chuvdl after they had settled at Dholka. 

3 Dholka is a corruption of Dhavalgriha or the abode of Dhaval. Dhaval was 
married to the sister of the mother of Knmdrpdl, and by her had a son named Arnordj, 
who served under KumdipAl. Arno's son was Lavanprasid, whose son Virdhaval was 
the famous Kdna of Dholka (1220-12.39). 

^ The father of Virbhadra was Mdldev, the son of Jetmal, the son of Dhumaldev. 
So that Virbhadra was a distant cousin of Virdhaval, in whose time he moved from 
Karli to Virpur. 

^ It seems at least as likely that Virpur was called after the Rajput founder 
Virbhadra. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



126 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 

Luna'va'da. 
History. 



STATES. 



told, met the hare, and on the spot, now marked by the temple of 
Bhavaneshvari Mata, built a town. The Sadhu was a devotee of 
the god Luneshvar, and the Rana out of compliment called the 
town Lunavada. A shrine of the god Luneshvar still stands 
outside the Darkoli gate.^ 

It seems probable that Bhimsing was driven across the Mahi 
by the increasing power of the Ahmedabad kings, aaid that he chose 
the site of his new capital on account of its strong position. 
The town is sheltered by a fortified hill, strong enough to defy all 
the artillery that could at that time be brought against it, while the 
rugged hill and tangled forest at the back of the fortifications afforded 
a safe retreat, should the position be overpowered by superior force. 
According to the bards, Bhimsing's successors were Dhundhalraja, 
Dhavaldevsing, Viramdevji, Jesingdevji, Bhimdevji, Virprabalsingji, 
Pratapsin^i, Vadoravan Virsingji, Viramdevji or Rdna Vir, Raghav- 
devsingji, and Gangdasji. But, as the last prince appears from an 
inscription on a brass image of the goddess Bhavaneshvari to have 
flourished in 1469, it seems probable that he was Bhimsing's 
immediate successor, and that the chiefs, given above, were the 
. governors of Virpur subordinate to Lunavada. Grangdas was followed 
by Uda Rana, who was succeeded by Raghavranasing or Vaghsingj 
who according to the bards, was a contemporary of Mahmud Begada 
(1459-1511). Soon after 1505, when Mahmud's general Bodi 
Moghal took Balasinor, the Muhammadans seem to have pressed into 
Lunavada, for in 1545 the Raja of Lunavada is said to have disturbed 
the country in consequence of the Muhammadan encroachments.' 
Vaghsing was succeeded by Malsing or Malorano, who, as shown by , 
an inscription in a Jain temple in the town of Lunavada, continued 
to reign till 1575. His successor Vanvirji, as shewn in deeds of his 
granting, ruled at least tDl 1594. He was followed by Akheraj^ at 
whose death the direct line of Rajas from Bhimsing came to an end, 
and Kumbho Rano of a collateral branch of the family was brought 
from the village of Gandhari, and invested with the chiefship. Prom 
an inscription on a stone, alleged to have been destroyed a few 
years ago in a boundary dispute between Lunavada and Sunth, this 
Raja reigned in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He was 



' This tale of the ascetic and the hare is commonly told of the foimding of cities. 
It seems probable that Bhimsing called his new town Lundvdda or Laranvida, 
in honour of his relative Lavanprasid, chief of Dholka. Before the establiahment of 
the Solan^is at Lun^vdda, Godhra was a state of considerable importance, said to 
have been subject to Virdhaval, Kdna of Dholka. Inscriptions in the temples of 
Dehjar and Kakachia, now in the Lun4v4da state, dated 1129 and 1331 a.d„ prove a 
Kajput kingdom near Lun4v4da before the time of Bhimsing. The revolt of Dhundhal 
the Rdja of Godhra in the beginning of the thirteenSi century, his defeat and 
capture by Vastupil, the famous Vinia minister of Virdhaval of Dholka, and his 
suicide, have already been noticed. 

^ Major Watson's GujarAt, 52. 

3 From a paper dated 1586, it appears that the Lnn&rida chief held the town of 
Virpur and its dependent villages, now included in the state of Bildsinor, and had 
vTrested some villages to the north from the Virpura Solanki Thikor of Meghraj, now 
of Mori, a cadet of the R&jis of Idar. At the same time the country south of the 
Fdnam, at present part of LunAvAda, does not appear to have at that time been 
subject to the LunAvida chiefs. The supremacy over this part was contested by the 
chiefs of Godhra, and a cadet of the Solanki family, who ruled at JhAnor in Thdsra. 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



127 



succeeded by Jitsing, who appears from tis written grants to have 
ruled as late as 1618. Jitsing was followed by Triloksing, of whom the 
only known date is 1619. His successor was Dayaldas, who appears 
from entries on written grants to hare reigned at Lunavada in 
1629 and 1637. He was succeeded by Ohandrasingj whose reign 
seems to have lasted at least as late as 1674. This chief was a 
contemporary of Rao Punja of Idar, the son of Rao Jagannath whose 
memory is cursed by the local bards. When Arjundas, the brother of 
Punja, was meditating an attack on the Ahmedabad districts, he was 
joined by the princes, kuvars, of Lunavada, Dungarpur, Bansvada, 
and Devalia, who were returning from Ahmedabad. They attempted 
to attack the town of Ranasan, but the Rehvar Rajputs of the place 
fell upon them, and in the fight, the princes of Lunavada, Dungarpur, 
and Devalia, as well as Arjundas were slain. Their bodies were 
taken away and burnt by the surviving Ituvar of Bansvada.^ The 
next Rdja was Virsing, whose land-grants bear date as late as 
1711. He was succeeded by Narsing, who ruled from 1712 
to 1735, and, in 1718 (Samvat 1774 or Shake 1640, Vaishdkh 
sud 10th), laid the foundation of the Lunavada town wall. During 
his reign in 1722, Haidar Kuli Khan the Ahmedabad Viceroy 
levied a tribute of £8000 (Rs. 80,000) from the state of Lunavada.** 
Narsing's successor was Vakhatsing, whose rule lasted from 
1736 to 1757. At this time some Muhammadan generals from 
Ahmedabad went to Virpur under Lunavada, and in 1 740, received 
two horses and £300 (Rs. 3000) as tribute from Sultansing, 
the agent of the Lunavada chief. ^ In 1746, Malharrao Holkar, 
on his way back from his yearly raid into Malwa, was asked by the 
Lunavada chief to join him in attacking Virpur. Holkar agreed 
and Virpur was plundered.* Vakhatsing was succeeded by 
Dipsing, who ruled from 1758 to 1782. In the first year of his rule 
Sadashiv Ramchandra, one of the Peshwa's officers, marched 
against Lunavada, demanded from Dipsing a tribute of £5000 
(Rs. 50,000),^ and kept him a prisoner till the whole was paid.^ 
Dipsing was succeeded by Durjansalji, who ruled from 1 782 to 1 786 
when he was murdered by his manager Desai Shankardas of Nadiad. 
The Desai raised Durjansalji's brother Jagatsing to the chiefship, 
and he continued in power for some months, though he was not 
recognized by the people who looked on him as a usurper. 
Meanwhile Khushalkuarba, the mother of Durjansalji, a resolute 
woman, and with her the widowed Rani, made their escape,' 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

LunaVa'da, 
History. 



1 Rds M41a, 344. 

2-6 Major Watson's Gujarit, 9S, 123, 132, 149, and 151. 

' At this time the power of the Lundvdda chief was on the decline. They had 
more powerful neighbours in the B^bis of BdUsinor, who not only encroached upon 
their estate of Virpur, but held several villages in the north of LunAvAda. In 1717 
a village in north Lun^vAda, granted by the Emperor Firokshir of Delhi to a religious 
claimant, and in 1722 another village in the neighbourhood were given away by Sardir 
Mahmud, the Bibi of BAlSsinor. The names of Malekpur, Khdnpur, and Rehmaii, 
villages in the north of LunAvdda, still show how the power of the BAbi of BAUsinor 
had spread. On the other hand the power of the Godhra chiefs and the LuiiAvAda 
cadets, to the south of the river Pdnam, began to wane, and the result was that 
what the LunivAda chiefs lost in the north and west they gained in the south and 
south-east. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



128 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ldtua'va'ba. 
History, 



and returning shortly after murdered Shankardas, and raised 
Pratapsing, the infant son of Durjansalji to the chiefship in 1 786.^ 

In 1803 the Bombay Grovemment entered into a convention 
with theEaja, by which, on consideration of his furnishing a military 
contingent, he was insured protection and relief from the tribute 
hitherto paid to Sindia.^ This treaty was not ratified by the Grovernor 
General. 

In 1812, through the medium of the Political Agent in the Mahi 
Kantha, the state entered into an engagement to pay the Gaikwar 
a yearly tribute of £525 (Baroda Es. 6001) without the interven- 
tion of an army.^ In 1816 Lunavada was plundered by the troops 
of the Babi of Balasinor under Patel Bhagvandas, and in 1817, 
an officer of the Pavars of Dhar named Bapu Eaghunath,* took 
possession of the town, held it for twenty-seven days, and left 
it only on the payment of a ransom of £4000 (Es. 40,000). 
Mohansing^ one of Holkar's officers, the Patankar of Sindia's Panch 
Mahals and other freebooters, as well as Arjunsing of Gadh, a 
vassal of Bansvada, also levied contributions.^ A cadet of the Babi 
family established himself in Virpur, and Sindia wrested from the 
state a yearly tribute of £1065 (Baroda Es. 12,000). 

In 1819 an engagement was mediated between Sindia and the 
Lunavada chief, by which the British Government guaranteed the 
payment of the tribute on condition that Sindia would not interfere 
directly or indirectly in the affairs of the state.' 

In 1822, the engagements of 1812 were renewed and made 
lasting, and the state became formally entitled to British pro- 
tection in accordance with the terms of the convention of the 3rd 
of April 1820. Previous to this, in the year 1819, an engagement had 
been entered into between Sir J. Malcolm on behalf of the British 
Government, and Mansing Patankar on behalf of Sindia, in which the 
British guaranteed the perpetual payment by Lunavada of the tiibute 
of £1060 (Bdbdshm, Es. 12,001)^ on condition of Sindia's abstaining 
from all interference in the state. By these two agreements 
Lunavada came doubly under the protection of Government. The 
political control was, in 1825, transferred from the Mahi to the Eewa 
Kantha Agency. After the convention with Sindia, in 181 9, Shivsing, 
who was out in rebellion against Fatehsing, appealed to Sir J. Malcolm. 
A few months older than Fatehsing, he claimed on the score of 
primogeniture. He was told that the British Government had 



1 About 1789, during the reign of this chief, ' the Diwin' besieged Lundvdda, but 
failed in his attempts to take the place. The Diwdn was probably DiwAn KangrAv 
Aurckar of DhAr. Malcolm's Central India, I, 104. 

2 Aitohison's Treaties (1876), IV. 277, 278. 

3 Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 278, 279. 

•» BApu RaghunAth with a rabble of an army amounting to eight or nine thousand 
men plundered the country and levied contributions from Dungarpur to Nem^r. 
Malcolm's Central India, I. 110. 

s Malcolm's Central India, II. 422. » RAs MAla, 484. 

!■ Aitohison's Treaties (1876), IV. 279, 280. 

* The RAjAs of LunAvida and Suuth agreed to pay DaulatrAv Sindia Rs. 12,000 
and Ks. 7000 Sdlamshdhi, 10th August 1820. Malcolm's Central India, II. 41 



Oujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



129 



decided, as a general rule,- to support the parties in possession, as 
the only mode of reducing to order the numerous disturbed 
principalities in central India. After this no further notice was taken 
of Shivsing's claims. Fatehsing died childless on the 27th June 1849. 
On the day of his death he adopted a collateral named Dalpatsing. 
The boy was recognized as heir by all the relatives, and his 
adoption was sanctioned by Government on the 29th August (1849), 
Fatehsing's mother Nanibai being appointed regent. Dalpatsing 
died while still young, on the 4th October 1851, and pending 
the appointment of a successor, the regent Nanibai remained in 
power. She died on the 23rd February 1852, before any decision 
was come to on the question of succession. About three weeks 
before her death, she had expressed a wish to adopt Dalelsing, 
a collateral fourth in descent from Raja Narsingji, at the same time 
she stated that Ajitsing was nearest of kin, but that being of weak 
intellect she had passed him over. Ajitsing was fifth in descent 
from Narsingji, but had been adopted by another Narsing, the 
grandson of Raja Vakhatsing, and by a reference to the family tree 
it will be seen that by this adoption he became the nearest living 
representative of the reigning family. He however acquiesced in 
the nomination of Dalelsing. The matter was referred for decision to 
the Court of Directors, and final orders were not passed till the 8th 
September 1852. The Court, in their despatch of the 1st July 1852, 
ruled that the regent Nanibai had no right to confer political power 
on her nominee. At the same time they had no objection to Dalelsing 
being appointed Raja of Lunavada by the direct authority of the 
British Government. Four collaterals objected to this arrangement, 
Gemalbhai, Mehrubhai, Surajmal, and Makansing. It will be seen 
from the family tree, that the common ancestor of these claimants was 
Raja Jitsing. They were therefore one generation nearer the reigning 
line than Dalelsing, and one generation more removed than Ajitsing. 
The two first of these claimants were never seriously opposed to 
the nomination of Dalelsing, and did not agitate their claims after 
he was put in power, but Surajmal and Makansing were bitterly 
hostile to him, and never recognized him as the rightful heir. 
During the 1857 mutinies, Surajmal took advantage of the 
disturbed state of the country, and went out in rebellion against 
the Raja. He was secretly helped by Makansing, who supplied 
him with funds and information. Finding that his designs against 
Lunavada were thwarted, Surajmal eventually made his submission 
to the Political Agent, who secured for him from the Raja a 
perpetual yearly gi-ant of £110 (Rs. 1100). Surajmal died in the 
following year. The Malivads a clan of Kolis, belonging to the 
Klanpur sub-division, defied the authority of the Raja, and would 
not allow a post to be established in the village of Khanpur. 
During the sepoy revolt these Malivads grew so troublesome, that 
Major Buckle, the Political Agent, marched against them, burnt 
their village, and apprehending their ringleaders, blew one of them 
from a gun. In 1 870 they again became restless, and Captain Salmon, 
the Acting Political Agent, repaired to Khanpur, and arrested the 
principal offenders, who were sentenced to various terms of imprison- 

B 561—17 



Chapter_XIII. 

States. 

LunaVa'da. 
History. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



130 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. . 

LtjuaVa'da. 
History. 



Development, 
1867-1879. 



ment. Tte Sunth Eajas laid claim to a large tract of Lunavada 
territory lying near tiieir boundary, and even asserted that the 
true boundary of Sunth was an old well in the market of Lunavada 
town. On the other hand Lunavada claimed part of Sunth, and 
at one time built some forts in a few of its villages. To such 
a height was the strife carried, that the Political Agent took the 
management of the Lunavada - Sunth frontier into his own hands. 
On both sides a strong desire to settle the dispute by force of 
arms brought matters to a crisis. Some Arab and Pathan mercenaries 
had been posted at both ends of the frontier, and a scuffle 
took place, in which a few of the Lunavada troops were killed. 
Both states now made large preparations, and a petty skirmish was 
kept up for a day by the militia and horse, aided by the counsels of 
the managers, kdrbhdris, and other officials of the two states. There 
was more of shouting than of real fighting, and an amount of 
ammunition was spent which, if properly used, would have produced 
very serious effects. The fighting ended with the rout of the Sunth 
force, and the burning of the post of Thamba in that state. The 
Mehvasi Kolis on both sides would have prolonged hostilities, had 
not the Political Agent interfered. An inquiry was instituted as to 
the cause of this disturbance, and both the Eajas and their managers 
were heavily fined for presuming to resort to arms. Eaja Dalelsing 
died on the 19th June 1867. The day before his death he expressed 
a wish to adopt Vakhatsing the son of Ajitsing, who, as stated above, 
was the nearest collateral, but had been passed over by the regent 
Nanibai in favour of Dalelsing. Vakhatsing was then in his seventh 
year. Subsequently Motiba, the widow of Dalelsing, was allowed to 
adopt Vakhatsing, paying the British Grovernment a fine, nazardrm, of 
one year's revenue. The adoption ceremony was performed on the 7th 
October 1867, and the Eaja has since been receiving instruction, 
first at the tdluhddri school at Ahmedabad, and subsequently at the 
Eajkumar College, Eajkot. He is married to Sarupkuar, the daughter 
of the Maharaj of Kh^ndu, a Bhayad of the Eaja of Bansvada in 
Mey war. He is entitled to a salute of nine guns, and has power to try 
his own subjects for capital offences. 

Between June 1867 and May 1879, the state was managed by an 
Assistant Political Agent, who since May 1879, has shared its 
administration with the chief, now nineteen years of age. During 
these twelve years, a detailed field survey of the state was 
completed, its boundaries demarcated, and its villages measured and 
mapped. The state land has been classified, and its assessment 
based on the survey principles current in British territory. Titles 
to alienated lands are being inquired into, and a quit-rent of Bd. 
on every 2s. (2 annas in the rupee) of assessment is imposed on all 
rent-free lands unsupported by written grants. The crop-share, 
bhdgbatdi, or Icaltar, system, which afforded the Thandars means 
of illicit gain, has been superseded, and the land revenue has 
consequently increased about twenty-five per cent. The customs 
revenue has been nearly doubled by better supervision and the 
greater facilities afforded to trade. Still the state is crippled by 
excessive alienations and is barely able to pay its way, During the 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



131 



last two years, from special marriage and famine charges, tlie debt, 
■whicliliad been reduced to £6400, again rose to £10,400. Ciril and 
criminal courts have been established, and the regular state police 
has been incorporated into the Rewa Kantha federal force. Among 
works of public usefulness, ten miles of a good road connecting the 
town with the Godhra highway have been made, school houses and 
police posts built, nine schools and a dispensary opened,, vaccination 
largely introduced, and the town much improved by new buildings. 



Chapter_XIII. 

States. 

Luna'va'da. 

History. 



The following is the Lunavada family tree : 

(XI.) Dajrardis.! 
Bhims ■ 



Jitsing. 



(XV.)jVakhat8ing 
(died 1735). 
I 



(Ninth in descent from Bhimsing the founder (1434) of Lun^Tdda) 
(1629 - 1637). 

(Xn.) Cbandrasing 
(died 1674). 

(Xirr.) Virsing 
(died 1711). 

(XIV.) Narsing 
(died 1736). 



(XVI.) Dipaing 

(died 1782). 

CXVII.) Durjansffl 
(died 1786). 



(XVIII.) Prat4psing. 



SbiTsing. (XIX.) Fatelising 
(died 1849). 



Budlising. 

Eealiorbliil. 

I 



Sahebsing, 

Easalbhai. 

I 



I 
Adsmg. 

Bhimsing. 



Daulatsing, GemalbhSi. Prlthibhii, 



I 



Jagji. 

Ratansing. 

Dhirajbh&i. 

Padm&bh&i. 

I 



Karsmg. 
i 



r 

Ajitaing. 

r 

Valchataing. 

(the present 
Chief adopted 
by Dalelsing). 



nr . ' ui-i- GnlSbsing. Malsansing, ...., , . ,^^,. 

Mekrubhai. | Ajitsing Arjunbhdi. 

Sdraimal. (adoptedby i 

NairslDg). Dalpatsing 
(adopted by 
Fatensing). 



Umedsing. 
Kubersing. 

S^Iamsing. 

Daielsing 
(the suc- 
cessor of 
Dalpat' 
sing). 



-I 



(XX.) Dalpatsing 
(died without heirs, 1851). 



(XXI.) ] 

(chosen by Court of Directors, 185a'; 
died 1867). 



(XXIX.) Valihateing 
(the present Chief J 

The order of aucoession is indicated byBomaa numeralff. 

^, J Otpiyiliia' ten predecessors, the names only remain. They are Bhimainir o»n»«. ttj.i * 
EighavrinAsing or Vdghsing, Malsmg, Vanvirji, Akherij, KTimb^^^Ji^;^f^^T^^^' 

Suutb, in the north-east of Rewa K£ntha, lies between 22° ?t^> 
and 23° 33' north latitude, and 73° 45' and 74° 10' east longitude 
It has an area of .394 square miles, and in 1872, had a population of 



ScNTH. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



132 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

SUNTH. 

Boundaries. 



Aspect. 



Eivers, 



HUlg. 



Climate. 



Soil and 
Produce. 



Population. 



49,675 souls or 126-08 to the square mile. During the five years 
ending 1878 it had an estimated average yearly revenue of £10,470 
(Rs. 1,04,700).! 

It is bounded on the north by Kadana in the Rewa Kantha and 
the states of Dungarpur and Bansvada under Meywar ; on the east 
by the Jhalod sub-division of the Panch Mahals ; on the south by the 
Rewa Kantha state of Samjeli and the Godhra sub-division of the 
Panch Mahals; and on the west by the Rewa Kantha state of 
Lunavada. 

To the north the country is fairly flat and open, crossed by several 
small streams on their way north to the Mahi ; to the south it is 
rugged covered with long craggy lines of hills. 

The Mahi flows through the north-west and the Panam through 
the south-west corner of the state. Near the centre the small 
stream of Chibota passes by the village of Sunth, and towards the 
east the Suki flows past the town of Rampur. 

A line of hills, of no great height, running in a curve from the 
Pdnam river in the south to the Mahi in the north, divides the state 
into two parts. Besides this principal chain, many other hills run in 
parallel lines from north to south. 

The climate is generally unhealthy and feverish. Between 1874 
and 1876 the highest thermometer reading was 103 and the lowest 
50. The average fall of rain during the five years ending 1878 was 
41 '9 inches.^ 

The only arable land is in the valleys, where the soil, well charged 
with moisture, yields without manure two crops a year of ordinary 
grain. Indian corn is the staple, and besides it millet, pulse, gram, 
wheat, banti, and in a few well-favoured spots sugarcane, are grown. 
The forests yield a large supply of timber. 

The 1872 census showed a total population of 49,675 souls or 
126-08 to the square mile. Of the whole number 48,687 or 97-91 



1 Sunth Balance Sheet, 1878, 



Receipts. 


£. 


Disbursements. 


- 


Land Hevenne 

Transit Duties, sdj/or 

Cesaes 

Excise 

Law and Justice 

Miscellaneons 


6999 
785 
S83 
438 
114 
947 


Establishments 

Police and Military 

Jail 

Education 

Medical 

Allowances 

Public Works 

State charges 

Tributes and fixed payments 

Surrey charges 

Miscellaneous 

Total ... 


\m 

SS13 
439 

1008 
167 
881 
903 

1420 
700 
21 
139 


Total ... 


8666 


8987 



» The details are SVSl in 1874 ; 40-84 in 1875 ; 47-28 in 1876 ; 2913 in 1877 : and 
60-90 in 1878. 



Gujar&t.] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



133 



per cent were Hindus and 1038 or 2*09 per cent Musalmans. Of 
the Hindus 701 were classed as Braliinansj 626 as Kshatris, 
Rajputs; 745 as Vaishas, traders and merchants; 9309 as Shudras, 
cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; and 37,256 
as unsettled tribes including 36,923 Bhils and 333 Naikdas. Of 
the 48,637 Hindus, 833 were Vaishnavs, 64 of them Ramanujs, 
170 Svaminarayans, and 599 Vallabhacharis ; 691 were Shaivs ; 
185 Shravaks, 66 Ascetics, and 46,862 of no special sect. Of 
the 1038 Musalmans 9 were Syeds, 67 Shaikhs, 140 Pathdns, 
126 Bohoras, 3 Kabulis, 47 Arabs, 2 Baluchis, 61 Makranis, and 
583 ' Others'. Of the whole number 126 were Sunnis and 912 Shias. 
There were 578 villages or 1"62 to the square mile, with, on an 
average, 85'94 persons to each village. Of the whole niunber, 534 
had less than 200 inhabitants, 39 had from 200 to 500, 4 from 500 
to 1000, and one, the town of Rampur between 2000 and 3000 
inhabitants. There were 11,564 houses, or an average of 32'54 to the 
square mile, and of 4"29 persons to each house. Of the houses, 1194 
inhabited by 5311 persons, were of the better, and 10,370, with 
44,364 inhabitants, of the poorer, sort. 

Sunth was formerly divided into five districts, Fategad, Vankaner, 
Malvan, Thamba, and R&mpur. These have lately been reduced to 
two, the eastern and western divisions, nearly equal in size and 
divided by a range of hills. Sunth in the west and Rampur in the 
east division are the only places of any size. 

The Sunth chiefs, Puvar or Parmer Rajputs by caste, claim to 
belong to the Mahipavat branch of the famous Malwa dynasty which 
boasts of Vikram of Ujain in the first century before Christ, and of 
Bhoj of Dhar in the eleventh century of the Christian era.-^ 
According to the Sunth bards, whose accounts^ are full of confusion 
and error, Jalamsing, a Pavar from mount Abu established his 
power at, and gave his name to, the town of Jhalod in the Panch 
Mahals. Jalamsing's successors were Jbajsing, Bikamsing, Udesing, 
Pratapsing, and Jalamsing. The last of these chiefs was in 
1247 defeated and slain by the Musalmans. His son Sant and his 
brother Limdev, forced to leave Jhalod, retired to the hUla, and 
after a few years (1255), Sant settled at the Bhil village of Brahmpuri, 
changing its name to Sunth, and Limdev established himself at 
Kadana. This may have been the date of the final settlement of 
the Rajputs at Sunth. But some tombstones, pdlids, in the villages of 
Sunth and Sukhsar, between Sunth and Jhalod, show that as early 
as 1218 and 1221 there were fights in which Rajputs of the Padhiar 
or Parihar clan with their chief Vijayadev were slain. According to 
the bards, Rana Sant was succeeded by Navghan, Napaji, Prithising, 
Suraji, Jesing, Akheraj, Gajsing, and Kumbho Rano, the last of 
whom is said to have lived at the time of Ahmad Shah I, (1411-1443) 



ChapterXIII. 

States. 

Sunth. 
Population. 



Sub-divigioas. 



History. 



' Malcolm's Central India, I. 99. The Mahipdvat branch of the Parmdrs is in 
Meyw4r represented by the U&va of Bijoli, one of the sixteen higher nobles of the 
Udepur Etna's court. Tod's Rdjasthiin, I. S5, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



134 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

SUNTH. 

History. 



of Alunedabad, and to have been defeated by Mm in 1443.^ After 
this the state was tributary to the Ahmedabad kingSj and, in their 
decline, received some additions of territory.^ On the transfer of 
power to the Emperor Akbar (1572) the tribute seems to have been 
changed into service with a contingent of troops.^ According to local 
accounts Kumbho Rano was succeeded by Eamsingand Raymal, whose 
successor Mandlik, as shown both in deeds and in temple inscriptions, 
ruled at Sunth between 1536 and 1565. Mandlik was followed by 
Surajmal, Eatansing, Prithising, and Sabalsing, who, from a copper 
plate grant and the writing in a Mahadev^s temple in the village of 
Batakvada, appears to have flourished between 1607 and 1635. 
Sabalsing was succeeded by Gajsing, Mahvsing (1688 - 1704), 
Prithising (1728-1357), andRatansingwhodiedin 1753. Ratansing 
left some young sons and a daughter married to the Bansvada chief. 
A party, coming from Bansvada to Ratansing's funeral feast, taking 
advantage of the minority of the sons, killed three of them and 
established their chief's power over Sunth. The youngest son 
Badansing, a mere boy, was carried to the village of Malvan, and after 
some time the Khant Kolis of Malvan taking ap his cause attacked 
Sunth, drove out the Bansvada party, and established Badansing in 
the chiefship. Badansing, a warlike prince, increased his estates at 
the expense of his neighbour the Thakor of Gad, a cadet of the 
Bansvada house, and continued to rule till after 1774. In 1803 his 
successor Shivsing entered into a defensive treaty with Colonel 
Murray, commanding the British forces in Gujarat, a treaty that was 
subsequently disallowed "by Lord Oornwallis, the Governor General.* 
Shivsing was succeeded by Kesarising who died in 1819, leaving 
an infant son Gajsing who survived his father's death by only a few 
months. The next Raja was Kaliansing who continued to rule till 
1835. In 1819 when Kaliansing succeeded, Sunth was overrun 
by Sindia's troops and would have either been annexed or laid 
waste, had not the British Government stepped in, and, through 
the medium of Sir John Malcolm, arranged that on condition of 
Sindia withdrawing his troops it should pay a yearly tribute of 
about £610 (Baroda Rs. 7000).^ The control of the state vested 
in the British Government under this arrangement (1819) was 
afterwards made over (1825) to the Rewa Kantha Political Agent. 
Kaliansing died in 1835, leaving a son Bhavansing only three 
years old. During his minority the state was managed by hia 
mother Rani Rathodji Gulabkunvarba, a woman of strong will, but no 
great ability. 



' It seema probable from his successes in east Grujar^t and MAIwa that Ahmad 
ShAh I. did force the Sunth chief to pay tribute. But in the Musalmdn historians no 
reference to the Sunth chief has been traced, and the site pointed out as the battle-field 
between Kumbho Rtoo and Sultto Ahmad is the same as that where are tombstones 
bearing dates as far back as 1218 and 1221. That the Musalmdns were at some time 
established in Sunth is shown by the remains of a mosque at Prathampur, five miles 
south of Sunth (see p. 116). 

2 Bird's Mirdt-i-Ahmadi, 1241. 3 Watson's Gujardt, 17. 

* The terms of the treaty were the same as those for LunAv^da, Vide page 128 j 
also Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 280,281. 

* Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 279,280. 



Gujarat.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



135 



Bliavd,nsing came of age in 1854. Early in his reign lie tad much 
trouble with the Khdnts who, presuming on the good services they 
had done his forefathers, refused to obey the Raja and did much 
damage by making raids into Lunavada and Kadana. Unable to 
bring them to order Bhavdnsing applied for help to the Political 
Agent, and with his aid and by his advice making some concessions 
to the Khants, peace was restored. At the same time the Bhils on 
the north and east frontiers fighting with the chief of Gad caused 
much trouble. To overawe them a frontier fort named Patehgad, 
or the fort of victory was built. But this measure failed and 
order was not restored till the Political Agent established a frontier 
military post with an officer under his own supervision. In 1865 the 
Raja fell under the displeasure of Government for attempting, by 
force of arms, to settle a boundary dispute with his neighbour the 
Lunavada chief. In 1870 on the occasion of the visit of His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, the Raja went to Bombay, and is 
said to have been so struck with the city, that he determined to improve 
the roads andbuildingsof his own capital. But in 1872, before any 
progress had been made with the proposed works, he died. With 
Bhavansing the main branch of the Sunth family came to an end. 
The Sunth family has not the right of adoption. But the privilege 
was granted to the widowed Rani and she after much search, for the 
nearest collateral had branched off fourteen generations back, chose, 
with the approval of Government, a son of the Sangavada family as 
heir. At the time of his adoption the young Rdja was about twelve 
years old. In the following year he was sent to the Rajkumar 
College at Rajkot where he is still being educated (1879). In 1860, 
when the Panch Mahals were transferred by Sindia to the British 
Government, the Raja of Sunth became a British tributary paying a 
yearly sum of about £610 (Baroda Rs. 7000) and receiving a robe, 
sirpdv, worth about £3 (Rs. 30). He claims as choth, £60 12s. ^d. 
(Rs. 606-2-7) from Panch Mahals and Bansvada villages.^ In 
January 1879 the young chief was married to Dariavkuar, the 
daughter of the chief of Bambora in Meywar. 

The state of Sunth came under direct management in June 1872, 
but it was not till April 1873 that permanent arrangements were 
made for its administration. As it was more backward than 
Lunavada no field survey was made. A circuit survey was 
completed and its internal and external boundaries were laid down. 
The revenue from some of the land was collected under the crop- 
share, bhdgbatdi or Tcaltar, system. In consequence of the abuses 
to which it gave rise, this system is being gradually superseded by 
a holding, khdtdbcmdi, system under which the holdings are roughly 
measured in half acres, bighds, and a money assessment is imposed. 
An inquiry has been made into land alienations, and, under the rules 
sanctioned for Lunavada, a quit-rent has been levied. The customs 
duties have been revised and better supervision and greater trade 
facilities provided. Civil and criminal courts have been established 

' The amount of choth is as follows : from Gorddu in the Jhdlod sub-division, 
Es. 44-2-7 ; from the Godhra sub-division, Rs. 170 ; from ChilkAri under B^nsvida, 
Bb. 317 ; from Sanjeli, Bs. 75 ; total, Rs, 606-2-7, 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Sunth. 
History. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



136 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

SUNTH. 



like those in Lund,vada. A regular police force, organized and 
placed under tlie superintendent of tlie Federal Police, has, since 
1873, greatly increased the security of person and property. 
Eampur the chief town of the district has been connected with Grodhra 
by a cleared road, part of which was made at Sunth expense. The 
Lunavada road formerly impassable for carts has been much 
improved especially where it crosses some small hills. In Eampur 
good substantial buildings for the state officials and for a 
dispensary have been built, and the town has been joined to its new 
suburb, named Pratappura after the young chief, by a low level 
bridge across the river Suki. A good road with a double row of 
trees has been made from Sunth to the river Suki, and a few well 
built new houses add much to the appearance of the town. By 
sinking new and repairing old wells the water-supply has been 
greatly improved. Schools have increased from one to seven, and 
a dispensary, supplied with a good stock of medicines, is much 
resorted to by the poor. 

The following is the Sunth family tree : 



J&msmg (1247). 



ndi 



Limdev (founded Ead&naX 



( I ) Sant (founder of Sunth 1253). 
( II ) Navghan. 
ail) Nipiji. 
(IV) Pritkising. 
( V ) SurSji. 
(VI) Jesmg. 



(VII) AkherSj. (Jill) GdJBing. 



(XIV) Batansing. 



( IX ) Kumbho ESdo (defeated 
by Ahmad I. in 1443). 

( X ) E&msing. 

( XI ) Eilymal. 

I 
( XII ) Manalik (about 1536 - 1566). 

(XIII) Surajmal. 
I 



VAghsing. 
( XV ) PritUsIng. 
XV ) Sabalsing (about 1807 to 1636). 

(XVII) Qajsjng. 

(XVIII) MihvBingi (about 1688 to 1701). 
( XIX ) Prithlsing (about 1728 to 1736). 
( XX ) Eatanaing (died 1763). 

( XXI ) Badansing (died about 1774). 
( XXII ) Shiv sing. 



(XXIII) Keaarising (died 1819). 

(XXIV) SaJBing (died 1819). 



( XXV ) KaliSnsing (died 1836). 

(XXVI) BhavSnsing (died 1872). 

(XXVII PratSpsing (adopted), the preient 
Chief. 



The order of succession is indicated by Boman numerals. 
> One liet makes U&bvBing the great grandson of Jagatsing the brother of Oajsing 



OiUar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



137 



Ba'la'sinor, between 22° 53' and 23° 17' north latitude and 73° 17' 
and 73° 40' east longitude, with an area of 150 square miles, had, 
in 1872, a population of 41,984 souls or 279-89 to the square mile, 
and in 1878 an estimated revenue of about £8000 (Rs. 80,000).i 

It is bounded on the north by the Mahi Kantha states, on the east 
by the Mahi, the Rewa Kantha state of Lunavada, and a part of the 
Grodhra sub-division of the Panch Mahals, and on the south and west 
by the Kaira district. It is about thirty miles long and from ten to 
twelve broad. Except for a chain of rocky hills in the west, the 
country is open. 

Fevers are common, but the climate is on the whole healthy. 

The soil is generally rich yielding millet, pulse, rice, oil-seeds, 
wheat, gram, and sugarcane. 

The 1872 census showed a population of 41,984 souls or 279'89 
to the square mile. Of the whole number 37,829 or 90'10 per cent 
were Hindus, and 4155 or 9'90 per cent Musalm^ns. Of the 
Hindus 2911 were classed as Br^hmans; 848 as Kshatris, Rajputs ; 
3178 as Vaishas, traders and merchants; and 11,714 as Shudras, 
cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; and 
19,178 as unsettled tribes, 18,241 of them Kolis and 987 Bhils. 
Of the 37,829 Hindus 121 were Ramanujs, 150 Vaishnavs, 2460 
Vallabhdcharis, 4 Kabirpanthis, 583 Svaminarayans, 2473 Shaivs, 
31,474 Unsectarian Hindus, and 564 Shravaks. Of the Musalmans 
183 were Syeds, 1454 Shaikhs, 492 Pathans, 85 Moghals, 16 
Memans, 280 Bohoras, 19 Arabs, 3 Makranis, and 1623 ' Others '. 
Of the whole number 3875 were Sunnis and 280 Shias. There 
were 249 villages or 1*66 to the square mile, with on an average 
168 persons to each village. Of these 193 had less than 200 
inhabitants, 33 from 200 to 500, 16 from 500 to 1000, 5 from 1000 
to 2000, one from 2000 to 3000, and one, the town of Balasinor, 
had' 8836 inhabitants, of whom 6263 were Hindus, and 2573 
Musalmans. There were 9684 houses giving an average of 64'56 
houses to the square mile and 4'33 persons to each house. Of the 
total number of houses 2998 inhabited by 9755 persons were of 
the better, and 6686 with 32,229 inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

This state is divided into two distinct and nearly equal parts, the 
sub-divisions of Balasinor and of Virpur. Bounded on the north by 
the Rewa Kantha state of Lunavada, on the east by Lunavada and 
the Kaira district, on the south by Kaira, and on the west by 
Aimedabad, the Balasinor sub-division consists of forty-one villages. 
The soil is rich yielding millet, rice, pulse, oil seeds, wheat, gram, 
and sugarcane. Except on the east, where the Mahi waters the 
villages on its banks, ponds and wells are used for irrigation. The 
Virpur sub-division is bounded on the north by Lunavada and the 
Mahi Kantha state of Magodi, on the east and south by Lunavada, 
and on the west by the Mahi Kantha petty states of Sathamba and 
Grabat. Of its fifty-seven villages, which are much mixed with 
those of Lunavada, thirty-eight are state, Ithdlsa, and nineteen 



Chapter XIII, 

States. 

Ba'la'sinor, 

Boundaries. 



Population. 



Sub-diyiaiona. 



* This revenue iacludes a yearly claim on Kaira 
£358 (Rs. 3580) and £85 (Rs. 847) from Lunivida, 
B 561—18 



villages amounting to about 



[Bomliay Gazetteer, 



188 



STATES. 



Chapter ZIII. 

States. 

Ba'la'sinor. 
History. 



private, indmi, held on service tenure. Tlie soil is ricli yielding 
rice, millet, pulse, oil-seeds, and, in watered lands, a little sugar- 
cane. 

'Of the early history of Balasinor nothing certain is known. 
It must have been part of the Solanki estate of Virpur, till in 
1505, Virpur was conquered by Mahmud Begada's' general Bodi 
Moghal. The fortunes of Balasinor are closely connected with those 
of the celebrated Babi family, to which its present ruler belongs. The 
founder of the family was Sher Khan who, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, was made door-keeper, hdhi, of the Imperial 
Court, and in 1659 was appointed commandant, thdnddr, of the 
troublesome Koli district of Ohuval in the north-west of Ahmeda- 
bad. In 1693 his son Safdar Khan Babi was governor of Patau, In 
1 703 when Prince Muhammad Azam Shah was appointed Viceroy of 
Gujarat, the Emperor sent an order to decoy Durgadas Eathod, 
governor of Patau, to Ahmedabad, and either confine or slay him. 
This order Safdar Khan Babi offered to carry out, but failed owing 
to the bravery of Durgadas' grandson who, covering his retreat with 
the loss of his own and all his followers' lives, gave his grandfather 
time to escape. Shortly after (1705) Safdar Khan, beaten by the 
Marathas at Eatanpur in Eajpipla, was taken prisoner and 
released only after paying a heavy ransom. About the same time 
Durgadas Eathod again went into rebellion, when Safdar Khan, on 
condition of being made governor, promised to kill or take Durgadas. 
The offer was accepted, and, as from that time Durgadas is no 
more spoken of, Safdar Khan would seem to have succeeded in killing 
him. In 1717 when Haidar Kuli Khan was appointed deputy 
Viceroy, a dispute arose between him and Safdar Khan, and in the 
affray Safdar Khan's baggage was plundered. Collecting his 
followers Safdar Khan attacked the deputy Viceroy, but was defeated. 
In 1722 Muhammad Bahadur, son of Salabat Khan Babi, son of 
Safdar Khan Babi, was, with the title of Sher Khan, placed in charge 
of Sadra and Virpur. Three years later (1725), Safdar Khan Babi 
died. In 1728, on the death of the governor of Junagad, Salabat 
Muhammad Khan Babi was appointed deputy governor and sent 
his son Sher Khan to act for him. Two years later Salabat 
Muhammad Khan Babi died, and Sher Khan Babi, losing the govern- 
ment of Junagad, retired to his estate of Grogha. In the same year 
on paying his respects to the new Viceroy Abhayasing, he was 
confirmed in his father's lands, and, in 1732, on the capture of 
Baroda by the Viceroy, Sher Khan Babi was placed in charge of 
the city. In 1734, while Sher Khan Babi was visiting Balasinor, 
Mahadaji G-aikwar, brother of Pilaji, who then held Jambusar, 
sending for aid to Damaji, marched on Baroda with a strong force. 
On his way to relieve the city, Sher Khan was defeated by Mahadaji, 
and forced to retire to Balasinor, leaving Baroda to fall into the 
Gaikwar's hands. Shortly after, Eangoji the Deputy of Umabai, 
quarrelled with Punaji Vithal, and asked Sher Khan Babi to help 
him. To this Sher Khan agreed, but not having funds to pay his 
troops, at first delayed, and afterwards plundered Mahudha and 
Nadiad. Not mooting with Eangoji, Sher Khan then went 
to Kapadvanjj and thence marched against the Maratha force. 



Gigar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



139 



The Mar^thas attacked hinij and in the conflict many men on both 
sides were slain. Next morningj after an indecisive engagement, 
fighting ceased, and at night Sher Khan stole off towards 
Kapadvanj, joining Rangoji's forces. Shortly after (1746), Sher 
Khan was wounded and forced to take shelter with Rangoji in 
Kapadvanj. The town was besieged by the Gaikw£r, but, with the 
help of Holkar, it was relieved. At Balasinor, in 1753, in a dispute 
between Sher Khan Babi and his mercenaries, the Arabs for a time 
took possession of the fortress on the hill. Shortly afterwards when 
Sher Khan Babi was in his estate in Sorath, Sadashiv Ramchandra 
went from Porbandar to Junagad, where he was joined by Sayajirao 
Gaikwar. Sher Khdn Babi was there presented with some horses, 
and appointed Maratha deputy. In 1 768 Sher Khan Babi died at 
Junagad, and the nobles of his court seated his son Muhammad 
Mohobat Khan in his place. At Balasinor Sher Khan Babi was 
succeeded by his son Sardar Muhammad Khan who, opposing the 
Marathas, was attacked by Sadashiv Ramchandra, and forced to 
pay tribute. Two years later (1760), Balasinor was taken by the 
Maratha commander Bhagvantrav and, in the next year, recovered 
by Sardar Muhammad Khan Babi who, on condition of paying tribute, 
was allowed to keep it.^ 

Sardar Muhammad Khan was succeeded by his son Jamiat Kh£n, 
and he by his son Salabat Khan, during whose lifetime the 
control over the state came into the hands of the British Government.* 
Meanwhile both the Peshwa and the Gaikwar had established tribute 
rights over Balasinor. In 1768, the Peshwa' s manager at Ahmedabad 
levied a tribute of £300 (Rs. 3000), and this, afterwards increased 
to £1000 (Rs. 10,000), passed to the British on the fall of the 
Peshwa in 1817. In 1780, the Gaikwar imposed a tribute of £336 
(Baroda Rs. 4000),^ and this sum was permanently fixed in 1813 
at the settlement of the affairs of the Mahi Kantha tributaries at 
Baroda Rs. 4001 and since commuted to £360 (Rs. 3601-2-7).* 

In 1820 on Salabat Khan's death the succession was claimed by 
his kinsman the Nawab of Junagad. This claim was disallowed, 
and Abad Khan, Salabat's cousin and adopted son, was raised to 
the chiefship, and the British opium regulations introduced into 
his state.^ Abad Khan was only a boy, and as his state was 
seriously mismanaged, he was in 1822 removed in favour of his elder 
brother Idal Khan. After ruling nine years, Idal Khan was, in 1831, 
succeeded by his son Joravar Khan. The disputed claims of 
Balasinor and Lunavada on Virpur continued to cause much annoy- 
ance, and in 1852, that both claimants might be under the same 
authority, the supervision of Balasinor was transferred from Kaira 
to the Rewa Kantha. As the contending parties would hear of 



Chapter XIII 

States. 

Ba'ia'sinor. 

History. 



» Compiled chiefly from Major Watson's Gujarit, 

2 During the time of this NawAb, Arjnnsing of Gad a vassal of the BAnevAda chief, 
levied contribution. R4s Mila, 484. 
« Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 228, 229. 4 Aitehison's Treaties (1876), IV. 258^ 

5 Aitehison's Treaties (1876), IV. 282. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



UO 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Ba'la'sinor. 
History. 



no compromise, Virpur was managed by the Agency, and his share 
of the revenues paid over to each claimant. At last when, in 1867, 
Lunayada came under direct management, the whole Virpur 
question was inquired into, and as it was found that the Balasinor 
rights were much more important than those of Lunavada, the 
sub-division was handed over to Balasinor, Lunavada being relieved 
of a tribute of £247 (Rs. 2470). 

The present Nawab Jorawar Khan is (1879) fifty-three years 
of age. He has a brother Bahadur Khan and three living wives 
Bibi Sardar Bakta., daughter of his uncle Abad Khan ; Chand Bibi, 
the daughter of a Grhdnchi of Balasinor; and Gajinbax of Baroda. 
He has two sons, Manovar Khan born in 1847, and Budhu Mia 
born in 1870, and a daughter Dosi Bibi born in 1865. He is a 
chief of the second class, and is entitled to a salute of nine guns. 
He pays a tribute of £1108 (Rs. 11,080) to the British, and of 
£360 (Rs. 3600) to the Gaikwar Government. 

The following is the Balasinor family tree : 

(I.) Sher Khiin 

(the son of SalSbat £hto, the grajidson oi Shei' Ehdn I.) 

(died 17bS). 



(II.) Sarddr Muhammad, 



(III.) JamiatKhin. 
I 

(IV.) Saldbat Khitn 
(died 1820). 



Daughter 
(married to Naver Kh^iiji of Cambay). 



Mohobat Kh&n 
(obtained Jnn&gad). 



(VI.) Idal Kh«n 
(died 1831). 



(V,) Ab4d Kh4n 
(deposed 18^3). 



JorAvar Khstn 
(the present Chief). 



Sansrbda 

Mxbva's. 



Boundaries. 



Sankheda Mehva's, lying between 21° 49' and 22° 5' north 
latitude, and 73° and 74° 10' east longitude, with an area of about 
311 square miles, a population of 46,966 souls or 150 to the square 
mile, and, during the five years ending 1878, an estimated yearly 
revenue of about £11,000 (Rs. 1,10,000), includes twenty-seven 
estates varying in size from one to 103 villages. 

It is bounded on the north by Gaikwar territory, on the north-east 
and: east by Chhota Udepur, on the south by Rdjpipla and Khandesh, 
and on the west by Gaikwar territory. The twenty-seven Sankheda 
Mehvas estates, much mixed among themselves and with Baroda 
villages, may be roughly brought under eight groups, seven of them 
Rajput, and one Musalmd,n. The Musalman group, Pfintlavdi, has 
five villages, with an area of five square miles, and a yearly revenue 
of £500, The following are the chief available details of the 
Rajput groups. 



Gujar&t.] 



RBWA KANTHA. 

Sankheda Mehvds Sajput Estates, 1879. 



141 













Tribute. 


Group. 


Btatb. 


VlL- 
LASUS. 


Square 
Miles. 


Revenue 
IN £.. 




















£. >. 


To whom. 


f 


M&ndva 


16 


164 


2900 


221 10 


GaikwAr. 




Shnnor 


6 


llj 


1000 


167 16 


Ditto. 




Agar 


28 


17 


1000 


18 12 


Ditto. 


Chohak. 


Sindi^pura (A) 
Devalia 


4 
1 


4 
1 


SOO 
100 


5 14 
Nil. 


Ditto. 




VanmAla (A) 


11 


lOJ 


400 


13 6 


Ditto. 




Alva (A) 


11 


5 


560 


6 14 


Ditto. 


\ 


Gad 


103 


128 


2000 


47 10 


Clihota 
Udepur. 


' 


fVajiria 


22 


21 


2700 


600 14 


Giiliwir. 




a < N^ng&ni 


4 


3 


200 


129 B 


Ditto. 




:S j Vtoan 

■S"< Bihora 


7 


54 


400 


116 2 


Ditto. 


RA'THOD^i 


2 


li 


80 


6 2 


Ditto. 


1 


>■ \ Dudhpur 


I 


\ 


30 


3 10 


Ditto. 


1 


i,Vori(A) 


4 


3i 


600 


83 4 


Ditto. 


I. 


Choraugla 


17 


16 


300 


9 10 


Ditto. 


Cha'vda J 


Bhilodia 


11 


9 


900 


24i 12 


Ditto. 


Bampura 


4 


44 


360 


142 4 


Ditto. 


( 


Jiral K&insoli(A)... 


10 


5 


340 


33 6 


Ditto. 


GORI \ 


CJhiidesai- (A) 


4 


?* 


80 


31 2 


Ditto. 


( 


Nalia 


1 


1 


60 


3 14 


Ditto. 


{ 


Virpur 


2 


12i 


1000 


36 12 


Ditto. 


Da IMA.. 1 


Began 


1 


4 


60 


46 2 


Ditto. 


) 


Virampura 


2 


1 


70 


10 B 


Ditto. 


( 


Uoh&d 


12 


84 


90O 


88 6 


Ditto 


SOIiANKI .. 


NasvAdi 


27 


194 


1000 


109 2 


Ditto, 


Parmak .. 


Palisni (A) 


14 


12 


600 


213 2 


Ditto. 



Nora.— The states maikcd (A) are at present under the direct management of the Political Agent. 

The district is for tte most part open, only a small portion in the 
south-east being hilly and covered with forest. It is crossed by 
several rivers. Besides the Narbada which forms its boundary on 
the south-east and south-west, there is, in the north, the Or or 
Orsang, and through the centre, flowing from east to west, the Heran, 
Asvan, and Men. Besides a few hills in the south-east on the bank 
of the Narbada, a forest-clad range, from 250 to 300 feet high and 
about four miles long, runs through the Nasvadi estate, parallel to 
the course of the Asvan. Except in Gad, Palasni, and a few other 
hilly and forest covered tracts, the climate of the Sankheda Mehvas 
is on the whole healthy. There are three kinds of soil, alluvial, 
light, and black. 

The 1872 census showed a total population of 46,966 souls or 
150'5 to the square mile. Of the whole number 44,883 or 95'57 per 
cent were Hindus) 2066 or 4-40 per cent Musalmans; and 17 
Parsis. Of the Hindus 528 were classed as Brahmans ; 4848 as 
Kshatris, Rajputs ; 733 as Vaishas, traders and merchants ; 5586 
as Shudras, cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; 
and 33,193 as unsettled tribes, including 12,595 Bhils, 11,925 
Dhankas, 8043 Kolis, 496 Naikdas, and 134 Yalvis. 

Of the 44,883 Hindus 850 were Vaishnavs, 38 of them 
Ramanujs, 26 Virvaishnavs, 779 Vallabhd,charis, and 7 Kabir- 
panthis ; 545 were Shaivs ; 60 Shravaks ; and 43,430 belonged to no 
special sect. 



Chapter XIII. 

States.' 

Sankheda 
Mehva's. 



Aspect. 



Population. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



142 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

Sankheda 
Mbhva's. 

Population, 



Chohdn Gfroup. 



Of the Musalmans 2017 were Sunnis and 49 Shias. Of these 8 were 
Syeds, 115 Shaikhs, 100 Pathans,52 Bohor£s,aud 1791 'Others.' The 
17 Parsia were Shahanshais. There were 326 villages, or 0-75 to 
the square mile, with, on an average, 144 persons to each village. Of 
the whole number, 254 had less than 200 inhabitants, 60 from 200 
to 500, 8 from 500 to 1000, and four from 1000 to 2000. There 
were 9674 houses and 9468 enclosures, giving an average of 22'42 
houses, and 21 '94 enclosures, khadkis, to the square mile, 4'85 persons 
to each house, and 4"96 to each enclosure. Of the houses 807, 
inhabited by 5101 persons, were of the better, and 8867 with 41,863 
inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

Of the twenty-seven Sankheda Mehvas estates the following are 
the chief available details. The Ohohan group of eight estates are 
Mandva, Shanor, Agar, Sindiapura, Devalia, Vanmala, Alva, and 
Gad. Ma'ndva, in the west, is bounded on the north by Shanor, on 
the east and west by Gaikwar territory, and on the south by the 
Narbada. It has sixteen villages with an area of sixteen and a half 
square miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £2900 
(Rs. 29,000), about £1500 (Rs. 15,000) from the estate, and the 
rest from outlying lands in Baroda territory. It pays the Gaikwar 
a yearly tribute of £221 10s. (Rs. 2215). The soil is chiefly a rich 
black loam yielding cotton, millet, sesamum, sugarcane, and other 
valuable crops. The bulk of the people are Kanbis and Rajputs. 
Stretching into the rich Gujarat plain, Mandva suffered much 
from Maratha encroachment. The right of the Mandva chief to 
share both in the revenues and lands of Gaikwar villages shows 
that his power once stretched nearly as far as the city of Baroda. 
But long before the present century, its power had been reduced by 
the separation of the Shanor villages. Mandva, at the meeting of 
the Narbada and Orsang, is held in much esteem as a place of 
pilgrimage. In consequence of the indebtedness of the Rana, this 
estate was, between 1867 and 1879, under the direct management 
of the Political Agent. To the north of Mandva, divided north and 
south into two nearly equal parts by the Orsang, the six villages of 
the Shanoe estate have an estimated area of llj square miles, and a 
yearly revenue of about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). I^t pays the Gaikwar a 
yearly tribute of £157 16s. (Rs. 1578). Bast of the river, the land is 
rather wild and rough, but to the west it is rich, yielding cotton, 
millet, oil seeds, sugarcane, and rice. The estate belongs to a younger 
branch of the Mandva family. Agar, bounded on the north and east 
by Vanmala, on the south by Kamsoli, and on the west by Vajiria, is 
near the centre of the Sankheda Mehvas. Its twenty-eight villages 
with an area of seventeen square miles, yield an average yearly 
revenue of about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly 
tribute of £18 12s. (Rs. 186). The soil is partly black loam and 
partly sandy. It yields cotton, millet, oilseeds, rice, and gram. Most 
of the people are Bhils, and the tillage is careless and backward. 
Though still one of the largest of the Sankheda estates. Agar has 
lost much by the allotment to younger sons of the estates ofVanm^a, 
and Sindiapura, and, by the mortgage of many villages, to the 
Virpur chief. On the high road, half-way between Agar and Vajiria,, 



Gujar&t.l 



REWA KlNTHA. 



US 



are the ruins of the fort of Kukrej, according to local story a place of 

very great antiquity.^ Sindia'puea, like Vanmala the portion of a cadet 

of the Agar house, has two separate parts, one surrounded by the 

lands of the parent state of Agar, and the other between Vanmala and 

Nasvadi. It has four villages with an area of four square miles, and 

a yearly revenue of about £300 (Rs. 3000). It pays the Gaikwar a 

yearly tribute of £5 14s. (Rs. 57). The estate has been under direct 

management since 1870. The village of Devalia, one mile in extent, 

held by a cadet of the Agar house, pays no tribute. Vanma'la, 

held by cadets of the Agar house, is bounded on the north by 

Gaikwar villages, on the east by Sindiapura, on the south by the 

estate of Agar, anS on the west by Vora. Its eleven villages have 

an area of ten and a half square miles, and a yearly revenue of about 

£400 (Rs. 4000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £13 6s. 

(Rs. 133). Except a few isolated limestone hills, the surface is 

generally flat, and the soil good. Its people are Bhils, lazy and 

unskilled, leaving much of the estate under grass and brushwood, 

and, only near their hamlets, growing patches of the coarser grains. 

In consequence of the heavy indebtedness of the Thakor, the estate 

has, since 1877, been taken under direct management. The Alva 

estate of eleven villages, bounded on the north and south by Virpur 

and Pantlavdi, on the east by Gaikwar villages and Pantlavdi, and 

on the west by the village of Devalia, has an area of five square 

miles, and a yearly revenue of about £550 (Rs. 5500). It pays the 

Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £6 14s. (Rs. 67). Most of the people are 

Bhils, rude and unskilled husbandmen. The chief crops are millet, 

rice, gram, and oil-seeds. In consequence of the death of the 

Thdkor, Alva was in 1878 taken under the direct management of the 

Political Agent. Gad, in the extreme south-east, is bounded on the 

north and east by Chhota Udepur, on the south by the Narbada 

separating it from Khandesh, and on the west by the estates of 

Palasni and Virpur, by part of the Tilakvada sub-division, and 

Gardeshvar in Rajpipla. Including 103 villages, thirty-nine of them 

assigned to the chief cadets, this estate, the largest in the 

Sankheda Mehvas, has an area of 128 square miles, and an estimated 

yearly revenue of about £2000 (Rs. 20,000). Through the Political 

Agent it pays the Chhota Ddepur chief a yearly tribute of £47 10s. 

(Rs. 475) . North of the Men the land is fairly flat and open. But 

to the south it grows gradually rockier and more thickly wooded 

till, near the Narbada, it is, except on foot, impassable. The 

cultivators, almost all Bhils, are idle and unskilled. The chief 

products are, in the rainy season bdjri, mag, banti, kodra, rice and 

tuver in small quantities, and, in the cold weather, gram. The 

Thakor, a Ghohan Rajput, represents a younger branch of the Chhota 

Udepur house. The date of the establishment of Gad as a separate 

family is not known. Their poverty and the wildness of their 

country probably saved them from Musalman conquest. The 

people are in every way most primitive. The chief used to live 



ChaptiwXIII. 

States. 

Sankheda 
Mehva's. 

GhoMn Oroup. 



1 See below, p. 162. 



[Bomliay Gazetteer, 



144 



STATES. 



Chapter^XlII. 

States. 

Sankreda 

Mehva's. 

Edthod Qroup. 



as a common villager at G-ad in the wild country south of the Men, 
He has lately moved north to Boriad, and built a larger and more 
suitable house. 

The seven Rathod estates form two groups, Vajiria and Chorangla< 
In the westj on the south bank of the Heran river, lies Vajieia with 
its five branches, Nangam, Vasan, Bihora, Dudhpur, and Vora, 
With five of its villages entirely, and a sixth all but surrounded by 
Gaikwar territory, the main body of the Vajiria estate is girt and 
mixed with the lands of its five branches. Its twenty-two villagea 
have an area of twenty-one square miles, and a yearly revenue, 
including land and money rights in Gaikwar territory, of about 
£2700 (Rs. 27,000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of 
£500 14s. (Rs. 5007). In the north-west, near the village of Vajiria, 
is a cluster of hills covered with forest and broken by water-courses. 
Most of the rest, though seamed with ravines, is level. In the west 
the soil is a rich black loam yielding all the more valuable crops, 
cotton, oil-seeds, millet, rice, and gramj towards the east the 
lighter soil yields only such inferior crops as vol, mag, and kodra. 
Before the sub-division reduced it to its present size, Vajiria was a 
large estate, separating the Ohohansof Mandva and Shanor from those 
of AgarandVanmala. In consequence of the imbecility of the Thakor, 
this estate has, since 1866, been under the direct management of the 
Political Agent. Of the five branches of the old Vajiria estate, 
Na'nga'm is bounded on the north by Vajiria, on the east by Nalia 
and Chudesar, on the south by the Narbada, and on the west by 
some Gaikwar villages. Its four villages, divided among four share- 
holders, have an area of three square miles and an estimated yearly 
revenue of £200 (Rs. 2000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute 
of £129 8s. (Rs. 1294). The estate is very poor, the shareholders 
little more than common husbandmen. The people are chiefly 
Bhils raising only the coarser and more easily grown crops. The 
date of the establishment of Nangara as a separate estate is not 
known. Va'san, with seven villages divided into two groups, one on 
the north and the other on the west of Vajiria, has an area of five 
and a half square miles, and a yearly revenue of £400 (Rs. 4000). It 
pays the Gaikwdr a yearly tribute of £115 2s. (Rs. 1151). The 
lands of both groups are much broken by ravines, and the tillage, 
almost entirely in the hands of Bhils, is poor and rude. The date 
of the establishment of V^san as a separate estate is not known. 
BiHORA, originally part of Vajiria or its offshoots Vasan and Vera, 
includes twp villages, with an area of one and a quarter square miles, 
and an estimated yearly revenue of about £80 (Rs. 800). It pays 
the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £5 2s. (Rs. 51). The proprietor is 
little more than a common husbandman. The Dudhpue estate of one 
village, originally a part either of Vajiria or of its offshoots Vasan 
and Vora, has an area of three quarters of a square mile, and a 
yearly revenue of about £30 (Rs. 300). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly 
tribute of £8 10s. (Rs. 35). The proprietor is little more than a 
common husbandman. Vora, with four villages, divided into two 
groups by the lands of Vasan, has an area of three and a quarter 
miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £500 (Rs. 5000). It 
pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £85 4s. (Rs. 852). As the 



&Tijarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



145 



country is much broken by ravines, the tillage area is small. The 
estate is well managed, and Vora, the Thakor's head-quarters, is a 
place of some trade with several Vania families. The date of the 
establishment of Vora as a separate estate is not known. In 
consequence of the death of the Thdkor in 1879, the estate has been 
taken under direct management. Cut off from the rest of the Mehvas, 
in Gaikwar territory some miles north of Vanmala and Nasvidi, is 
Choba'ngla, the second main Rathod estate. Its seventeen villages, 
with an area of sixteen square miles, are divided into six shares, 
Chorangla with eight villages, Deroli with one, Vardle with two, 
Sarsauda with three, and Timbi with two, and to the east Grhelpur, 
a detached village on the border line between Gaikwar and Chhota 
Udepur territories. The total estimated yearly revenue of all the 
shares is £300 (Rs. 3000), and the yearly tribute to the Gaikwar 
£9 10s. (Rs. 95). Throughout, the land is much broken with ravines 
and water-courses. The crops grown are millet, cotton, pulse, 
castor-seed, rice, and gram. There are a few Kanbis and Rajputs, 
but the bulk of the people are Kolis. 

The two Chavda Rajput estates of Bhilodia and Rampura lie 
north-west of the Rathod villages. Bhilodia, bounded on the 
north by the Rampura estate, on the west by the Rathod estates of 
Vajiria, Vora, and Bihora, and on the south and west by Gaikwar 
territory, is equally divided between two shareholders. Its eleven 
villages have an area of nine square miles, and an estimated yearly 
revenue of £900 (Rs. 9000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute 
of £242 12s. (Rs. 2426). The land is much broken by ravines. 
But the soil is mostly a rich black loam yielding the better class of 
crops, cotton, millet, oil-seeds, sugarcane, and rice. Ra'mpuea, 
an offshoot of the Bhilodia estate, bounded on the north-east and 
west by Gaikwar territory and on the south by Bhilodia, is divided 
among three shareholders. Its four villages have an area of four 
and a half square miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of £350 
(Rs. 3500). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £142 4s. 
(Rs. 1422) . As in Bhilodia the soil is rich and yields the better 
kinds of crops. 

South of the Chohan estates of Alva and Agar, between the 
Asvan and the Men near the town of Tilakvada, is a settlement of 
Gori Rajputs, now divided into the three estates of Jiral Kamsoli, 
Chudesar, and Nalia. The eight and a half miles over which these 
estates extend, though of rich soil are much broken by ravines, and 
the people are very poor growing only the coarser grains. Of the 
three estates, Jiea'l Ka'msoli, divided among three shareholders, has 
ten villages, with an area of five square miles, and an estimated yearly 
revenue of £340 (Rs. 3400). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute 
of £33 6s. (Rs. 333). In consequence of disputes among share- 
holders it has been under direct management since 1870. Chudesar, 
divided among two chiefs and fourteen under-shareholders, has 
four villages with an area of two and a half square miles, and an 
estimated yearly revenue of £81 10s. (Rs. 815). It pays the 
Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £31 2s. (Rs. 311). It has been under 
direct management since 1870. Nalia, a single village, divided 
B 561—19 



Chapter XIIT. 
States. 

Sankhkda 
Mehva's. 



Chdvda Oroup. 



Gori Group. 



146 



STATES. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Saneheda 
Mehva's. 

Ddima Oroup. 



Solanhi Group, 



Parmdr Group. 



between two shareliolders, is one square mile in area, and has an 
estimated yearly revenue of about £60 (Rs. 600). It pays the 
Gdikwar a yearly tribute of £3 14s. (Rs. 37). 

South of the Gori settlement^ beyond the river Men, is the Daima 
Rajput estate of Uchad now divided into four parts, Virpur, Regan, 
Virampura, and tJchad, covering between them an area of 26 square 
miles. The Viepuk estate, originally including only the villages of 
Virpur and Vasna near Uchad on the Narbada, was early in the 
present century greatly added to by its chief Baji Daima. This man, 
a noted freebooter, gave himself up at the time of settlement in 
1825. He was then confirmed in his estate, and having a keen eye 
for money-lending and other business, managed at the expense of his 
neighbours, the chiefs of Uchad, Agar, and Rajpipla, to increase his 
property to twenty-two villages, and made his family- one of the 
largest landholders in the Sankheda Mehvas. The present Virpur 
estate covers an area of twelve and a half square miles and yields a 
yearly revenue of £1000 (Rs. 10,000), paying the Gaikwar a yearly 
tribute of £35 12s. (Rs. 356). In the Agar part the soil is a rich 
black loam yielding millet, cotton, and oil-seeds. In the parts 
near Uchad the soil is lighter and the ground much broken by 
ravines and water-courses. Here millet is the chief crop, but cotton, 
oil-seeds, and, on the river banks, tobacco, are also grown. The 
Rajpipla villages, hilly and timber-covered, yield only scanty and 
coarse crops and the flowers and berries of the mahmda tree. Regan, 
a single village west of Uchad, with a good Narbada frontage, is 
divided among three shareholders. With an area of about four square 
miles, it yields an a«inual revenue of £50 (Rs. 500), and pays the 
Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £46 2«. (Rs. 461) leaving almost nothing 
to the proprietors. In soil, crops, and people, it does not differ from 
Uchad. ViEAMPUEA, on the Men to the north-west of Uchad, has two 
villages with an area of one square mile and an estimated yearly revenue 
of £70 (Rs. 700), paying the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £10 6s. 
(Rs. 103). The proprietor is little more than a common husbandman. 
The soil is partly black and partly light, growing crops of millet, toer, 
and rice.; the people are mostly Bhils. Ucha'd, the parent state, now 
brought down to twelve villages, has an area of eight and a half 
square miles and an estimated yearly revenue of about £900 (Rs. 9000). 
It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £88 Qs. (Rs. 883). The 
inhabitants are mostly Kolis growing the coarser crops. 

To the east of the Chohan estates of Agar, Vanmala, and Sindiapura, 
and bounded on the north and south by Gaikwar and on the east by 
Palasni territory, is Nasvadi the only Solanki estate in this part of 
the country. Its twenty-seven villages have an area of nineteen and 
a half square miles/ and yield an estimated yearly revenue, of £1000 
(Rs. 10,000), paying the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £109 2s. 
(Rs. 1091). The Asvan river divides the estate into two nearly 
equal parts, an open plain on the north but somewhat hilly and thick- 
wooded in the south. The soil is fairly rich, yielding crops of millet, 
cotton, rice, tuver, castor-seed, and gram. 

To the east of Nasvadi and bounded on the north and south by 
Gaikwar villages, and on the east by the Gad estate, Palasni is the 



Gnjar&t.] 



REWA KiNTHA. 



147 



only Parmer estate in the Sankheda Mehvas. Its fourteen villages 
have an area of twelve square miles and yield an estimated yearly 
revenue of £500 (Rs. 5000), paying the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of 
£213 2s. (Rs. 2131). Like Nasvadi its soil is fairly rich, and yields 
crops of the better grains. In consequence of the minority of its 
chief, it has, since 1864, been under the direct management of the 
Political Agent. 

The P^ntlavdi estate, on the southern border of the Mehvas, 
contains two distinct groups, one of four villages, between the Alva 
and Vanmala estates, and the other of one village within the limits' 
of the Amroli division of the Tilakvada sub-division. The 
proprietors, called Khans, are supposed to be the descendants of 
some military adventurer. But nothing is known of their origin or 
of the date of their gaining the estate. Its five villages have an 
area of five miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £200 
(Rs. 2000). It is free from the payment of tribute. The soil is 
black, the chief crops rice, millet, tuver, and kodra, and the people 
mostly Kolis. 

In the sacred hill of Pavagad centre the family histories of the 
Sankheda Mehvas chiefs. Of the Thakors or landed gentry, few 
can trace their families beyond the time, when a Chohan prince 
reigned at Champaner, and drew the Rajput chivalry cf eastern 
Gujarat to defend the great stronghold of Pavagad, when (1482-1484) 
threatened by the armies of Mahmud Shah Begada. The fall 
of Pavagad forced the Rajput chiefs to retire to the difficult country 
between the rivers Orsang and Narbada. There would seem at first 
to have been eight chief families, a Rathod at Vajiria ; Chohans at 
Agar, Mandva and Gad ; a Daima at Uchad j a Gori at Jiral ; a 
Solanki at Nasvadi, and a Parmar at Palasni. Later on, pressed by 
the Musalmans, the chiefs of Vajiria, Agar, Uchad, and Jir^l, 
embraced Islam, and became known as Molesalams, while those of 
Mandva, Nasvadi, Palasni, and Gad, kept their lands without 
changing their faith. In time the eight original families became 
sub-divided. Younger branches of the house of Vajiria, taking their 
shares of the family estates, established themselves at Vasan, Vora, 
Nangam, Dudhpur, and Bihora ; in the same manner Vanmala and 
Sindiapura separated from Agar ; Shanor from Mandva ; Regan, 
Virpnr, and Vasan from Uchad ; and Chudesar and Nalia from 
Jiral. Early in the eighteenth century, when Moghal authority was 
weakened and Maratha supremacy not established, the Sankheda 
chiefs were able to spread their power over the rich plain lands of 
Gujarat enforcing tribute in land and money as far as the walls of 
Baroda. But they had no long respite, for the Mard,thas, not content 
with recovering the chief part of the revenues of the plain villages, 
pressed the chiefs in their own lands, and by sending an armed force 
wrung from them the payment of a yearly tribute. When Baroda 
was in the hands of a strong ruler, the Sankheda chiefs were forced 
to pay a regular tribute and to refrain from disorder and plunder. 
But with a weak ruler at Baroda they burst out like a half-quenched 
fire, and became the terror of the country. In 1822 the chiefs were 
in rebellion, paying tribute only under the pressure of fire and sword. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Sankheda 
Mkhva's. 



History. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



148 



STATES. 



Saneheda 
Mehva's. 

History. 



Chapter XIII. plundering villages, and stopping all trade highways. As it had 
States. become responsible for public peace in Gujarat, the British 

Government determined that the unruly chiefs should be brought to 
order. The duty was entrusted to the Political Agent Mr. Willoughby, 
who, in three years, in spite of the rugged diflScult country, hunted 
down and secured all the rebel chiefs, and arranged with the Gaikwar 
to grant them terms that would ensure their future subsistence. In 
1825 the petty chiefs engaged to live peaceably ; to pay their dues 
regularly ; to leave the settlement of the boundaries of their estates, 
and of their rights in Gaikwar villages, to the British Government ; 
and to give up all offenders who might take refuge in their lands. 
At the same time (7th September 1825), the Gaikwar, after recording 
what estates and villages should be included in the agreement, 
stipulated that the tribute of the larger estates should be paid 
through the British Government, and of the smaller through the 
local authorities; he confirmed the proprietors in their existing 
rights of every description ; conceded that all boundary and other 
disputes should be settled through the medium of the Political 
Agent; acknowledged their independence in their own villages, 
and their rights of hereditary succession and adoption ; and left their 
general control and management in the hands of the Political Agent. 
During the fifty years that have since passed the Mehvasi proprietors 
have given little trouble. They have ceased to be robbers and 
freebooters, paid their tribute regularly, and accepted the Political 
Agent's settlement of their boundary and succession disputes ; 
they have spread tillage, and increased the resources of their 
estates. Among the rights guaranteed to the Sankheda chiefs by 
the Gaikwar in 1825, one of the most important was that of holding 
share, vdnta, lands in Gaikwar villages, and, under toda girds and 
other names, of recovering from them certain money dues. These 
rights were enjoyed without question, till in 1862, Khanderao Gaikwar 
ordered a levy of one-eighth (2 annas in the rupee) from all holders 
of rentfree land and revenue claims. Against this order, the share, 
vanta, and allowance, toda girds, holders under the protection of 
the Rewa Kantha Agency appealed, and, after some discussion, the 
Baroda court admitted that the order could not apply to claims 
guaranteed by the 1825 settlement. The great question of tie 
extent of the guaranteed claims was opened up, and a special 
officer has now for some time been employed in examining them.' 

PA'NDtr Mehva's. Pa'nd.U Mehva's. Except Umeta in the extreme west which 
stands on the right bank of the river, the Pandu Mehvas estates, 
including Dorka, Raeka, and Anghad forming, together the Dorka 
Mehvas, stretch about fifty miles along the left bank of the Mahi 
in a narrow broken line. This belt of estates has an area of 137^ 
square miles, an estimated population of 41,618 souls, and, during 
the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of £11,000 
(Es. 1,10,000). Except near the Mahi, where it is cut with ravines, 
the country is level. Besides the Mahi, that, flowing from north- 



' Some details have already been given p. 66. 



Gujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



149 



east to south-west, forms the northern boundary of all the estates 
except Umeta, the river Karad divides Mevali into two nearly 
equal parts, and, in Jumkha, joins the Goma, which, flowing through 
Sihora and Nahara, forms the south boundary of Grotardi. The 
Mesri crossing Jesar, Chhaliar, Sihora, and Nahara, empties itself 
into the Mahi at the town of Sihora. 

The climate is generally healthy and the soil light, yielding where 
well tilled, rich crops of millet, rice, and sugarcane. 

The 1872 census showed a population of 41,618 souls or 
S03'7 to the square mile. Of the whole number 40,095 or 96*34per 
cent were Hindus, and 1523 or 3"66 per cent Musalm£ns. Of the 
Hindus, 909 were classed as Brdhmans ; 2591 as Kshatris, Rajputs ; 
598 as Vaishas, traders and merchants ; 32,382 as Shudras, 
cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes; and 
3615 unsettled classes, including 235 Bhils and 3380 Kolis. 
Of the -40,095 Hindus 1225 were Vaishnavs, 9661 Ramanujs, 37 
Svaminarayans, 721 Vallabhaoharis, and 2612 Kabirpanthis ; 1895 
were Shaivs ; 107 ascetics; 23,733 Unsectarian Hindus; and 104 
Shravaks. Of the Musalmans 10 were Syeds, 49 Shaikhs, 216 
Pathans, 3 Memans, 68 Bohoras, 15 Makranis, and 1156 were entered 
as ' Others.' Of the whole number 1491 were Sunnis and 32 Shias. 

The number of villages was 154 or 0-7 villages to the square mile, 
and the average village population 270. Of the whole number 105 
villages had less than 200 inhabitants, 31 from 200 to 500, 9 from 
500 to 1000, 6 from 1000 to 2000, 2 from 2000 to 3000, and one 
the town of Bhadarva, between 3000 and 5000 inhabitants. The 
houses numbered 10,350 giving an average of 49' 7 houses to each 
square mile, and 4 persons to each house. Of the total number of 
houses 2493 inhabited by 9559 persons were of the better, and 
7857 with 32,059 inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

The estates bordering on the river Mahi are twenty-six in number, 
and though they only cover 187^ square miles, their river frontage 
stretches along fifty-eight miles. In former times the Kolis 
owned all the land in the Mahi valley, and were gradually 
ousted by various Rajput tribes. Some estates in the Mehvas 
are still held by Koli proprietors and others by Bariyas, who 
claim a part Rajput descent, probably from discontented chiefs 
who had ' gone out ' in revolt, and had married the daughters of 
some of their Koli supporters. According to the common phrase, 
they took water from a Bhil and so lost caste. The Pandu Mehvas 
states form four groups, one owned by Kolis ; one by Bariyas ; one 
by Rajputs ; and one by Muhammadans. There are seven Koli estates, 
single villages divided among a number of shareholders. The estate 
of Mevali is five miles in extent with one parent vUlage and four 
hamlets. It is divided into four shares. The yearly income from all 
sources is £210 (Rs. 2100), and the tribute paid to the Gaikwar £150 
(Rs. 1500). The part to the north of the Karad river is the richest, 
yielding crops of millet, cotton, oil-seeds, and sugarcane. The land 
to the south of the river is untitled growing only grass. It borders 
on the Gaikwar's S^vli sub-division, of which it once formed a part. 



Chapter^XIII, 

States. 
Pa'ndu Mehva's, 



Products. 
Fopulation. 



Sub-dirisions. 



Koli Group. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



150 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 

Paitdu Mehva's. 

KoU Qrmip. 



B&riya Group. 



North of MevaK, and separated from it by Jumkha and Ndhara, with 
the Goma river on the south and Gaikw^r land in the west, is Gotaebi. 
Divided among four shareholders, this estate, of one village and 
three hamlets, is 1^ square miles in area, and yields a revenue of 
£60 (Rs. 600), paying the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £42 10s. 
(Rs. 425). Between the Pandu estate and some villages of Kalol in 
the Panch Mahals, are the two small estates of Kasla Pagi, and Moka 
Pagina Muvada. These estates, each of one village, have a collective 
area of two square miles. The first, owned by five shareholders, 
has a yearly income of £10 (Rs. 100), and pays the Gaikwar a 
yearly tribute of £6 10s. (Rs. 65). The second, divided between two 
holders, has a yearly income of £25 (Rs, 250), and pays the Gaikwar 
a yearly tribute of £12 10s. (Rs. 125). The holders are poor, known 
as pagis or trackers, and in no way above common husbandmen. 
GoTHEA on the Mahi, bounded on the south by Gaikwar, and on the 
north and east by Panch Mahals territory, is cut off from the rest of 
the Mehvas. Divided among three Koli shareholders known as 
hotvdlp, it has an area of If miles, a yearly revenue of £63 10s, 
(Rs. 635), and pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £20 2s. (Rs. 201). 
Though most of the land is covered with brushwood, the village has 
some importance from lying on the main road between Gujarat and 
Malwa, and commanding one of the best of the Mahi fords. Besides 
the Koh proprietors, some Syeds of Pali on the other side of the Mahi, 
have a share in the village revenues. This estate is at present under 
direct management. Pour miles south of Gothra is Jbsae, bounded 
on the north by Gaikwar territory, on the east by Panch Mahals 
villages, and on the south and west by villages of the Pandu Mehvas. 
It has an area of 1^ miles, a yearly revenue of £40 (Rs. 400), shared 
between four joint owners, and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £15 2s. 
(Rs. 151). Watered by the Mesri river the soil is good, and, were 
the owners less sunk in debt, could yield almost any crop . Anghad 
the south-most village in the Mehvds, lying on the Mahi is cut ofE 
from the other estates by Gaikwar land. With an area of 3^ miles, 
shared among six joint Koli owners, three of them called kotvdls 
and three pagis, it yields a yearly revenue of about £200 (Rs. 2000), 
and pays a Gaikwdr tribute of £175 9s. (Rs. 1754|). The soil is 
good, but the ground is much cut by ravines. A thrifty Kanbi 
population could in a short time double the revenue. The Anghad 
Kolis are notorious thieves. During the mutiny (1857 - 1859) time, 
they gave such trouble that their village was moved to a more open 
part of the country. One share of this estate is under direct 
management. This finishes the Koli group. All the villages are 
■wretchedly poor, burdened by the tribute, and cut into such small 
shares that the hope of improvement is small. 

The Bariya group includes seven estates, six of them close 
together in the heart of the Pandu Mehvas, and the seventh and 
largest, Umita, in the extreme west. Of these the largest and 
probably the oldest is Sihoea. Divided into two by a strip of 
Amrapur land, it has an area of 15 J square miles, containing 25 
villages and hamlets yieldingayearly revenue of £1500 (Rs. 15,000), 
and paying a yearly Gaikwar tribute of £480 2s, (Rs. 4801). It is 
well watered, fronting the Mahi and crossed by the Mesri and 



Gnjardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



151 



Goroa. The village of Sihora, the seat of the Thakor who lives in 
some state, is at the meeting of the Mesri and Mahi. It is a busy 
little place with a large number of dyers and cotton printers. The 
estate is furrowed by ravines, and much of the land near the river is 
covered with brushwood. The tilled parts are rich, yielding cotton, 
rice, millet, and gram. In a corner, formed by the meeting of the 
Goma and the Mahi, between two parts of the Sihora estate to which 
it probably at first belonged, is Amea'pur. This, with an area of two 
square miles, a yearly revenue of £38 12s. (Rs. 386), and a Gaikwar 
tribute of £20 2s. (Rs. 201), is divided among four shareholders. 
The nature of the country and its crops are like those of Sihora. 
Kanoea, to the south of Sihora and probably once a part of that 
estate, has the Mahi on one side, and Gaikwar territory on the other. 
Including Kanora, the estate, divided among eight shareholders, 
has seven villages, an area of 3| square miles, a yearly revenue of 
£220 (Rs. 2200), and pays a Gdikwdr tribute of £160 2s. (Rs. 1601). 
Though the land is much cut by ravines there is an excellent Mahi 
frontage, yielding cotton, millet, rice, and gram. Vaenol Ma'l 
bounded on the south and west by Gaikwar land, lies between the 
estates of Mevali and Sihora, to the latter of which it probably once 
belonged. Divided between two shareholders, it covers an area of 
3J square miles with, including Vamol Mai, five villages yielding a 
yearly revenue of £100 (Rs. 1000), and paying a Gaikwar tribute of 
£8 10s. (Rs. 85). This estate is chiefly grass land with patches of 
tillage close to the hamlets. Na'ha'ea, with Gotardi to the north 
and Mevali to the south, lies between Gaikwar territory and Sihora, 
of which it is an offshoot. Divided into two parts by the Jumkha 
estate and shared by two owners, it has an area of three square miles 
vrith, includiag Nah^ra, five villages yielding a yearly revenue of 
£60 (Rs. 600), and paying a Gaikwar tribute of £2 10s. (Rs. 25). 
Watered by the rivers Goma and Mesri, its soil and crops are like 
those of Sihora. At the meeting of the Karad and Goma rivers, 
Jdmkha, probably an offshoot from Sihora, has Nahara on the east and 
west, Gotardi on the north, and Mevali on the south. One square mile 
in area, it has two villages yielding a yearly revenue of £40 (Rs. 400), 
and paying a Gaikwar tribute of £5 2s. (Rs. 51). In soil and crops 
Jumkha is like Sihora. The above six estates are all in one clusterin 
the heart of the Pandu Mehvas. The only remaining estate held by 
a Bariya proprietor is Umeta. On the Mahi, west of Baroda, formed 
of two groups of villages, one of five in Kaira, and the other of seven 
in Petlad, this estate dates partly from the close of the fifteenth and 
partly from the close of the seventeenth century. According to their 
family accounts, Jhanjarji a Parihar Rajput, flying from Champdner 
at the time (1484) of its capture by Mahmud Begada, took refuge in 
the Mahi woods, and, drinking water from a Bhil, lost his caste. Soon 
afterwards, killing Jayasingji of Bilpar, he received from the Bhetashi 
chief a gift of eight villages. About 200 years later (1694), the 
headman of Umeta, unable to save his village from Koli robbers, called 
for help to Jhanjarji's descendant, Dalpatsing, giving him four 
villages in reward. At the division (1751) between the Gaikwar and 
the Peshwa, the Peshwa got five, and the Gaikwar seven, villages. 
In 1812 and 1820 the Umeta Thdkor was classed among the Mahi 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 

Pa'ndu Mehva's, 

Bdriya Group. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



152 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 

States. 
Pa'ndu Mehva's. 



Rajput Group. 



Kantlia tributaries, and his tribute fixed at £500 (Rs. 5000) to the 
British, and £255 4s. (Rs. 2552) to the Gaikwar. The group of 
seven villages, in a broad bend of the Mahi, covers an area of twenty- 
one miles, and yields a yearly revenue of £1800 (Rs. 18,0Q0). Its 
soil is light, and yields good crops of cotton, oil-seed, sugarcane, 
millet, and rice. 

In the Pdndu Mehvas there are three chief Rajput estates, 
Bhadarva, Dhari, and Raeka. Bha'daeva, pleasantly placed on the left 
bank of the Mahi about the middle of the line of the Mehvas estates, 
covering an area of twenty-seven square miles, with, including 
Bhadarva, thirteen villages,has a yearly revenue of £3600 (Rs. 36,000), 
and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £1907 12s. (Rs. 19,076). The soil is 
light and rich. Bhadarva, once a very large estate, has suffered 
from two causes. The Muhammadans and the Marathas have 
greatly reduced its size, leaving in thirty-three villages only a fourth, 
vdnta, in some of which the Bhadarva chief has husbandmen of his 
own and distinct civil and police powers. Again, of the villages that 
still form part of the estate, a large share of the land has, by the 
chief's carelessness, been granted away, or, without any proper title, 
allowed to be held as private land. Dhaei, the northmost of the 
Pandu Mehva* estates, surrounded by Panch Mahals territory, and 
divided among six shareholders, has seven villages with an area of 
3| miles, a yearly income of £200 (Rs. 2000), and a Gaikwar tribute 
of £95 2s. (Rs. 951). The soil good, though rocky in parts, yields 
miUet and rice. Ra'eka, on the Mahi to the south of Bhadarva, has 
an area of 2^ square miles, a yearly income of £150 (Rs. 1500), and 
pays a Gaikwar tribute of £120 (Rs. 1200). Two-thirds of the 
estate belong to Solanki proprietors, and one-third to the Pagedar 
of Baroda to whom they sold it many years ago. The land is much 
cut by ravines running into the Mahi ; but the soil is good, yielding 
crops of millet, rice, tobacco, sugarcane, and oil-seeds. Two shares 
of this estate are under direct management. The Chohans established 
themselves at Chha'liae at a very early period. The original limits 
of the estate embraced Vakhtapur and Rajpar, which were 
subsequently assigned to cadets of the family. It now contains an 
area of eleven square miles with twenty-four subordinate villages 
and hamlets. It has a yearly income of £1200 (Rs. 12,000), and pays a 
yearly Gaikwar tribute of £340 2s. (Rs. 3401). Except for Gaikwar 
territory on the north it is surrounded by other Mehvas estates. 
The river Mesri runs through it. Close to Ghhaliar, the land is rich 
and well tilled, though much broken by ravines. In the north-east 
it is poor, the husbandmen mostly Bhils, growing only inferior crops. 
Vakhta'pub, to the north of Ohhaliar and separated from it by the 
river Mesri, has two joint owners, an area of 1^ miles, a yearly 
income of £50 (Rs. 500), and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £15 2s. 
(Rs. 151). Its soil and crops are like the poorer parts of Ghhaliar. 
Ra'jpae, on the Mahi to the north of Chhffiar of which it once formed 
part, has an area of 1^ miles, a yearly income of £37 10s. (Rs. 375), 
and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £5 2s. (Rs. 51). It grows millet, rice, 
and tobacco. To the north of Rajpar lies the Rathod estate of Itva'd 
with its offshoots Moti aind Ndni Varnoli. With the Mahi on the west. 



Gnjardt.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



153 



Itvad has Gaikwar villages on the north and east, and the two 
Varnolis on the south. Divided among four shareholders, it has an 
area of six square miles, with eleven villages, a yearly income of 
£150 (Rs. 1500), and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £60 2s. (Rs. 601). 
But for want of capital its light soil could yield all the better crops. 

The two Vaenolis, big and little, moti and ndni, about a 
square mile each in extent, lie between Itvad and Rajpar. Their 
income is respectively £29 (Rs. 290) and £20 (Rs. 200), and the 
tribute they pay to the Gaikwar £10 2s. (Rs. 101), and £2 10s. 
(Rs. 25). There are two proprietors in Moti and one in Nani 
Vamoli. The soil and products of both are like those of 
Itvad. The estate of Poicha lies on the Mahi between Kanora 
and Bhadarva. Its area is 3f miles, and it has five dependent 
hamlets. Its yearly revenue is £210 (Rs. 2100), and it pays a 
Gaikwar tribute of £150 2s. (Rs. 1501). Of its six shareholders, 
five are Vaghelas and one is a Jadeja Rajput. Owing to heavy 
tribute arrears, they are miserably poor. As in other neighbouring 
estates the soil is rich but wants capital, and is much cut with 
ravines. 

The last two estates are Pandu and Dorka. Pa'ndu is bounded on 
the north and west by Chhaliar, on the south by Gaikwar territory, 
and on the east by Kalol in the Panch Mahals and by the small 
estates of Moka Pagi and Kasla Pagina Muvada. Divided between 
two chief, and a number of under, sharers, Musalmans known as 
Khanzadas, it has an area of nine square miles, a yearly revenue of 
£520 (Rs. 5200), and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £450 (Rs. 4500). 
The soil is good^ and, if the shareholders were not miserably poor, 
could yield all the best crops. All their available property sold and 
mortgaged, they have no capital to spend, and owe heavy tribute 
arrears. Half a share of Pandu is under direct management. 
The small estate of Doeka. lies on the Mahi between Raeka and 
Bhadarva. Divided among five Kanbi sharers, its one village has 
an area of 2^ square miles, a yearly revenue of £240 (Rs. 2400), 
and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £110 9s. (Rs. 1104 8 as.). The Kanbi 
owners have sunk to the level of village headmen, the revenue is 
collected by Government officials, and any surplus is spent for the 
general good of the village community. It is the seat of the 
Thandar of Dorka Mehvas. 

The Pandu Mel^vas, like other lands along this part of the Mahi's 
course, seems to have been originally peopled by Kolis. The Kolis 
say that they are sprung from Yauvanashva, and remained for many 
generations on the sea shore in the delta of the Indus. At length 
by the goddess Hinglaj, under the leadership of Sonang Med, 
they were brought to the Nal. Sonang Med had twelve sons, each 
of whom founded a clan. The race gradually spread itself over 
Gujarat settling, amongst other places, on the banks of the Mahi, 
whose rugged ravines suited them well, sheltering them from the 
punishment of their raids and robberies in the richer parts of the 
province. Raja Karan Solanki (1064-1094) has the credit of being 
the first Rajput ruler who checked their thievish habits. His success 
was only for a time, and since then, whenever the central power 
B 561—20 



CliaptwXIII. 

States. 
Pa'ndd Mbhva's. 



History. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
154 STATES. 

Chapter XIII. lias been weak, tte Malii Kolis tave burst out in tbeir old excesses. 

States. Towards tlie close of tbe fifteenth century, apparently after the break 

p , ^ , up of their centre at Champanerj many of the Rajputs driven out of 

■ the richer lands, fell back on the rugged Mahi banks, and drove the 

Kolis out of their villages. Bhadarva and Dhari fell to the Solankis, 

Itvad and Yarnoli to the Rathods, and Chhaliar to the Chohans. 

About the same time some Musalmans, calling themselves Khanzadas 

settled at Pandu, and took four or five villages. 

Able to spread their power and harass the country during the 
decline of the Ahmedabad dynasty (1536 - 1583), they were again 
brought to order under the Moghals, and though troops had from 
time to time to be sent against them, their power in no way spread, 
till, early in the eighteenth century, the quarrels of its officers and 
Maratha attacks loosened Moghal rule. During the rest of the 
eighteenth century, all these communities, whether under Koli, 
Rajput, or Musalman leaders, attacking the rich Baroda plain villages, 
levied large tributes under some of the many forms of blackmail. 
The estate of Bhadarva, the two small estates of Raeka, Dorka, 
and Anghad, and the larger property of Umeta in the west were, 
with other greater states, under the Graikwar agreements of 1812 
and J 820, placed under the protection of a British officer. The 
remaining estates were, under the convention of 1825, included among 
the tributaries placed under British protection. Under this agreement, 
estates, though only single villages divided among many shareholders, 
were allowed to hold the position of tributary chiefs, the amount 
of tribute being settled in consultation with the Gaikwar officers. 
This assessment would seem in some cases to have been fixed at too 
high a sum. The estates have ever since been struggling with debt, 
and, compared with most of the country round, the district is 
miserably poor. 

Kadaka. Kada'na, bounded on the north and east by the Meywar state of 

Dungarpur, on the south-east and south by the Rewa Kantha state of 
Sunth, and on the south-west and west by Lunavada, has an area of 
ISO^quare miles, with, in 1872, a population of 12,689 souls or 97"6 
to the square mile. During the five years ending 1878 it had an 
estimated average yearly revenue of about £1500 (Rs. 15,000). 

A round compact tract, Kadana is rugged, covered throughout 
with hills and forests. In the south, near the touni of Kadana, the 
Mahi breaks through the range of hills that, in a curved line, 
crosses Sunth and Kadana. On the west the Bhadar, and on the east 
the Subna, small streams dry except during the rains, flow south 
into the Mahi. The Kadana hills are of no great height, seldom 
more than six or seven hundred feet. Like the Sunth hills separated 
by narrow valleys, their forest-clad sides and rocky ridges, broken 
by very few; passes, stretch north and south in parallel lines. 

The climate is feverish and unhealthy. In the extreme south-west, 
on the left bank of the Mahi, the land is open and rich ; but to the 
north, except a narrow fringe along the river bank, most of the 
country is barren and rocky. 



Gujardt.] 



REWA KlNTHA. 



155 



The 1872 census showed a total population of 12,689 souls or 
97'6 to the square mile. Of the whole number 12,381 or 97'58 per 
cent were Hindus, and 308 or 2'42 per cent Musalmans. Of the 
Hindus 555 were classed as Brahmans ; 335 as Kshatris, Rajputs ; 
66 as Vaishas, traders and merchants; 2814 as Shudras, cultivators, 
craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; and of unsettled tribes, 
8611 Bhila. Of the 12,381 Hindus, 54 were Vaishnavs, 2 of them 
Ramanujs, 59 Vallabhacharis, and three Kabirpanthis ; 1753 were 
Shaivs ; 8 Shravaks ; and 10,556 belonged to no special sect. Of 
the 308 Musalmans 296 were Sunnis, 61 of them Syeds, 33 
Shaikhs, 158 Pathans, and 44 ' Others^, and 12 were Shias, all of 
them Bohoras. There were 100 villages or 0'64 to the square 
mile, with, on an average, 126'89 persons to each village. Of the 
whole number 79 had less than 200 inhabitants, 19 from 200 to 500, 
and 2 from 500 to 1000. There were 3002 houses or an average 
of 19"25 to the square mile, and of 4'20 persons to each house. Of 
the houses, 459 inhabited by 2205 persons were of the better, and 
2543 with 10,484 inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

According to the bards, Kadana was, about the middle of the 
thirteenth century, established as a separate power by Limdevji, 
a younger brother of Jalamsing, a descendant of Jalamsing 
the founder of the town of Jhalod in the Panch Mahals. Since then 
in spite of its small size, the wildness and poverty of the country 
and the bravery of its Bhil inhabitants, have saved it from being 
swallowed up by its larger neighbours or from being forced to pay 
tribute to the paramount power. Except that it was always at war 
with Sunth, Dungarpur, or Balasinor, nothing of the history of 
Kadana is known till the accession of the present chief .^ Parvatsing 
was never on good terms with the late Raja Bhavansing of Sunth. 
Bhavansing claimed sovereignty over hijn and in 1856 complained to 
the Political Agent that the Thakor had introduced an infant into 
his house as his own son. The Thakor admitted that the child was 
not his. He pleaded that it belonged to the family and that the 
other members of the hhdydd were willing that it should be adopted 
as his heir. The Raja of Sunth failed to prove that he had any 
power to interfere with the Kadana chief. Under these circumstances 
Government allowed the Thakor to adopt the child and declared his 
state independent of Sunth. 

Saujeli, an estate of twelve villages, in the north of Bariya, has 
an area of 33| miles, and in 1872, a population of 2532 souls or 
74*68 to the square mile. It is bounded on the north by Sunth, 
on the east by Jhalod, on the south by Bariya, and on the west 
by Grodhra. The land is fertile, but nearly all the people are Bhils 
and poor husbandmen. The villages are wide scattered, made up 



Chapter^XIII. 

States. 

Kada'na. 



History. 



Sanjeli, 



1 According to the family bards the present chief is the twenty-first in succession. 
The names are : Limdevji ; Madesing ; Dharuji ; SultAnaing ; ShArdulsing ; Bhimsing ; 
Khdnsing ; Bhojrdj ; RAghavdAs ; Ashkaran ; Surajmal ; Limbji ; Jagrupsing ; 
Anupsing ; Umedsing ; Dolatsing ; Devising ; Surajmal ; Bhimsing ; Vakhatsing ; 
Parvatsing. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



156 



STATES. 



Chapter XIII. 
States. 

Sanjeu. 



History. 



of separate homesteads, surrounded by fields, and sometimes 
separated by forest lands. The staple grain is maize ; millet, hanti, 
pulse {mag, Phaseolus radiatus, and tuver, Cajanus indicus), and iu 
the cold weather wheat and gram are also raised. The climate is 
generally unhealthy. The 1872 census showed a population of 
2532 souls or 75-58 to the square mile. Of the whole number 2484 
or 98*10 per cent were Hindus, and 48 or 1'90 percent Musalmans. 
Of the Hindus 8 were classed as Brahmans ; 12 as Kshatris, 
Rajputs; 32 as Vaishas, traders and merchants; 62 as Shudras, 
cultivators, craftsmen, labourers and depressed classes ; and 2370 
as unsettled classes including 2130 Bhils, 224 KoUs, and 16 
Naikdas. The number of villages was 41 or 1*22 to the square 
mile ; the average village population 61'77. Of the whole number, 
39 villages contained less than 200 inhabitants, and 2 had from 
200 to 500. There were 713 houses or an average of 21*28 to the 
square mile, and 3'55 persons to each house. Of the houses 10 with 
27 occupants were of the better, and 703 with 2505 occupants of 
the poorer, sort. 

The Sanjeli family belongs to the clan of Songada Chohans. 
The founder of the house appears to be Satrasalji, who in some 
remote period emigrated from Meywar. As the present Thakor is 
fortieth in descent from Satrasalji, a period of more than one 
thousand years must have elapsed since the settlement of these 
Bajputs in this part of the Bewa Kantha. The bardic accounts 
state that Satrasalji reigned at Rajpur,a village near Kesarpur, now 
in the territory of the Raja of Bariya, in 1 159 (S. 1215) in the time of 
Shahab-nd-din Gori. He and his successors claim to have held the 
northern districts of Bariya from the frontiers of Sunth to the river 
Panam, and to have kept much of it till the time of Sardarsingji, 
who was in 1 789 killed by the Bariya chief. The son Bahadursing 
was taken by his mother to Jobat, where her father ruled. When 
he came of age, Bahadursingji returned, and was slain in a fight 
against Bariya. • He was succeeded by Jagatsingji, a notorious free- 
booter who was famous for a tuft of hair on his back like a tail. 
During his time, through the help of the British Government, the 
Bariya chief agreed to allow the Sanjeli chief to keep twelve villages 
within his own control and entirely free of Bariya. These villages 
are now in the undisputed possession of the Thakor, and the 
boundaries of the estate having been lately defined, all pretence 
of interference on the part of Bariya has been removed. The 
chiefs of Sanjeli were known by the name of the forest chiefs, Jangli 
Rdjds. He died about 1858, and was succeeded by his adopted son 
Pratapsingji, the present Thakor of Sanjeli. 



Oujard^t.] 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

PLACES OF INTEREST. 

Anamdera, in Mansel in the south of Rajpipla, has a small Chapter XIV. 

mosque said to have been built to celebrate the birth of Shaikh Places of Interest. 

Aimad the saint of Sarkhej near Ahmedabad,^ and the friend and AwAMnimA 

adviser of Sultan Ahmad I . (1411 - 1443) . anamdera. 

Ba'la'sinor, north latitude 22° 59, east longitude 73° 25', the chief Ba'la'sinob. 
town of the Balasinor state, with, in 1872, a population of 8836 
souls, stands near the Shedi river, about forty-one miles east of 
Ahmedabad. Surrounded by a stone wall with flanking bastions 
and four gates, the town is ill placed, commanded by a high table 
land, and made hot and close by a wall of rocks that half encircles it. 
The town is of little interest, its main street narrow and winding 
with no noticeable buildings. Outside of the north gate is a large 
picturesque lake with a raised causeway running along its western 
edge, and, on the east bank, surrounded by trees, a summer house of 
the chief's. On the high ground to the north, overlooking the lake, 
stands the Nawab's palace, a half fortified building four stories high, 
with turrets and a small flimsy-looking cupola perched on the top. 
From the town, a sudden rise leads to a massive gateway with 
flanking towers, and, beyond the gateway, a winding road passes to 
the palace plateau. Standing in a square court surrounded by stables, 
the building is mean and tawdry, its appearance marred by 
casual additions made from time to time as more room has been 
wanted. It is now seldom used by the Nawab whose ordinary 
dwelling is in the garden house by the lake side. On a hill, called 
Dev Dungaria, about three miles (2 kos) from the town, a fair is 
held every year on Shrdvan vad 8th (August) in honour of Dev 
Dungaria Mahadev, 

Ba'riya,orDevgadBa'riya,north'latitude22''42', east longitude Ba'riya. 

73° 51', the chief town of the Bariya state, with, in 1872, a population 
of 2891 souls, lies almost in the centre of the state, about half a mile 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 315. An account of the saint is given in the Bombay 
Gazetteer, IV, 291. 



Ba'riya. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
158 STATES. 

Chapter XIV. from the Panam riverj in an angle formed by two lines of hills^ one 
Places of Interest, *^^ Devgad hill, stretching towards the north^ and the other, 
eastwards. The third side was enclosed by a wall by the late Raja 
Prithiraj. The gorge, at the angle through which the drainage 
of the enclosed valley escapes, is closed by a gate. In the lower 
part of the town is a lately built jail surrounded by a garden. 
About the end of the eighteenth century (1785), the town seems to 
have been of considerable importance. It was a much frequented 
thoroughfare between Gujarat and Malwa, the tolls levied at its 
gates generally exceeding £2000 (Es. 20,000) a year. It is described 
as neat, containing many brick-built and tile-roofed houses, with 
decent orderly inhabitants, well dressed shopkeepers, and clean 
soldier-like troops.'^ Seen from the north or east, Bariya is a 
handsome town. In front, are a stone gateway and clock tower, and 
flanking walls stretching to the right and left ; beyond, are the roofs 
of houses, and beyond the houses, some way up the Devgad hill, is 
the palace, its white walls standing out from the wooded background. 
The main street is broad and straight and the houses irregular 
and picturesque. The palace, built and included within the walls 
of the fort by the late Raja, and lately improved by the addition of 
a garden, is a large rectangular three-storied structure with domed 
comer towers. From an inner courtyard, staircases lead to the 
diHerent rooms. That on the left leads to the Darbar room, large, 
with doors opening on a verandah, and with a grating overhead 
from which the ladies of the palace, themselves unseen, can look 
down upon the doings in Darbar. Though somewhat badly aired 
and lighted and with steep troublesome staircases, the buUding has 
the merit of strength, congruity, and completeness. Though on the 
whole a handsome well built town, its position is low and unhealthy. 
On the south and west the hills shut out the breeze, and, on the high 
ground on the other side, not a quarter of a mile from the east gate 
of the town, a lake, as high as the roofs of the houses, fills the town 
with damp and fog. Of late years much has been done to keep the 
town clean and drain and metal its roads, and a dispensary has 
been opened with free medicines and advice. Still the towns- 
people sufier much from rheumatism and fever. 

On Dasera day 4'so sud 10th (September -October) about 6000 
or 7000 Bhils, Kolis, and other lower classes, with a sprinkling of 
Brahmans and Yanias, meet in Bariya to see the Raja's procession, 
as he goes to worship the shami, Mimosa suma, tree. All receive 
presents, the low caste people a pound each of Indian com flour 
or of pulse, and the higher castes, all that is wanted to make 
a good meal.^ The people of the lower classes, dressed in their 
gayest, pass the day in drinkiug, dancing, and flute-playing! In 
former times, no one, even though accused of murder, could be 
arrested on Dasera. 



' Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, III. 378,380. Hamilton (1818) describes it as neat 
with many brick-built and tiled houses. Description of Hindustan, I. 685. 

* This, called pahka shklha or complete ration, includes, besides flour, rice and 
pulse, butter, oil, sugar or molasses, and spices, 



Gujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



159 



Barita. 
Fort. 



Ba'va'pik. 



Cha'nod. 



Partly on tlie Devgad hill and partly on the plain, stands the Chapter XIV. 
Bariya fort, neither bastioned nor armed, about two and a quarter places oflntereBt. 
miles round, and with walls about ten feet high on the plain and six 
feet on the hill slopes. Behind the Raja's palace rises a hill about 
600 feet high considered inaccessible and so not protected by walls. 
Within the fort are four unfailing wells. There are three main 
gates and one sallyport. The north gate is out of order, the east 
gate is in ruins, and the south gate in repair ; the sallyport is on 
the west. On all sides the walls are ruinous. Even if in repair the 
fort is a place of no great strength. On the top of the Devgad hill, 
a small white building contains the tutelary deity of the Bariya 
house. The story is, that three generations after the fall of 
Champaner, when Dungarsing was looking for a site for his capital, 
one of his Bhils cutting wood on a hill struck his axe against two 
round stones. Blood gushed out and the axe was shivered; 
Hearing his story Dungarsing visited the spot, called it Devgad or 
God's fort, installed the stones as the tutelary deity of the hill, and 
founded his capital at its foot. The stones are still, with great 
pomp, visited by the Raja every twelfth year. 

Ba'va'pir, a pass in the Rajpipla hills, takes its name from a 
celebrated Muhammadan saint buried there about 900 years ago.^ 

Cha'nod,^ north latitude 21° 58', east longitude 73° 30', in the 
extreme west of the Sankheda Mehvas, lies on the right bank of the 
Narbada, close to where it meets the Or, near the town of. Mandva, 
about thirfcy-five*miles north-east of Broach. At this point, the banks 
of the river are so seamed by ravines from eighty to one hundred feet 
deep, that Mandva and Chanod, though on two neighbouring knolls 
on the same side of the river are, in the rainy season, sometimes for 
days, completely separated. To remedy this evil, the towns have, 
within the last few years, been joined by a wooden bridge. From 
the north, wheeled vehicles can reach Chanod only by two roads, 
one the main road from Baroda through Dabhoi, and the other from 
Sinor, which join in a ravine about half a mile from the town. 
Up this ravine the road passes, steep and winding, to the plateau 
where the buildings of the town are somewhat closely huddled 
together. Even in the narrow crooked market street temples are 
mixed with shops, and the outskirts are reached only by narrow foot 
paths. Almost all the buildings are religious, temples, monasteries, 
and rest-houses. Devotees at all times fill the place, and, on high 
days, overflow from temples and rest-houses into booths, lanes, and 
streets. From the want of space, the ruggedness of the ground, and 
the division of ownership and authority between the Gaikwar and 
the Mandva chief, Chanod is at all times very hard to keep clean. 
At the great gatherings the dirt and smells, then always at their 
worst, greatly mar the effect of the high rugged temple-crowned 
banks, the broad deep river, and the shores and boats crowded with 



' Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, II. 118. 

2 Lassen derives Chdnod or Chdndod from the Sanskrit Chandrodaya, moon-rising. 
Ind. Alter. I, 137. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
160 STATES. 

Chapter XIV. bands of gay-dressed worshippers. The chief temples' are those of 
Places ^Literest ?apileshvar Mahadev, Kasluvishvanath Mahadev, Chandika Mata, 
Adityeshvar Mahadev, Eamchandraji Mahadev, Shri Mata Verai, 
Cha'nod. Kamleshvar Mahadev, Narmadeshvar Mahadev, Shri Hanumanji, 

and Shri Markandeshvar Mahadev. Three flights of steps lead 
from the town to the bed of the river. On one of these, of very 
handsome cut stone still unfinished, the ex-Gaikwar spent a sum of 
£20,000 (Ks. 2,00,000). 

The chief fair, held in honour of the image of Sheshashai, 
lasts for five days from Kdrtik sud 13th to vad 2nd (November), 
the sud 15th being the chief day of the fair. It is attended by 
about 1200 pilgrims from all parts of Gujarat, who bathe in the 
river and worship the image. Only articles of food worth about 
£70 (Rs. 700) are sold. The police is managed by the Rana of 
Mandva, who, in return, levies a small fee from the stallkeepers. 
Sheshashai, well carved in black stone, is a four-handed Vishnu, 
sleeping on the back of the serpent Shesh or Anant, with his consort 
Laksbmi sitting by his feet, and the four-mouthed Brahma springing 
out of a lotus from his navel. The story, as given in the Narbada 
Puran, is that once a demon, daitya, becoming very powerful and 
troubling the gods, Brahma besought Vishnu to destroy him. Vishnu 
followed him to the Vindhya hills, and there with his discus slew 
him. But the demon had some Brahman blood, the discus blackened, 
and Vishnu was guilty of Brahman murder. On his way back, 
Vishnu, at Chakrapani Aro on the Narbada near Chanod, washed his 
discus and it came out pure. Thinking that the water would clear 
aU sins, he stayed there and for many years slept on the waters. 
Long after, a Brahman dreamed that Vishnu wished to leave the river, 
and, searching for him, found this black stone figure. A temple was 
built and the image installed, and is still served by the Brahman's 
descendants. Additions have, from time to time, been made by the 
Gaikwar. The temple income is about £250 (Rs. 2500) a year, the 
Gaikwar contributing £136 10s. (Rs. 1365), the Rana of Mandva 
£50 (Rs. 500), and the offerings of the pilgrims amounting to about 
£70 (Rs. 700). After paying the charges, generally about £200 
(Rs. 2000), the Brahmans share the surplus. On Ghaitra sud 
15th (March), at the specially sacred meeting of the Narbada and 
Or, another great fair is attended by from 20,000 to 25,000 pilgrims 
from all parts of Gujarat and even from Malwa. Grain, sweetmeats, 
metal pots, and cloth, worth altogether fi-om £400 to £500 
(Rs. 4000 - 5000) are sold. The pilgrims bathe in the river, perform 
ceremonies for the souls of the dead, and worship at the temples round 
Chanod. It is specially famous as a place of cure in spirit diseases. 
People possessed by spirits come trembling from head to foot 
and, making an offering to Narayan, are freed from their tormentor. 



' In 1820 Hamilton found the chief temple finished in a style much superior to the 
generality of Hindu edifices, the central spire being light and in good proportion, and 
the dome interior forty feet in diameter, painted by Ahmedabad artists. All the 
temples abounded with exterior sculpture, but very inferior to that of Elephants and 
CMj. Description of Hindustan, I. 712. 



Oujar&t.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



161 



The legend of this place is, that once a prince of the Solar dynasty 
named Karnav, when out hunting, by accident shot a Brahman. 
Sorely distressed, he set out to perform some penance, and sleeping 
under a banian tree, near the meeting of the Or and Narbada, woke 
to see the Brahman he had shot pass by. Recognizing the man, he 
gave him all he had, and, on Ohaitra sud 15th (March), washing and 
making ready a pyre, burnt himself on the river bank. His soul 
was wafted to heaven, and those who bg,the there on that day are 
cleansed from all sins, even the sin of killing a Brahman. 

Dev Mogra, in Rajpipla, has a temple of Pandhar Mata. Every 
year on the Maha Shivratri day, Mdgh vad 14th (February), a fair 
is attended by about 200 pilgrims, mostly Bhils. During the two 
days it lasts the Bhils drink large quantities of liquor. Every year 
the chief of Sagbara sends to this temple thirty pots of Kquor, a 
silver necklace worth about 2s. (Re. 1), Is. (8. as.) worth of flowers, 
a girl's robe, hodhni, four goats, and one male buffalo. The food and 
drink are first offered to the goddess and then consumed by the 
worshippers. 

Dhuiukhal, in the east of Rajpipla, has, about two miles to the 
south, the remains of a few temples with fairly well-carved images.^ 

Ha'mpll, on the right bank of the Narbada, in the Chhota Udepur 
state, at the extreme south-east corner of the Rewa Kantha, of local 
importance as a place of pilgrimage, has a ruined fort on a site 
of some strength, having the Narbada on the south and hiUs and 
ravines on other sides. This was the place of refuge, and for some 
time the head- quarters of the Champaner Chohans who are now 
represented by the Chhota Udepur chiefs. A road has lately (1875) 
been opened from Udepur. For the last eight miles it is little more 
than a bridle path. 

Jeyor, in the Nandod sub-division of Rajpipla, on the banks of the 
Narbada, has a stone and cement temple of Kumbheshvar Mahadev, 
held in local esteem, from its mention in the Narbada Puran. The 
Brahman who performs the worship is paid a yearly sum of £40 
(Rs. 400) by the Rajpipla state. His Highness the Gaikwar also 
contributes towards the expenses of the temple. Besides of Shiv, 
two images of small and large Panotis are worshipped with hbations 
of oil. The offerings are shared by Tapodhan Brahmans who worship 
the image of Shiv. On every Saturday in Shrdvan (July - August) 
a fair is held, attended by about 300 people, from villages within a 
distance of about twenty-five miles, the number rising on the last 
Saturday, if the weather is fair, to about 2000. The people come 
in the morning, bathe, worship the image, and leave in the afternoon. 
A few Bohoras, confectioners, betel-leaf sellers, and grocers open 
stalls and daily sell goods worth from about £5 to £70 (Rs. 50 - 700). 

Kada'na, the chief town of the Kadana state, with, in. 1872, a 
population of 1478 souls, lies about eighty miles east by north from 



Chapter^XIV. 
Places of Interest. 



Dev Mooba, 



DhUMEEAIi. 



HA'MPff. 



Jeyob. 



Kada'na. 



B 561—21 



Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII, 315. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



162 



STATES. 



Chapter XIV. 

Places of Interest. 

Kada'na. 



KUKEBJ. 



LlMODRA. 



Ahmedabad, on a ridge that runs along the left bank of the Mahi 
shortly after it leaves the hills. The fortified house, or fort, where the 
Th^kor lives, stands on the extreme point of the spur that overlooks 
the town, but is commanded by hills both in front and rear. The walls 
are about ten feet high, and three quarters of a mile round. There are 
three small guns, but no bastions. The approach, up a winding bridle 
path through a gateway with flanking towers, leads into a narrow 
courtyard with out-houses along three sides, and the fourth filled 
by the Thakor's dwelling. This building is two stories high. The 
basement is occupied by store and cook rooms, and in the upper 
story, reached by a ladder trap-door, are the Darbar room, where the 
chief lives and receives guests and retainers, and the ladies' rooms, 
approached by a side passage. A winding stone staircase leads to a 
terraced roof. 

Kukrej, between the towns of Agar and Vajiria in the centre 
of the Sankheda Mehvas, has the ruins of an old fort. According 
to the local story this is the site of a large city, Kambavati 
Nagari, in Chohan days joined to Champaner by an underground 
passage. Neither written records nor the size of the ruins supports 
these local legends. There is a story that near a masonry well much 
treasure was once hid, and that about forty years ago workmen, sent 
by the Agar chief to dig out the treasure, were driven away by 
winged serpents. In 1868 the place was again opened in presence 
of the Political Agent. After digging to some depth, a stratum of 
solid sandstone was reached, and as this did not appear to have been 
ever disturbed, no further search was made. 

Limodra, in Eajpipla, has a temple of Eikhavdevji. From an 
inscription on the footstool of the image, it appears to have been set 
up on Mdrgshi/rsh sudl4<th, S. 1120 (December 1064). The image 
was lost till 1864 (S. 1920), when it was found in a field in Limodra. 
The Raja built a temple and placed the image in it on Mdgh vad 5th, 
S. 1928 (Febmary 1872). The expenses of the temple are defrayed 
from the rents of some houses and shops attached to it amounting 
to £15 (Rs. 150) a year, and the offerings of the Jain devotees who 
flock there every year on Edrtih sud 1 5th (November) and Mdgh vad 
5th (February). The fair lasts for a day and is attended generally 
by not more than 150 pilgrims. The only trade is in grain sold for 
food to the amount of £5 or £6 (Rs. 50 - 60) . An account of the 
Limodra carnelian mines ^ is given above (p. 12). 



' Barbosa (1514) (Stanley's Edition, 66) mentions that at Limadura was found a stone 
from which they made beads for East Africa (Berberia). Extracted in large blocks, it 
was white as milk with some red. Its colour was heightened with fire by great artists 
who pierced and manufactured the beads in various fashions, oval, octagonal, and round, 
and made knife-handles, buttons, and rings. Cambay merchants took them to seU 
in the Bed Sea ports, whence, by way of Cairo and Alexandria, they went to Europe 
and throughout Arabia, Persia, and Nubia. Much chalcedony, which they called 
babagore, was also found in this town. Beads made of it and worn so as to touch the 
skin, were able, it was said, to preserve chastity. In 1666, Thevenot (Voyages, V. 37) 
mentions that at Cambay many agates were brought from a village called Nimodra 
on the Broach road. Writing in 1820, W, Hamilton says: The mines are situated 



Gujarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



163 



Luna'va'da, north latitude 23° 8', east longitude 73° 37', with, in 
1872, a population of 9662 souls, the chief town of the Lunavada state, 
stands about four miles east of the meeting of the Mahi and Panam, 
and sixty-three miles east from Ahmedabad. The town, founded in 
1434 by Rana Bhimsingji, is backed by a hill about 300 feet high, 
which, gradually rising from the west, ends in a ridge running 
north and south with a very steep fall to the east. 

In 1718, Raja Narsingji greatly added to the strength of the place 
by building a wall, that, crowning the ridge, ran down the steep hill 
sides, and, turning inwards, met at the western or Mahadev gate. 
The walls are from eight to ten and a half feet high and about two 
and a quarter miles round. There are ten or twelve ruined bastions, 
and four gates, to the north, east, south, and west. The Raja's palace 
is in the fort. About the beginning of the present century, Lunavada 
was a great trade centre for merchants passing from Ratldmgad 
and other parts of Malwa to Ahmedabad and central Gujardt. The 
artisans were particularly skilful, and arms and other military 
accoutrements were easily procured. In 1803, it supplied Colonel 
Murray's army so effectually, that, had not the fortress of Dohad 
in the Ranch Mahals been ceded without a struggle, he would have 
estabHshed his magazines and hospital at Lunavada.^ 

The streets are crooked and narrow. The main street, winding 
through the market and the busiest quarter of the town from the 
Vansia gate in the north to the Darkoli gate in the south, is lined 
with houses, two or three stories high, many of them adorned with 
overhanging deeply carved wooden balconies. Built on the slope of 
a hill, the lower parts of the town, till lately when drains were built, 
suffered severely from flooding. 

The palace, on a terrace at the top of a wall about forty feet high, 
looks from below very high and imposing. It is a long narrow build- 
ing, with a solitary domed tower to the south, and a west front three 
or four stories high, full of irregular outstanding mulUoned windows. 
The chief entrance passes through two gateways, and then rises 
sharply to the terrace on which the palace stands, where, through 
a third gateway, a courtyard is entered from which stairs lead to the 
different parts of the building. Except the Darbar hall which has 
lately been added, the rooms are small and dark, and the staircases 
steep and difficult. Immediately behind the palace terrace, rises a 
covered way leading to its crest, a way of escape for the inmates 



Chapter XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Lcna'va'da. 



in the wildest part of the jungle and consist of numerous shafts worked down perpen- 
dicularly, about four feet wide, the deepest being about fifty feet. Some extend at the 
bottom horizontally, but usually not far, the pits being naturally incapable of being 
worked a second year, on account of the banks falling down by the heavy rains and 
necessitating the opening of new ones. The soil is a little gravelly consisting chiefly 
of quartz sand reddened with iron, and a little clay. The nodules weigh from a few 
ounces to two or even three pounds, lying close but generally distinct, not being in 
strata but scattered profusely through the masses. On the spot they are mostly of a 
blackish olive colour like common dark flints. Others are somewhat lighter, and 
others still lighter with a slight milky tinge. Description of Hindustan, I. 714, 715. 
' Hamilton's Description of Hindustdn, 684, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



164 



STATES. 



Chapter XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Luna'va'dA. 



Ma'kni. 



Ma'ndva. 



MoEAir. 



of tte palace, sHouH ttey at any time be hard pressed. At the foot 
of the palace wall is a pleasant garden. Opposite it is the jail, and, 
immediately outside the gate, are the school and dispensary. 

Outside the south gate are the shrines of the gods Luneshvar, 
Vishveshvar, Ranchhodji, and the monastery of Nath Bava. The 
monastery is surrounded by a loopholed quadrangular wall with 
flanking towers, and, if it were not commanded by the town walls, 
would be a place of some strength. It was founded, in 1756 (S. 1812), 
by a Grosai named Manhordas, who is said to have suddenly appeared 
at Lunavada and to have worked many miracles by the help of his 
patroness the goddess Annapuma. 

On the Panam river, at a short distance from Lunavada, are held 
two fairs, one on Shrdvan vad 8th (A.ugust) at the temple of 
Mehlolia Mahadev, and the other on Mdgh vad I4th (February) at 
the temple of Kumareshvar Mahadev. They are attended by 4000 
or 5000 people, from Lunavada and the Bhil and Koli villages round, 
who pay the Brahmans %d. (| cunna) a head. Only dry dates, 
cocoanuts, and other articles of food are sold. 

Ma'kni, nine miles north-east of Sankheda, in a rich country with 
specially fine trees and surrounded by fields of sugarcane, seems to 
be the Mangni which Sultan Ahmad I. fortified in 1419.^ It has a 
fine large lake, with a brick and cement wall on the south-west, and 
was evidently once a most thriving and populous place.^ 

Ma'ndva, in the estate of the same name, in the extreme west 
of the Sankheda Mehvas, stands on a high knoll overlooking the 
Orsang river at its meeting with the Narbada. It is separated from 
the town of Chanod by a deep ravine lately bridged over.' The 
plateau on which the town stands is high above the river Orsang, 
and its edge, abutting on the river, is, during the rains, liable to be 
eaten away by the violence of the stream, and, as the ravines round 
the town have eaten deeply into the earth, there is constant danger 
of the <vhole or a part of the knoll being carried away. Except 
through the ravine no wheeled vehicles can approach the town. The 
only building of any pretension is the residence of the chief. 
Remains of bastions and flanking towers show that once, probably 
before the spread of the Gaikwar's power, the family was much 
richer and more prosperous than it now is. 

Mohan, or Ali Mohan, about twenty miles south of Udepur, 
was, during the seventeenth century, the capital of the family of the 
present Chhota Udepur chief. After losing Champaner (1484), 
they fled to Hamph on the Narbada, and seem, about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, to have moved to Ali Mohan as a place more likely 
to attract trade. The ruins of the fort stand on a conical hill, from 
200 to 300 feet above the plain. Below it a line of circumvallation 
includes what must once have been the town. The plain is strewn 



1 Watson's Gujarat, 35. 
' See above p. 159. 



2 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 98. 



Gajarit.] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



165 



with the ruins of houseSj gateways, and wells. The only remains are 
two broken-down round towers. 

Moklldi Gha'nta, in Rajpipla, has about four miles off, on a high 
bank of the Narbada, two very old temples, one of Shulpanishvar 
Mahadev or the trident-bearing god,i the other of Eanchhodji. 
For their support, the Baroda state pays £70 (Rs. 700) a year, and 
the offerings of the pilgrims come to about £10 (Rs. 100) more, 
Rajpipla pays about £30 (Rs. 300) for the maintenance of the 
temple of Ranchhodji and the feeding of those who visit all the holy 
places on the Narbada. Here, every year, on Ohaitra vad 30th 
(April) a fair is held. Pilgrims from all parts of Gujarat begin 
to gather from Ohaitra vad 11th, till, on the fair day, the number 
reaches about 4000. Beyond sweetmeats and food there is little trade. 

Mota Sa'ja, in the Jhagadia sub-division of Rajpipla, has the 
temple of a saint named Dnyaniji. The story is that Gorakhji, the 
well known disciple of the great ascetic Machhindar, in an 
interview with the reformer Kabir at Benares, asked him to give 
him divine knowledge, dnydn. Kabir replied, that, as he was 
a follower of Machhindar, he could not instruct him in his present 
life, but would do so in the next on the banks of the Narbada. 
Gorakhji accordingly abandoned this life, and was born again in the 
house of the Raja of Jesalmir in Marwar in the person of Dnyaniji. 
When eleven years old he visited Kabir at the habir vad tree 
near Broach. Taught by the sage, Dnyaniji settled in the 
village of Saja, and built a temple of Ram and Lakshman. He 
died on Posh sud 11th (January), and every year on this day a 
fair is held in his honour. The fair lasts for thirteen or fourteen 
days, and is attended by 1000 or 1200 pilgrims, mostly religious 
beggars from Surat, Broach, Baroda, and the neighbouring districts. 
Bohoras, cloth sellers, confectioners, brasiers, and grocers open • a 
few shops, and goods worth about £250 (Rs. 2500) are sold. The 
pilgrims worship the footprints of Dnyaniji. The expenses of this 
temple, amounting yearly to about £70 or £80 (Rs. 700 - 800), 
are met partly from land granted by the Rd,jpipla state which 
yields about £40 (Rs. 400) a year, and partly from land in Gaikwar 
and British territories yielding nearly the same amount. 

Na'ndod, north latitude 21° 55', east longitude 73° 43', the chief 
town of the Rajpipla state, with, in 1872, a population 9768 souls, 
lies about thirty-two miles east by north from Surat, on a rising 
ground in a bend of the Karjan river about eight miles from the 
Narbada. Flowing almost due north till it reaches the south end of 
the town, the Karjan makes a sharp turn for about two miles to 
the south-west. It then bends to the north-west for nearly a mile, 
and from that suddenly swerves north-east until it reaches the north 
end of the town, and then, leaving the town, flows towards the 
north. Near the town the river is about 100 yards broad, but, except 
during the rains, it is easily fordable save at a few deep pools. 
Towards the east or back of the town the ground rises abruptly, and 



Chapter XIV, 
Places of Interest. 
MoKHDi Gha'nta. 



Mota Sa'ja. 



Na'ndod, 



Shul a, thorn or trident, pdni hand, and ishvar, god. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



166 



STATES. 



Chapter XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Na'ndod. 



Pbathampur. 



Ka'jpipla. 



elopes rapidly towards the west or front, where it is bounded by a 
hedge beyond which is low swampy groundj in the cold season used 
by the cultivators as a threshing floor. The space between the bend 
of the river and the town is laid out in gardens and rich fields. 

As early as 1304, the Musalmans are said to, have driven 
the Nandod, or Nadot, chief from his capital, and made it the 
head-quarters of one of their districts, building a mosque and 
issuing coin. And from that time until 1830, the chief, though he 
had, since the fall of Muhammadan power (1730), recovered most 
of the district, never brought back his capital from Rajpipla to 
Nandod. Nandod has one main street running from north to south, 
with, on both sides, many three-storied brick and cement houses^, 
their fronts covered with gaudy paintings and some of them with, 
richly carved balconies and overhanging wood work. Formerly very 
winding, this street was, in 1868, after a fire, improved and widened 
chiefly south towards the palace. On both sides, behind the buildings 
of the main street, are wretched Bhil huts. At the south eud of the 
town is the palace, a bare quadrangular three-storied building with 
four square flanking towers, iu a large untidy enclosure, which is 
gradually being surrounded by a wall of cut stone. From the base- 
ment, which is given up to store rooms and guardrooms, a dark 
flight of narrow steps leads to the first floor, where the Darbar or 
reception room, narrow low and lighted from doors leading into a 
front verandah, stretches nearly the whole length of the building. 
At the back of the reception room is a courtyard with rooms round 
it, flanked by suites of women's apartments. The south end of the 
palace stands on the steep, eighty feet high, bank of the Karjan river. 
Besides with vegetables, the market is well supplied with English 
piece goods, embroidered robes, brocades, coarse country cloth, 
grocery, spices, tobacco, opium, glass bangles, children's toys, 
sweetmeats, and hot pieces of fried meat, habdbs. The trade is 
mostly local, imports of hardware, groceries and cloth, and exports 
of agricultural produce, honey, wax, wood, and bamboos. Nandod 
is mentioned in 1855 as celebrated for its cutlery, sword-belts, and 
sdmbar skin pouches. Country, dungri, cloth and tape, pdti, were 
woven by the Dheds.^ 

Prathamptir, about five miles south of Sunth, has a ruined 
mosque and minaret, one of the few remains of Musalman supremacy 
in this wild part of Gujarat. No writing has been found either on 
the mosque or minaret. According to the local story Prathampur 
was the head-quarters of a Musalman ruler Pratham Shah, who, 
about the middle of the thirteenth century, was beaten and driven 
out by a certain Rana Sant. 

Ra'jpipla, in the beginning of the present century^ the capital 
of the Rajpipla state, is called new Rajpipla to distinguish it 



> Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 323. 

3 Apparently from 1730 to about 1820. 



" Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 318, 
See Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 264. 



Gnjarit.] 



REWA KANTHA. 



167 



from the village of Pipla also called jitna or old Pipla, the original Chapter XIV. 
stronghold of the chiefs, where they lived till 1 730. Places of Interest. 

Old Pipla, on a spur of the Devs^tra hill, is almost inaccessible Ra'jpipla, 

to any one but a Bhil. No wheeled vehicles can get there, the 
road, for about eight miles (5 kos), lying through a narrow 
gorge between high overhanging hills. In former times it was 
a safe retreat, when, if invaded, the chief blocked the path with 
wood and rubbish. There are still traces of the village, now 
inhabited only by a few Bhils.^ At Rajpipla there were two forts, 
one immediately behind old Rajpipla on the top of the Devsd.tra hiU 
about 2000 feet high,^ and the other at new Rajpipla. The old 
fort is almost inaccessible being approached by narrow footpaths, 
which, with a little trouble, could be made impassable even for infantry. 
The new fort, built about 1 730 on the spur of a hill at the meeting 
of the Tarai and Karjan, is approached, along the bank of the Karjan, 
through two miles of a wild and beautiful mountain gorge. Both 
sides of the hills overhanging the stream are crowned by breast- 
works, and the road is rugged enough to make access to the fort 
very difficult. In front of the fort the Ldl Darvdja, a gateway with 
flanking towers, completely bars the road. Even after surmounting 
this, an invading force would be nearly a mile from the key 
of the position, and would have to fight its way through a rugged 
defile between heights and among rocks and bushes alive with 
Bhils. The fort, a square court with walls about ten feet high 
enclosing an area of eight acres (15 bighds), contains the palace, 
a paltry structure with flanking towers armed by a few pieces of 
miscellaneous artillery. Old associations endear the fort to the 
ruUng family, and every year, as the great Dasera festival comes, the 
Raja marches in state from his palace to the fort, and, by the 
slaughter of a male buffalo, wins the favour of the guardian of his 
house. 

Ra'inpur, with, in 1872, a population of 2284 souls, lies about a Ea'mpub. 

mile to the east of Sunth at the meeting of the small rivers Ohibota 
and Suki. The road between the two towns lies along the bed of 
the Chibota through a pass commanded by hills on either side. 
The town is modern and laid out with some regularity, with a broad 
centre street leading from a ford over the Chibota. On the left, 
soon after leaving the river, are the jail and a new market. A 
little further, on the right, are new state offices, and, on the crest of 
the hill, a new hospital. The trade and population of the place have 
of late years rapidly increased, and some of the merchants' houses 
are well built and adorned with fretted stone work. 

Ratanpur, north latitude 21° 24', east longitude 73° 26', in the Ratanpub. 
Rupnagar sub-division of Rajpipla, stands on the top of one of a 
series of small rounded hills, about fourteen miles above Broach. 
Here, in 1705, the Marathas gained a most complete victory over 



>.Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 264. 



2 Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 323. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



168 



STATES. 



Cihapter XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Ratanpuk, 



Sa^ja'la. 



the imperial army under Safdar Khan Babi and Nazar AH Khan.^ 
At the foot of a liill, in an uncultivated tract, about five miles south- 
west of Ratanpur, and three miles east of the village of Limodra, 
commonly called Nimodra, are the celebrated carnelian mines. 
Formerly all the stones were burnt at Limodra, but, about ] 850, two 
other establishments were opened, one at Sultanpur and the other 
at Rampura.^ On the top of the hill above the mines is the tomb of 
Bawa Ghor. Of the origin of the tomb, the servant, m/ujavar, in 
charge gives the following account. A long time ago the goddess 
Makhan Devi lived on the hill and near her a lamp, fed by fifty 
pounds of butter, continually burned. So strong was the light, 
that the prophet Muhammad at Mecca asked Shaikh Ghori Siddi 
or Bawa Ghor to see whence the light came. On the coming of 
Bawa Ghor, Makhan Devi sank under the ground, and the saint 
settling there worked, and still works, miracles. Even a tiger obeys 
his orders, and, if his victim only calls on the saint's name, the tiger 
stops eating him. A fair is held every year on the 6th of the 
Muhammadan month of Rajjah, when, according to the season of 
the year, from 100 to 500 Muhammadan worshippers come from all 
parts of Gujarat. The Rajpipla chief has granted lands yielding 
about £20 15s. 6d. (Rs. 207 as. 12) a year to maintain this tomb. On 
the same hUl, at a little distance from Bawa Ghor's tomb, are the 
tombs of Bawa Habash and Mai Meshra, the brothers of Bawa Ghor,^ 
who, when twelve years had passed, came from Mecca to look after 
their brother. Near this tomb is a rdyan, Mimusops indica, tree, 
commonly resorted to as a tree of ordeal. Its intertwined branches 
form a loop, through which suspected persons are made to pass, the 
popular belief being that while shrinking and holding fast the guilty, 
the loop allows the innocent to pass through unhindered. 

Sanja'la, in the Jhagadia sub-division of Rajpipla, has a temple of 
Gumandev, or Hanuman, held in high local esteem. The story, as 
told by the temple priests, is that many years ago the site was 
densely covered with forest. Gulabdas, an ascetic, found an image 
hid in a thorn bush and raised a small shed over it and afterwards 
a stone and cement temple. In time money flowed in and round 
the temple large rest-houses, dharmshdlds, were built. On every 
Saturday in Shrdvan (July - August), people from the villages round 
come to worship the image pouring over it offerings of oil. The 
temple has a small reservoir, where the oil offered to the image 
is stored. The expenses of the temple, from £100 to £150 
(Rs. 1000- 1500) a year, are met from the rents about £20 (Rs. 200) 
a year, of the village of Mdlpur, some service land yielding about 
£30 (Rs. 800) granted by the Rajpipla state, and from the sale of the 
oil offerings. On A' so vad 14th (October) or Kali Chaudas every year 
a fair, attended by from 400 to 500 people, is held in honour of the 
image. Sweetmeat makers, grain parchers, and others open a few 
stalls where goods worth from £5 to £10 (Rs. 50 - 100) are sold. 



• Watson's Gujardt, 87. ^ Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 269. 

^ This B&wa Ghor was an Abyssinian carnelian merchant. See above p. 12. 



3ujar&t.] 



RBWA KANTHA. 



169 



SUNTH. 



Sunth, the head-quarters of the Sunth state, north latitude Chapter_XIV. 
23° 13', east longitude 78° 55', lies about eighty miles north-east of pi^ggg of Interest 
Ahmedabad, among the ranges of hills which cross the state from 
north to south. From the west, the road passes over three hilly 
ridges, and through several defiles and rocky valleys, to the narrow 
hollow, where, hemmed in by hills, lies the town of Sunth.i ^ 
little to the left stands the palace, an irregular building partly of 
brick and partly of stone, of great length, with one wing four or 
five stories high surmounted by stone gables, and another loss lofty 
with small domes and minarets. Between the wings is a modern 
white stucco building, out of keeping with the rest, which, though 
of no great age, looks like the home of a feudal chief. On the south 
side'are the ladies' rooms, and, at the opposite end, over the entrance 
gateway is the reception room, lately finished with ornamental 
windows and slate balconies adorned with much fine tracery.^ 

Between the palace and the hills which rise very steep, a space, 
enclosed by a wall with flanking towers, does duty as a fort,' and 
runs along the crest of the hill for about 150 yards. About the 
centre of the wall a sallyport opens down a steep footpath to the 
other side of the hills. At the foot of the hill cluster a few humble 
buildings, the people all dependent on the chief. The approach to 
the palace is up a steep causeway, leading to a gateway with two 
flanking towers, and thence up a winding road. 

Surpa'n, on the Narbada in the extreme north-east of Rajpipla, 
is a place of great sanctity.* Details of its temples are given under 
' Mokhdi Ghanta ' of which Surpan is another name. 

Udepur, north latitude 22° 20', east longitude 74° 1', the 
chief town of the Chhota Udepur state, lies in the centre of 
a broad waving plain where the Orsang river makes a sharp 
turn to the north-west. The southern flank of the town rests 
on the river, and its eastern front on a picturesque lake with 
well wooded banks. Beyond the lake, between a fine grove of 
mango trees and the river, is the plain where Tatia Topi's 
army was routed by Brigadier Parke in December 1858. On the 
side of the lake, stands a rich Hindu temple, with a fantastically 
carved spire. Through the trees that fringe the lake, the town roofs 
may be seen, and, above them, the palace, a curious incongruous 
mixture of old and new styles. This building is in a large court- 



Surpa'n. 



Udepob. 



' The fort and town of Sunth stands three or four miles from the open country to 
the westward, from which it is separated by moderately high hills. The ruling chief 
in 1806 objected most strenuously to Sunth becoming a thoroughfare for commerce or 
armies, fearing a dissolution of his government. Hamilton's Description of Hindustan, 
I. 685. 

^ The slate from the river VaUi near Sunth can be quarried in great slabs. It 
splits very fine and is worked into tracery like marble. The masons who designed 
and carved the traceries came from MeywAr. 

' The fort of Sunth crowns the western face of a high rocky hill, the lower walls 
commencing near the base. It is well built and contains a curiously constructed 
palace, the two together strong enough to resist native armies. Hamilton's Description 
of Hindustan, I. 685. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 315. As so many of his names were holy places, it seems 
probable that Ptolemy's (150) Sarbana on the Mahi, as it leaves the hills, is Surpin 
on the Narbada, 



B 561—22 



[Bombay Guzetteer, 



170 



STATES. 



Cihapter XIV. 
Places of Interest. 

Ubbpub, 



VlRPUB, 



yard, surrounded by half-finislied brick ramparts and parapet 
walls. Through an inner court, a gateway leads to the palace 
entrance, and from there a narrow dark winding flight of steps rises 
to the reception room on the upper story, and a second flight to an 
upper terrace. Round the palace are a number of new houses built 
by the present chief, one for each of his sons. These houses are in 
marked contrast to the poverty-stricken appearance of the rest of 
the town, whose one street has, but few good houses, and whose 
inhabitants, making little by trade or manufactures, are almost all 
dependents on the chief. 

Virptir, in the Balasinor state, with, in 1872, a population of 
1800 souls, stands on the Bavli river eight or nine miles west of 
Lunavada. It boasts a great age. Early in the thirteenth century 
(1225), this town was taken from the Bariya chief Viro by Virbhadra, 
great grandson of Dhaval, the founder of the Vydghrapalli, or 
Vaghela, branch of the Solankis. On the southern face of the town 
is a ruined fort. On the Bavli river, close to the town on the north, 
is the shrine of a Muhammadan saint called Dariyaisha, which is 
visited from afar and is the chief glory of the town. Wonderful 
legends are told of this saint, whose real name was Mirza Muham- 
mad, and who is said to have been descended in a direct line from 
Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. Muhammad, it is said, foretold 
that a descendant of Abbas would work miracles in Gujarat. One 
Kutub Muhammad, the third or fourth in descent from Abbas, 
living in Shiraz in Persia, was working many miracles. His fame 
reached the ears of a Brahman of the then flourishing town of 
Karanta in Lunavada who was in sore straits, because his low caste 
ruler demanded his daughter in marriage. Seeking help from 
Kutub, the saint came to Karanta, killed the chief, and established 
himself in his place. He was afterwards attacked by the Bariya 
chief of Virpur, but, by the help of some Rajput mercenaries and 
some Ahmedabad troops his assailant was utterly defeated. Kutub's 
grandson, Mirza Muhammad, also a miracle worker, is said to have 
gone with Mahmud Begada against Champaner and by his advice 
to have greatly helped the siege. His tomb is a picturesque building 
with windows of quaint open tracery, under a huge tamarind tree 
on the banks of the Bavli.'^ Round the tomb are many half-ruined 
houses of the saint's descendants who live in idleness on the 
villagers' charity. A fair is held at the saint's tomb every year on 
the night of the twelfth of Rabbi-ul-Akhar. Large numbers of 
worshippers come, and, when the proper time comes, see the locked 
doors of the tomb burst open, flowers rise from the ground and 
strew the saint's grave, and the stream run butter instead of water. 



> This Bd,vli or mad stream once followed the saint Mirza and ran with butter 
instead of water. Butter still runs on the fair day poured on, it is said, some way 
up the stream by the tomb servant. 



NARUKOT. 



NAEUKOT. 



Na'rukot, a petty state administered by the Agent to the Grovernor 
in the Panch MahalSj with a total area of about 143 square miles, a 
population, in 1872, of 6837 souls or 47"8 to the square mile, and, in 
the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of £986 
(Rs. 9860), lies in the south-east of the Panch Mahals, surrounded 
by the Rewa Kantha state of Chhota Udepur. The country is wild, 
covered with low hills aind thick forests. There is a fair supply of 
water chiefly from ponds and wells whose number is gradually 
being increased.^ The state has a bad name for fever. But at 
Jambughoda, where the timber has been cleared, the climate has 
much improved. The average yearly rainfall is about thirty-seven 
inches. 

In 1874 specimens of lead ore were obtained near the village of 
Jhaban. But in the opinion of the Superintendent of the G-eological 
Survey they were not rich enough to encourage further search. 
Except in some villages where are good groves of teak, the Narukot 
forests have very few valuable trees. The inferior timber and 
firewood are, by the local Kolis and Naikdas, sent to Baroda and 
Dabhoi under a permit system, a cart-load of timber paying 3s. 
(Re. 1|) and of fuel Qd. (4 annas). 

Peopled by Naikdas and Kolis, the state had, in 1872, 6837 
inhabitants. Of these 3466 or 50'6 per cent were males and 3371 
or 49"4 per cent females. 

The soil is capable of yielding a larger outturn and better crops 
than it does under the present rude tillage. Of the total area one- 
fourth is unarable being mostly hilly ; one-fourth is arable waste ; 
and about one-half is cultivated. In 1878, a considerable area of 
cultivated land was thrown up owing to the death, desertion, and 
insolvency of cultivators, and the loss of their live stock brought 
about by two successive bad seasons. With few exceptions the 
agricultural products are rain crops, kharif, chiefly rice, ddngar, 
Oryza sativa, millet, bdjri, Penieillaria spicata, maize, mahdi, Zea 
mays, pulse, tuver, Cajanus indicus, and hanti, Panicum spicatum. 
In so isolated and unhealthy a country, outside husbandmen cannot 
be tempted to take land. The local cultivators are only Naikdas 
and Kolis who formerly lived chiefly by wood-cutting. They are 
beginning to settle to more regular tillage and to the use of the 



N&rokot. 
Bescriptiott. 



Products, 



Population. 



Agricultun. 



' In 1878, a well was built in the vjllaee of Kherva at a cost of about £37 
(Kb. 370) and two were improved at a cost of about £18 (Rs. 180). 



[Bombay (Gazetteer, 



174 



STATES. 



N&rnkot. plough. But the practice of sowing seeds in forest clearings, locally 
Agriculture. known as voir a, or of working hill sides with a small pickaxe, is 
still general. The state has lately passed through a time of much 
scarcity and distress. In 1877, a very scanty rainfall caused a 
serious failure of crops and so great a scarcity of fodder that large 
numbers of cattle ^ed. The distress was increased in the spring 
of 1878 by a poor mahuda, Bassia latifolia, harvest. In July and' 
August, on the top of this double failure came excessive rains more 
than once washing away much of the grain. With stores almost 
exhausted, the people were reduced to great straits, feeding on roota 
and forest produce, till, in April 1879, a magnificent mahuda crop 
relieved the distress. The fall in the exports of timber from want 
of draught cattle, the large area of land thrown out of tillage, the 
widespread sickness, and the heavy special mortality show how 
severely the district suffered. 

Trade. In 1856, at a cost of £300 (Rs. 3000), a rough cross-country road 

was cleared from Jambughoda to Baroda. In 1861, two years after 
the N^ikda rising, at a cost of £357 {Shidshdhi Rupees 4084), lines 
were cleared through the forest. The chief of these was sixty milea 
long from Jambughoda to Dohad. In 1872, at a cost of £2446 
(Rs. 24,460), of which Government contributed nearly one-half 
and the Narukot and Panch Mahals Local Funds the rest, a road 
twenty-five miles long was made from Jambughoda through Halol 
in the Panch Mahals, joining the main line from Godhra to Baroda 
on the south side of the Kard river. In any Naikda outbreak or 
other local disturbance, this would prove a very valuable military 
line. The chief exports are forest produce, timber, and mahuda, of 
which large quantities pass from and through the state to Baroda 
and Dabhoi. 

HiBtory. Among the Rewa Kantha chiefs, who, before its transfer to British 

management were most notorious as robbers and bandits, were the 
Naikdas of the country round Champaner. One of their leaders, though 
his territory does not appear as a separate state, was the chief of 
Tokalpur, the present Narukot, a Baria Koli by caste. In February 
1826, when a Political Agent was appointed, under promise of pardon, 
these chiefs, 'after considerable hesitation and under the greatest 
dread and distrust,' came in and agreed to furnish security for their 
future good conduct, promising to cause no disturbance, to behave 
as quiet cultivators, to leave to Government the settlements of their 
claims on the revenues of neighbouring states, to keep no mercenaries, 
to be responsible for crime, to protect merchants, and to be subject 
to the authority of the Government posts.^ Soon after (1829) the 
oflace of Political Agent in the Rewa Kantha was abolished, and 
the Resident at Baroda removed to Ahmedabad. The Gaikwar's 
manager, kamdvisddr, of Sankheda was appointed to collect the yearly 
tribute of £4 (Rs. 41) from Narukot. This position gave him power 
over the chief, and for several years the withdrawal of British 
supervision left him free. to use iis power as he chose. Unable to 



> Bom, Gov. Sel. XXIII. 824. 



Qvijarit.l 

NARUKOT. 175 

manage his people, and forced by the Sankheda manager, who NArukot. 

imprisoned both him and his family, Jagatsing (1833) agreed History. 

that, if the Baroda Government kept order and protected him 

from Chhota Udepur, he would make over to them one-half of 

his revenue. A Gaik^ar post, thdna, was established, and, in 

exacting one-half of the revenue, the commandant treated the 

people with such harshness, that, in 1837, they broke out in revolt. 

The services of a British force had to be engaged, and order 

was not restored without great difficulty. At the close of the 

operations, nearly the whole district was deserted, and every village 

burnt down. So hardly had they been treated, that the people 

refused to come back unless they were guaranteed freedom from the 

tyranny of the Gaikwar's post. On a promise of safety from 

oppression and of good treatment the people began to return, and 

thirteen villages were soon settled.^ The chief Jagta Baria was 

anxious that he should be taken under the protection of Government, 

and offered to pay them half of his revenues.^ The Gaikwar 

remonstrated against any interference on the part of Government, 

but it was decided ' that as Narukot had come under British control 

in 1826, the transfer to the Gaikwar of half of the chief's estate could 

not be respected. The chief's offer of one-half of his revenue was at 

first refused. But, in 1839,* to provide funds for the management and 

recovery of the state, it was accepted, and special control vested in 

the Assistant Political Commissioner.^ Since then the management 

of the state has remained with the British Government, the British 

share of the revenue being spent on the improvement of the state. 

On the establishment of order in 1837, the people soon quieted down 

and for many years remaiued wonderfully free from crime.^ In 

1858, excited hy the movements of rebel troops along the eastern 

border, the Naikdas rose, plundered the post, thdna, of Narukot, 

and at Jambughoda attacked a detachment under Captain Bates. 

Afterwards they were joined by a number of Tatia Topi's men, and, 

favoured by the thickness of the forest and underwood, the revolt was 

not put down till March 1859. Nine years later, Joria, a Naikda of 

Vadek, near Jambughoda began to act as a holy man, bhagat, and 

claimed supernatural power. Gaining much influence over the 

people, he was joined by Eupsing, also a Naikda, a pardoned 

outlaw and rebel. They together planned the establishment of 

a Naikda kingdom, and getting together a body of armed 

followers, attacked and sacked several Government posts, among 

them Jambughoda. Troops were quickly collected, Vadek attacked, 

and the bhagat's forces scattered (Peb. 16, 1868). The leaders escaped, 

but after a short time were taken, tried, and hanged. The people, 

assured that their misconduct would be forgiven, settled in their 

villages, and since then, in spite of the recent time of scarcity (1877- 

1879), order has remained unbroken and crime continued small.^ 



' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 199. = Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 199 

' Gov. to the Pol. Com. 2096, Slat Oct. 1838. Gov. Sel. XXIII 214 
* Gov. to Pol. Com. 10th July 1839. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 223. 
' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 200, 217. « Bom. Quar. Rev. III. 374. 

' Details of the NAikda risings are given in the Panoh Mahals Statistical 
Account. Bom. Gaz. III. 254-258. - 



[Bombay G^etteer, 



N&mkot. 

History. 



Land. 



Justice. 



Police. 



176 



STATES. 



Dipsingj tlie present chief, thirty-nine years of age, is a Baria Koli 
by caste. In 1837 it was stated that, for its own good and for the 
peace of the province, the management of the state must for some 
time remain under a British officer. Since 1837 the country has 
been opened, settled habits introduced among the people, and the 
revenue greatly increased. Its extreme backwardness and the 
excitable character of its people still make British control necessary. 

Except in the case of forest tillage, which is charged a lump sum 
on each clearing, the occupant pays on the number of ploughs he 
uses, not on the area of land he tills. The rates, at first experimental, 
have from time to time been changed with the double object of 
bringing the wild population to cultivate fixed fields, and of making 
them adopt a better style of tillage. For the Kolis, who are more 
inclined than the Naikdas to take . up land, the plough rates of 
assessment were in 1872, for the better class of soil 4s. 6d. (Rs. 2^) 
for the first year, and 12s. 6d. (Rs. 6 J) for the second and following 
years; and for the poorer soils 3s. (Re. 1|) for the first year, and 
9s. (Rs. 4^) for the second and following years. In the case of the 
Naikdas, the plough rates of assessment were Is. (8 annas) for the 
first year, 4s. (Rs. 2) for the second, 5s. (Rs. 2|) for the third, and 
6s. (Rs. 3) for the fourth and following years. These rates are 
little more than nominal, the chief object being to induce the people 
to. gain an honest living and to settle. In 1878 the highest plough 
tax was £1 (Rs. 10) for a Koli and 6s. (Rs. 3) for a Naikda. Forest 
tillage, vdlra, paid from Is. to 2s. (8 annas -B,e. 1) a clearing. The 
villages of Uchat, Bhildungra, Pulpari, Nathpari, Kara, and 
Gundiveri are held rent-free; and, of the two villages Rampura 
and Bhanpura, half the revenues are, after collection, paid to the 
headmen who are relations of the chief. Besides these, some, of the 
chiefs kinsmen, bhdydds, have a right to certain number of ploughs 
free of charge. Except of its boundaries no survey of the state has 
been made. 

In so poor and simple a country as Narukot money disputes are rare. 
So far there has been no call for civil courts. Such cases as arise- 
between the chief and the cadets of his family and the resident Vdnias, 
are settled by the Political Agent. From the introduction of British 
management up to 1868, under the Political Agent, limited magisterial 
powers were vested in an officer styled thdnddr. Since the 1868 rising, 
a native officer of better position with the title of Mahalkari has been 
appointed. He exercises second class magisterial powers, cases beyond j 
his jurisdiction being tried by the Political Agent, who has the 
powers of a Judge and Sessions Judge. From the Political Agent's I 
decisions appeals and references lie to Grovernment. In the conduct 
of the court's business the spirit of the British Acts and Regulations 
is followed. 

The ratio of crime to population amounted in 1878 to 20-77 per 
1000 against U'll in 1877, and 9 in 1876. This increase, entirely 
in cases of petty theft, was due to the general scarcity and distress 
from failure of crops. Of the 139 cases decided in 1878, 135 were 
tried by the Mah&lkari, and four by the Political Agent. None of 



Qajar&t.] 



NA.RUKOT. 



177 



the decisions w^ere appealed against. The strength of the detachment 
supplied from the Panch Mahals Police, was, in 1878, owing to the 
unusual amount of crime, raised from forty-one to fifty-two. Of this 
force forty-dne were armed, eigh.t unarmed, and three mounted. 
T-hey are distributed over three posts, Jambughoda, Khandivar, and 
Vavchalvar. 

The following table gives the number of offences reported, of 
persons brought to trial, and of persons convicted, during the eight 
years ending 1878 : 

Ndrukot Crime, 187 X- 1878. 



YUB. 


Offences 
reported. 


Persona 
brought 
to trial. 


Persona 
convioted. 


IKAB. 


Offences 
reported . 


Persona 
brought 
to trial. 


Persons 
convicted. 


1871 

1872 , 

1873 

1874 


45 
26 
51 
65 


48 
22 
89 
90 


41 
19 

54 
S3 


1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 


66 

65 

79 

142 


74 

95 

119 

274 


63 

68 

105 

265 



A lock-up at Jambughoda, in charge of the Mahalkari, is used 
for under-trial prisoners, as well as for convicts sentenced to 
imprisonment for fifteen days and under. Cases of more than 
fifteen days imprisonment are transferred to the Panch Mahals 
subordinate and district jails. The cost of the Jambughoda lock-up 
amounted in 1878 to £28 (Rs. 280) against £12 (Rs. 120) in 1877. 
In 1878 the number of prisoners was forty- nine, against forty-seven 
in 1877 and twenty-three in 1876. 

Compared with £350 (Rs. 3500) in 1849, the gross revenue 
for 1878-79 was £674 (Rs. 6740), or in thirty years a two-fold 
increase.. The land revenue which had steadily risen from £439 in 
1871 to £777 (Rs. 7770) in 1876,^ from the failure of crops in 1877 
•Jell to £456 (Rs.4560) and again in 1878 rose to £789 (Rs. 7890). 
In 1878 the forest revenue amounted to £37 (Rs. 370) against £63 
(Rs. 630) in 1877, and £112 (Rs. 1120) in 1876. The decrease was 
owing to the scarcity of bullocks. For the same reason there was 
a fall in transit duties from £280 (Rs. 2800) to £147 (Rs. 1470), 

In 1868 a school was started at Jambughoda with the object of 
giving some sort of education to the wild Naikdas and Kolis. It is 
maintained out of Local Funds at a yearly cost of about £36 (Rs. 350). 
The average daily attendance rose from 13 in 1873 to 33 in 1876 •' 
in the year of scarcity it fell to 24 and in 1878 again rose to 30'5. 

A dispensary, opened in 1872, is under the charge of a hospital 
assistant. Against 230 in 1874 and 693 in 1877, 596 persons were 
treated in 1878. Of these, 482 were cured, 47 left, and 67 died. 
Vaccination, under the charge of the vaccinator employed in the 
neighbouring district of Halol in the Panch Mahals, rose from 
233 in 1874 to 498 in 1876, and in 1878 fell to 161. The birth 
and death returns are, from the unsettled state of the people and 



'The details are: 1871, £439; 1872, £447; 1873. £572- 1874 £R'^l ■ ifi7« 
S:1876. £777: 1877. £456: 1878. £789. > " i^ , ^ot% *bs>j , I875, 



£706 ; 1876, £777 ; 1877, £456 ; 1878, £789. 
B 561—23 



Nirukot. 
Police. 



JaU. 



Esvenue, 



Instruction. 



Health. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
178 STATES. 

NArnkot. the inability of their headmen to read and write, untrustworthy. 

Places of Interest. From the excess of rain and the failure of cropSj 1878 was a most 
unhealthy season. 

Ja'inbllghoda, with a population of 491 souls, is the head-quarters 
of the state. The chief lives at Jhotvar half a mile to the 
north-west. Here in 1858 a detachment of the 8th Eegiment N. I. 
under Captain Bates was attacked by the Naikdas under their leaders 
Erupa and Keval; and in 1868 the station was taken and sacked by 
a band of Joria bhagat's followers. The police station, designed 
with a view to defence, has room for the police guard and for the 
local revenue and magisterial officers.* A quadrangular enclosure, 
it has blocks of solidly built rooms ranged round so as to give a 
clear central space of 196 feet by 162. At each of the four comers 
is a bastion, with steps leading to a roof, terraced and provided with 
parapets loopholed for musketry. The height of the terraces is 14 
feet 4 inches, and the parapets are three feet higher. The entrance 
gate, ten feet broad, is provided with a wicket and protected by 
flanking towers. The walling is of brick and lime masonry j and 
the roofing of concrete arches, carried either by cross walls or on 
wrought-iron joists. Above the gateway is a room, twenty feet by 
ten, and a bath room, twelve feet by seven, suitable for a European 
officer. Within the enclosure is a well. The work, begun in 1869 
was finished in 1872 at a cost of £4270 (Rs. 42,700). Besides this 
police station Jambughoda has a school and dispensary. 



' The accommodation is, for foot police 4 rooms each 10X10 feet and 26 rooms each 
12 X 10 ; for mounted police 4 rooms and 4 stables each 10 X 10 feet ; for revenue and 
magisterial officers there are 2 rooms each 15X13 feet, 3 each 13x13, 2 each 13x10 
and one 43x10 feet. 



CAMBAY. 




(OAMIAY 



MFERENCES 

lEl TaiJui, 0/Ka and, Mar}(d> 

ft CblUdor's Bmt^alinv 

fa Trardlers '_ So. 

J^ Badway Station 

"^-^ Made Roatl 

a NtUFort 



Sc^e of Mies 



Gov'' FlwtemtcoipvphLr, Oflm Foona, 1S7S 



1 Population aimr /O.OOO 

2 iftaveat 7.S00\ 

Sc JOMOOS 
5 . beltvem 5.000\ 

& l.SOOS 
4 . hetwem- 2..7/70] 

& 5.000) 



CAMBAY.' 



CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTION, PRODUCTS, AND POPULATION. 

Cambay, at the head of the Cambay gulf in the west of Grujarat, 
lies between 22° 9' and 22° 41' north latitude, and 72° 20' and 73° 5' 
east longitude. With an estimated area of about 350 square miles, 
it had, in 1872, a population of about 83,000 souls, and, in 1878, a 
revenue of nearly £40,000 (Rb. 4,00,000). 

It is bounded on the north by MStar in Kaira, on the east by 
Borsad ia Kaira and Petlad in Baroda, on the south by the gulf, 
and on the west by the Sabarmati. The political boundaries are 
most irregular. In some places Cambay villages are embedded 
in Kaira ; in other parts detached fragments of Kaira lie in the 
heart of Cambay. Inland, the possessions of the Nawab, stretch 
about fifteen miles to the west, eighteen to the north-west, ten to 
the north, and twelve to the east. 

Except near the Mahi, where the surface is cut by water-courses, 
and whefe the river banks rise in cliffs from thirty to eighty feet 
high, the country is flat and open. Though in parts, especially 
along the Sdbarmati, rather bare of trees, during the rainy and cold 
seasons the whole is beautifully rich and green. 

Two of the larger Gujarat rivers enter the sea within Cambay 
limits. The Sabarmati, after flowing south for about 200 miles, 
falls into the gulf twelve miles west of the city j ^ and, a short way 
to the east, about 350 miles from its source, a five-mile broad 
estuary receives the waters of the Mahi. Though of great volume 
in times of flood, these rivers are of no use either for navigation or 
irrigation. The mud deposits near their mouths make them 
impassable for vessels of any size, and the salt of the tidal 
wave and the height of their banks prevent them from being 
used for watering the fields. Except the Mahi and Sabarmati none 
of the Cambay streams flow throughout the year. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Position. 

Boundaries. 



Aspect. 



Kivers. 



' The correct form of the name is Khambhdt. 
^ Saunders' Mountains and Bivers of India, 31, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



182 



STATES. 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Lakes, 



Wells. 



Drainage. 



Geology. 



Climate. 



WitMn Cambay limits there is no fresh-water lake of any size. 
Still, as in Kaira, almost every village has a pond, or reservoir, 
holding water for the greater part of the year. In most years, from 
the middle of April till the rains set in, generally late in June, the 
pond supplies are exhausted, and cattle have to be watered from 
wells. 

From its position, between two large tidal rivers, the soil of 
Cambay is so soaked with salt that water becomes brackish at a Httle 
distance below the surface. In many places new wells have to be sunk 
every five years. Besides being brackish, Cambay well water is 
unwholesome, often causing pairdEul boils when incautiously used. 

During seasons of heavy rain, much of Cambay is liable to be 
flooded. Its rulers, in the time of prosperity (1400 - 1700), guarded 
against this evil by cutting drainage canals. These drains, works 
of great labour and cost, are now much neglected. But the people 
complain little, and it would seem, either that the rainfall is lighter 
than it was, or that the surplus water is more carefully stored in 
village reservoirs. 

A gently waving alluvial plain, Cambay has no rocks and but few 
pebbles. Nodular limestone, hanhwr, mixed with sand or clay is 
found in large quantities from ten to fifteen feet below the surface; 
Though not of the best quality, the lime it yields is much used for 
house-building and other local purposes. 

Compared with the more inland districts the climate is good and 
the temperature equal. Thermometer readings, kept during 
the three years ending 1847, show a mean minimum of 53° in 
January, and a mean maximum of 76° in May. During the same 
period, the average yearly rainfall was 29 inches 30 cents. 

Before the railway made travelling easy, Cambay was the only 

coast station within rea<!h of invalids suffering from the fevers and 

heat of inland Gujarat. Such was its value as a sanitarium, that, 

in 1837, a hospital was established for the use- of European officers 

and troops stationed in Ahmedabad, Kaira, and Baroda. On the 

12th March 1837, ninety-eight invalids of the 17th Regiment of 

Native Infantry arrived at Cambay from Harsol, about thirty-four 

miles from Ahmedabad. Of the whole number, eighty-three were- 

suffering from fever and spleen, and the rest from rheumatism and 

skin disease. At the end of March, fourteen more cases were 

admitted, making a total of 112 patients. One death occurred in 

April, of the rest, all except five, were discharged cured by the 

end of May. By the close of the rains (October), the remaining 

five were able to return iu good health to their regiment. Another 

remarkable instance is the case of seventy-seven invalids of the 2nd 

Grenadier Regiment of Native Infantry, who were sent to Camba,y 

from Baroda in the month of January 1847. Of the whole number, 

sixty-eight were suffering from fever, one from consumption, and 

eight from Sind ulcers. The case of consumption proved fatal. Of 

the rest, thirty-one were discharged cured in February, twenty-five 

in March, and twenty in April. About 1863, the Cambay hospital 



Gujarat.] 



CAMBAY. 



183 



Trees. 



Soil. 



was closed, and there is now no medical institution in the town. Chapter I. 

Vaccination is said to be much practised, and to meet with little Production. 

opposition, but no returns are available. No bad outbreak of 

cholera has occurred for many years. The only disease mentioned 

as peculiar to Cambay is the troublesome ulcer mentioned above, 

called ashraphi by natives, and by Europeans known as the Cambay 

or Broach boil. 

Within Cambay limits there are no forests, nor, except occasional 
orchards, are there any groves or plantations. Still, here and there, 
generally near villages, are many well grown fine trees. Among the 
largest and most common are the tamarind dmli Tamarindus indica, 
nvm or limbdo Melia azadirachta, pipal Picus religiosa, banyan vad 
Ficus bengalensis, wood apple kothi Feronia elephantum, and mango 
dmho Mangifera indica. 

Towards the north and west the soil is generally black, well 
suited for wheat and cotton. To the east it is poorer, fit only for 
the inferior grains. Near Cambay, skirting the gulf, and along the 
banks of the Mahi and Sabarmati, stretch vast tracts of salt marsh 
flooded at high spring tides. For tillage purposes the soils are 
divided into three classes, garden, rice, and dry-crop. 

The crops, the same as those grown in the neighbouring parts of Oops. 

Kaira, are the ordinary millets and pulses, rice, wheat, tobacco,^ 
and a little indigo. The cultivation of indigo has of late greatly 
fallen off. Hindu peasants dislike growing it, because in making 
the dye much insect life is lost while the Muiammadans, with whom 
this objection has less force, do not till land enough to raise any 
large quantity. Sown towards the end of the hot season, indigo is 
harvested in August before coming to flower. After being cut, the 
crop is stowed in large vats, generally set in a corner of the field. 
The vats are filled with water, and the plants left to soak for one 
night, and, in the morning, to draw out any remaining juice, the 
leaves are beaten with wooden clubs. The water is then di-ained 
off, the dye remaining at the bottom of the vat. Green-looking at 
first, the sediment, on exposure, soon gains the true indigo hue. 
Mordants are sometimes used to help to precipitate the dye. 

The tillage does not difier from that of neighbouring British Tillage, 

districts. After the rains (June -October), crops are grown by 
water drawn in leather buckets from reservoirs, water-courses, or 
river-bed pools. There is very little hot weather tillage, and, except 
from wells, little irrigation. 

The domestic animals are the same as in Kaira. In the days of Animala. 

the early Hindu settlements near the mouth of the Mahi, wild 
animals were so numerous that a city, on or near the site of Cambay, 
once bore the title of Baghvati or Tiger town. As late as the 
end of the last century tigers and lions were found close to 



1 Till 1879, when under agreement with the NawAb it was atopped, opium was 
grown in eight villages. 



[Bombay Gazetteer. 



184 



STATES. 



Chapter I. 
Poptdation. 



Census, 



Cambay. Sir Charles Malet, when Resident in 1781, killed a lion 
near the village of Kura on the banks of the Sabarmati, about twenty 
miles north of Cambay. The country people called it the camel 
tiger, untia vdgh, and thought it the fiercest and strongest of that 
race. Camel-coloured verging to yellow, he was without spots or 
stripes, not high but powerfully massive, with a head and fore- 
parts of admirable size and strength. About the same time, in the 
Sabarmati villages, so great was the dread of beasts of prey that, 
at the close of each day, the inhabitants gathered their cattle 
within the village walls. ^ Of large beasts of prey no trace 
remains. The only game is nilgai, Portax pictus, wild hog, and large 
herds of antelope, Antelope bezoartica, that feed on the short 
herbage of salt marsh lands. During the cold weather every pond 
is alive with duck, teal, and snipe. 

The 1872 census gives a total population of 83,494 souls,, or 
238 persons to the square mile, a density of population greater 
than in any Gujarat state except Baroda. Of the total population, 
71,505, or 85'64 per cent, were Hindus; 11,882, or 14"23 per cent, 
Musalmans ; and 107 Parsis. There were no Christians. Males 
numbered 44,283, or 53 per cent of the population, and females 
89,211, or 47 per cent, or an average proportion of 113 to 100. 
Insane and infirm persons numbered 112, or 0'13 per cent of the 
population.. Of these two were insane, 15 idiots, 26 deaf and dumb, 
67 blind, and 3 lepers. There are no details of the strength of the 
different Hindu tribes and castes. Compared with other Gujarat 
states, the proportion of aboriginal tribes is very small. Arranged 
according to religion, of the 71,505 Hindus 32,504 were Vaishnavs, 
including 16,457 Ramanujas, 8209 Vallabhacharyas, 1480 Kabir- 
panthis, 712 Madhvacharyas, and 5646 Svaminarayans ; 20,147 
wereShaivs;^ 3868 Shravaks ; 525 ascetics j and 14,461 belonged 
to no special sect. Of the 11,882 Musalmans 10,765 were Sunnis, 
and 1117 Shias. Arranged according to occupation, there were, 
employed under Government or municipal or other local authorities, 
2227 souls, or 2-66 per cent; professional persons, 1274, or 1'52 
per cent; in service, 1604, or 1'92 per cent ; in agriculture, 13,670, 
or 16"37 per cent; in trade, 1138, or 1"36 per cent; in arts and 
crafts, 9855, or 11"80 per cent; beggars and paupers, 547 ; and not 
otherwise classed, {a,) wives 26,316 and children 26,687, in all 
53,003, or 63'48 per cent, and (b) miscellaneous persons 723 or 
0-86 per cent ; total 53,726 or 64-34 per cent. 

Besides as husbandmen, Kanbis work as carnelian polishers, a 
craft once carried on chiefly by Musalmans. Many Brahmans, 
Vanias, and other high class Hindus, have, owing to the decline of 



1 Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, III. 90, 94. Nicolo Conti (1420- 1444) says, in Cambay 
wild cattle are found in great abundance, with a mane like the mane of a horse, 
and horns so long that when the head is turned back, they touch the tail. These 
horns, he adds, are used like barrels for carrying water. Major's India in the XVth 
Century, II. 20. 

2 This is doubtful. The returns shew 16,134 Lingiyats a sect not known in 
Gujar&t, They were possibly liTig worshippers. 



Gttjar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



trade, moved to Bombay, and so small is the local demand for their Chapter I. 

labour, that numbers of goldsmiths, blacksmiths, barbers, seamen, Population, 

and fishermen seek employment in Surat, Broach, Ahmedabad and 

other districts of Gujarat, and in Bombay^ Eemaining away about 

seven or eight months in the year, they return with their earnings 

during the rains. Very few of the Kharvas are sailors. Besides 

manufacturing salt, they have, in many Gujarat towns, and, to some 

extent in Bombay, monopolized the work of turning roof-tiles. 

Many educated Brahman and Vania youths find work in Gujarat, 

Bombay, and other places, as accountants and clerks, seldom visiting' 

their native country except for marriages or other great family 

events. Among Cambay Musalmans theer is an unusually large 

number of Shias (1117). The Nawab, a Persian by descent, is 

a Shia, and the Persian and Shia element was, in the eighteenth 

century, strengthened by three sets of refugees. Some came in 

1723, after (October 1722) Persia was conquered by the Ghiljeis ; 

others, in 1739, when Nadir Shah seized the throne and abolished 

Shiaism • as the state religion ; ^ and a third section are the 

descendants of soldiers who left Nadir's army on his return to Persia 

(1739). Mbst of their descendants are either connected with the 

court or in the Nawab's service, and foreigners still come as recruits 

for the Nawab's Persian regiment. Besides Persians, there is a 

body of Shia traders of the -Daudi sect, followers of the Mulla Saheb 

of Surat. Of the Sunnis some are cultivators, but most are either 

in trade or are carpet-weavers, shoemakers, book -binders, potters, 

or private servants. Sadias, Musalman carriers, have carts and 

bullocks, which they use in carrying goods from the landing place to 

the town. As a body, the Musalmans are badly off, with little energy 

and less enterprize. The Bohoras are an exception. Well-to-do and 

enterprizing, they trade to China, Japan, and Zanzibar, settling 

there for as long as ten years at a time. Parsis, once powerful, now 

number only 107 souls. They are traders, distillers, and weavers. 

Before the time of the present Nawab (1841), all state offices were 
given to Musalnians. This rule has of late been broken, and, except 
that a few posts in the army and household are kept for members of 
the Nawab's family, Hindus and Parsis are allowed to hold almost 
any office. The style of living does not differ from that of the 
neighbouring Gujarat districts. Gujarati is the ordinary Hindu 
language. Musalmans use Hindustani, and many of them, the 
descendants of the eighteenth century refugees, still speak fairly 
pure Persian. 

_ According to the 1872 census, the eighty-seven Cambay villages Villaees 

included 29,505 houses, or an average of 84 houses to the square mile. 
Of these 7741, or about 26 per cent, were built of stone or fire-baked 
brick ; the rest had walls of mud, or unburnt brick, with roofs of 
thatch or palm leaves. Dwellings of the better sort lodged 21 049 
persons, or 25 per cent of the whole population, at the rate of 2'72 
souls to each house, and houses of the inferior sort lodged 62 445 
■ persons, or 75 per cent of the whole, or 2-87 souls to each house 



B 561-24 



' Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, III. 83. 



[Boin1}a,y Gazetteer, 



186 



STATES. 



Chapter I. 
Population, 

Houses. 



Of the 87 villages, 27 have less than 200 souls, 22 from 200 to 
500, 25 from 500 to 1000, 9 from 1000 to 2000, 2 from 8000 to 
5000, one between 5000 and 10,000, and one above 10,000. 
They belong to two main classes, coast and inland villages. The 
thirty coast villages include the arable lands along the shore of 
the gulf and the banks of the Sabarmati. From their .wheat-growing 
soil, these are known as the bdra villages, and yield a yearly 
revenue estimated at about £20,000.^ Though the soil of many of 
them is poor, some of the fifty-seven inland villages, in the rich tract 
of reddi^loam known as the charotar, yield heavy crops of tobacco, 
millet, cotton, opium, and indigo. 



• Cambay Es. 2,64,949 ; Imperial Rs, 2,11,1 
less in value than the Imperial rapee. 



The Cambay coin is 15} per cent 



Oujar&t.] 



CHAPTEE II. 

TRADE' AND MANUFACTURES. 

Before the time of railways, goods and passengers were carried Chapter II. 
by boat to Bombay and other ports. Now the passenger traffic Trade, 

is almost entirely by rail through Anand, about thirty miles east of 
Cambay. Though Cambay is without made roads, the country is level 
enough for carts. The Cambay harbour is ill suited for trade and 
yearly becomes more blocked with silt. The silt, brought^ down 
by the rivers in the rainy season,, or thrown up by the tide, is 
constantly changing the bed of the gul. Passages deep enough 
for coasting craft of from twenty-five to thirty tons are sometimes, 
in the course of a single rainy season, closed, and fresh channels 
cut through high banks of mud. At present (1879) boats moor 
a mile from the city gate, and, except during spring tides, have 
to be unloaded about half a mile from the landing place. During 
the last three years, the largest vessel that visited Cambay was one 
of fifty-seven tons from Kalikat.. 

Across the mouth of the Mahi, from Cambay to Kavi in Broach, 
a ferry-boat plies at all seasons. Especially at the springs, when, the 
tide rushes with extreme violence, the passage is difficult .*- 

Inthe thirteenth, fourteenth, andfifteenth centuries,.one of the chief Tenth Century, 
centres of commerce in western India, Cambay has a trade history of 
much interest. The first references are early in the tenth century. 
It then produced mangoes, cocoanuts, lemons, rice in great abundance, 
and great quantities of honey. Leather was largely manufactured. 



' The many interesting Portuguese Trade and History references have been 
obtained through the kindness of Dr. Geraon da Cunha of Bombay. 

2 Of the passage of the mouth of the Mahi, Ogilby (1670, Atlas, V. 215) gives the 
following details : About a league southward from Cambay glides the river Mihi, 
whose shore must be travelled at the low ebb of the sea, and not without great 
danger because the sea rising flows up above five leagues, and at low tide you are 
forced to wade through two or three deep places. If any one should venture to wade 
through at the coming in of the tide, he would undoubtedly be swallowed by the sea, 
for when the water Sows with greater strength and higher than ordinary (for it 
observes no rule, but rises or falls more or less according to the course of the moon), 
it carries and washes away both horse and man, and oftentimes with such force, 
that an elephant cannot withstand the same, nor all his weight prevent him from 
being carried away ; therefore all travellers wait for a certain time to wade through 
the same, viz., when the sea is low, which is at the new moon, at which time they 
may go over it in coaches or horseback without any danger. Coaches are commonly 
held fast on both sides that they may not be overturned by the waves. Those that 
go on foot strip themselves naked, and, tying up their clothes, carry them on their 
shoulders. Many times a whole caravan with abundance of people travel over the 
same, some on horseback and others on foot, both men and wumen stark naked 
accounting it neither shameful nor immodest. ' 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



188 



STATES. 



Chapter IX. 
Trade. 



Eleventh 
Century, 



Twelfth 
Century. 



Thirteenth 
Century. 



and Cambay was famous for the sandals whicli bore its name.* Many 
of its mercbants were Arab and Persian Musalmans who bad mosques 
of tbeir own^ and were kindly treated by tbe Hindu governor.^ The 
trade was harassed by pirates known as Bawdrij, from their boatSj 
haria. Scouring the Arabian Sea as far aa Sokotra, they chased the 
Arab ships bound for India and China, ' as the Greek galleys chased 
the Musalmans in" the Mediterranean'.' 

During the eleventh century, though the Bawarij from Cutch and 
Somnath still harassed its ships,*^ Cambay maintained its position as 
one of the chief centres of Gujarat trade. Its markets were supplied 
with the ginger and cotton of the surrounding country, with the 
produce of north India brought overland from Multan either direct 
or by the sea-coast, with Cutch balm, and Malwa sugar. By sea 
Cambay traded west with Persia, Arabia, and Sofala in Africa, and 
east with Malabar, Coromandel, and, in great ships called junks, 
with China. 

In the twelfth century, wheat, rice, indigo, and Indian cane^ were 
the chief exports, though merchandise of every country was to be 
found and was sent from Cambay to all parts. Pirates still infested 
the Gujarat seas ; but at Cambay itself traders had gained some 
security, as a fine fortress had been built by the ' Government of 
India'.* 

At the close of the thirteenth century Cambay was one of the two 
chief ports of India.' Its exports were indigo in great abundance, 
cotton exported to many quarters, much fine cotton cloth or buckram, 
and a great trade in hides^* The chief imports were gold, silver, 
copper, tutia (the inferior oxide of zinc used as an eye-salve), 
madder from the Red Sea, and horses from the Persian Gulf.* 



> MAsudi (913), Prairies d'Or, I. 253, 254 ; Eeinaud's Memoir Sur. I'lnde, 221 ; and 
Ibn Haukal (943) in Elliot, I. 38. 

s Ibn Haukal (943) in Elliot, I. 34. 

3 Misudi (913) Prairies d'Or, III. 37 ; Yule's Marco Polo, 11. 344. Besides Rajputs 
of the Sangdr tribe these pirates included Jdts, Meyds, and Xurks. According to 
Wilford (As. Res. IX. 224), under the name Diveni, or men of Diu, their interference 
with trade so enraged the Romans, that they were forced to send hostages to 
Constantinople. The early Arab writers (800-1000) mention the JiXa (834-885) 
making a descent on the Tigris with so powerful a fleet that the whole strength of 
the Kaiiphat had to be sent against them ; (Ibn Alatyr, 834, in Reinaud's Fragments 
201) ; the Kurks carrying their raids as far as Jadda in the Red Sea (Elliot's History, 
I. 509, and II. 246 - 248) ; and the Meyds of Saurdshtra warring with the men of Basra. 
(Elliot's History, I. 521). 

< Al Biruni (970- 1039) in Elliot's History, I. 67, 69. 

' Jaubert's Edrisi (1090-1153), 172. As this Indian cane grew on hills, the reeds, 
which so late as the eighteenth century were exported for arrows to Hindustan, 
Persia, and other countries, are probably meant. Bird's MirSt-i-Ahmadi (1748-1762), 
104. 

^ Idrisi in Elliot's History, I. 84, ' 85. The Government were the Anhilvdda 
Solankis (946-1240). 

' Marino Sanuto (1300-1320) quoted in Yule's Marco Polo, II. 333. 

* According to Marco Polo (1290) the curing of hides and the manufacture of leather 
were two of the most important of Gujardt industries. Every year a number of 
ships went to Arabia laden with the skins of goats, of oxen, of buffaloes, of wild oxen, 
of unicorns, and other animals . The leather was used for sandals, and was cleverly 
worked into red and blue sleeping mats, exquisitely inlaid with figures of birds and 
beasts, and skilfully embroidered with gold and silver wire. Yule's Marco Polo, II. 
328-329. » Yule's Marco Polo, II. 333. 



Gi\jar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



189 



Fourteenth 
Century. 



Fifteenth 
Century. 



Among its merclxaiits were many foreign Musalm^ns and a large Chapter II. 

community of Parsis, whose interests were carefully watched by the Trade. 

Solanki kings of Anhilvada.' Many of the seamen were Hindusj 

Rajputs and Kolis by caste, to whom an entire quarter of Anhilvdda 

was devoted.^ Though Cambay is said to have been free from 

pirates, the Arabian Sea was still orerrun by Cutch and Somnath 

corsairs ' the most atrocious robbers in existenoe\^ 

Except Ibn Batuta's (1345) statement that the city was prosperous, 
and the knowledge that, at the beginning of this century, the old 
trade route between Asia and Europe by way of the Red Sea was 
reopened, nothing regarding the trade of Cambay in the fourteenth 
century has been traced. 

The chief articles of Cambay trade mentioned by travellers of the 
fifteenth century are sardonyx, spikenard, lac, indigo, myrobalans, 
silks, and , paper.* During this period, the Musalman rulers of 
Gujarat paid much attention to naval matters, and on five occasions 
Cambay shared in the work of equipping fleets. One of these 
, expeditions, in 1430, was political, directed against Ahmad Shah 
Bahmani (1422-1435)j the ruler of Thana and the central Konkan. 
The object of the remaining four was the suppression of piracy.* 

Shortly after the beginning of the sixteenth century, the control Sixteenth 

of the sea trade of Cambay passed from the king of Gujarat to the Century. 

Portuguese. Perhaps because much more information is available, 
the sixteenth century is generally considered the time of Cambay's 
chief prosperity. But it seems doubtful if the trade of Cambay was 
ever again so great as it was during the reign of Mahmud Begada 
(1459-1513).* In spite of the successes of the early years (1526- 
1530) of Bahadur's reign, the sixteenth century was, on the 
whole, a time of decline in Gujarat ; and though the Portuguese 
may have increased the demand for Cambay products, and, to 
some extent, have improved navigation, they, for several years 
(1529-1534), spared no effort to injure the harbours and shipping 
of Gujarat. Even when (1533) they became the acknowledged 
rulers of the Cambay seas, it was their interest to reduce 



' See the story of Sidhrdj (1094-1143) in Elliot's History, II. 164. 

" R&a Mali, I. 318. The Kolis of the north of Gujardt are said to have come from 
the lands near the Indus and to have been called Meds. (R6s MaU, I. 103). 

3 Yule's Marco Polo, II. 328, 330, 333. 

* See Major's India in the XVth Century, II. 6-13 and 20 ; III. 8 and IV. 9. Among 
these articles, paper is noticed by NiooloConti (142U-1444) as being used in Cambay 
and nowhere else in India. Indigo is mentioned by Nicolo, by Athanasins Nikotin 
(1468-1474), and by Hieronimo (1499). 

■■ These expeditions against pirates, all of them undertaken by Mahmud Begada 
(1459-1513), were, 1475, against the Malabdrs : 1480, against Jigat and Bet ; 1482, 
against Balsir ; 1494, against a revolted officer of the Deccan Government who had 
captured some 6ujar4t trading ships. Active measures would seem to have been 
much required, as, according to Athanasius Nikotin (1468-1474), the sea was infested 
with pirates, all of them KAfars (Hindus), neither Christians nor MusalmAns, who 
'prayed to stone idols, and knew not Christ.' Major, III. II. 

' During Mahmud's reign, according to Varth ma (1508), Cambay and another city 
(apparently in Bengal) supplied all Africa, Ara bia, Ethiopia, and India, including 
Persia, Tartary, Turkey, and Syria, and a multitude of inhabited islands with silk 
and cotton stu£f». Badger's Varthema, 111. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



190 



STATES. 



Chapter ir. 
Trade. 

Sixteenth. 
Century, 



Course of 
Trade. 



Exports, 



Cambay to a local port, and draw the foreign trade to their own 
cities Diu, Ohaul, and Goa. With the decline of Portuguese power, 
the trade between Cambay and the Red Sea revived, and before 
the English (1608) came to Gujarat, it was again of considerable' 
consequence.^ 

Of the marts connected with Cambay at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, there were, of inland towns, in Gujarat,. 
Ahmedabad, Patan, and Ghampaner; and in Upper India, Delhi and 
Labor. Of sea-ports, there were Gogha and Diu in Gujarat, Diul in- 
Sind, and Kalikat and Cochin on the Malabar coast : to the west were,- 
Ormuz in the Persian Gulf; Sheher^ Aden, and Jadda on the Arabian 
eoast, and Magadoxa, Melinda, and Mombaza in east Africa : ^ and to 
the east were Ceylon, Chittagong, Martaban, Tenasserim, and Malacca. 
Early in the century, under Portuguese influence Diu, Chaul, and 
Goa became the chief Indian places of trade with Cambay; Ormuz 
remained the head-quarters of the trade to Persia ; ^ the 
traffic with the Red Sea was for a time nearly destroyed ; and, 
when it again revived, Mokha not Aden, was the chief station. The- 
dealings with east Africa, falling almost entirely into Portuguese 
hands, were managed from Chaul in the Konkan. In the east, 
Satgong to some extent took the place of Chittagong, but Malacca, 
after 1511 in the power of the Portuguese, remained the centre of 
that great trade. 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Cambay exports were : 
Of MiNEKALS, the agates, carnelians, and crystals, known as Cambay 
stones ; of vegetable peoducts, rice sent to Sind, the Konkan, 
Malabar, Arabia, and Africa; millet to Malabar and Africa; wheat* 
to Malabar, Arabia, and Africa; pulse and sesame to Malabar; 
cotton to Malabar and Arabia ; ginger and pepper ^ to Persia ; and 



' Three Voyages of Vasco de Gama, LVI. ; and Gapt. Saris and Sir H. Middletoa 
(1611-1612) in Kerr's Voyages, VIII. 485-493, Finch (1608) speaks of the 'topping 
trade of Cambay in alj sorts of cloth and rich drugs.' (Harris, I. 89). The decline of 
Portuguese trade dates from 1580, when Portugal was absorbed in the Spanish empire. 
Besides the opposing interests of Chaul and Goa, Gujarat at this time had a powerful 
rival in Tatta in Sind, from which spices were sent up the Indus and distributed 
through LAhor, and by the same route the goods of Tipper India were brought to the 
sea. Steel (1614) in Kerr, IX. 209. 

^ From Mombaza (S. Lat. 4° 41), south as far as SofAla (S. Lat. 20° 15'), and from. 
Sof41a by land 200 miles beyond, towards the Cape of Good Hope, the goods brought 
to Mombaza by the Cambay ships were distributed by Arab merchants settled in 
Africa. These settlers made large profits, exchanging Cambay coloured stuffs and) 
beads with the people from the interior for unweighed gold, so much in quantity that 
they gener.illy gained 100 per cent. Here, too, they collected large quantities of ivory., 
Barbosa (1501-1517) i Stanley's Translation, 7. 

* The whole revenue of Ormuz depends (1523) on Cambay trade. Mon. Ined. II. 79. 

* Wheat. Caesar Frederic (1585) : Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 536. It seems doubtfui 
whether this wheat was the produce of Gujardt and not rather Mdlwa and Ajmir 
wheat imported by land. See Gladwin's Aiii-i-Akbari (1590), II. 62. The author of 
the Mir4t-i-Ahmadi (Bird, 102) says, though in his time (1750) much wheat was 
produced in Gujarat, formerly the better kinds had to be imported. The authority 
for the production of wheat in GujarAt is Stanley's Barbosa, 57, 59, 60. 

' Pepper is said to grow in all parts of India. Caesar Frederic : Hakluyt's Voyages, 
II. 372. Barbosa's (1514) pepper, that grows only on and to the south of the Malabir 
coast, is the vine pepper (Chavica betel). 



ei\iarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



191 



turbith (convol. turbethum) to Malabar ; of prepared vegetable 
PEODUOTS, opium, though held inferior to the opiam of Aden, went 
west to Persia, south to Malabar, and east to Pegu and Malacca ; * 
and indigo,* though of less value than Agra indigo, was one of the 
chief exports to the Persian Gulf and the Eed Sea, and afterwards 
to the Portuguese ports of the Konkan ; of animals,^ horses were 
sent to the Konkan and Malabar ; of MANrFAOTUEED articles, agate 
ornaments were sent to Malabar, Arabia, the Eed Sea, and east 
Africa ; and to all countries where Cambay merchants traded, were 
sent cotton thread, cotton cloth,* coarse camlets,® thick carpets, 
inlaid work-boxes and bedsteads,^ lac ' and lacquered ware, silk,* 
and articles of ivory, ' well knovni in commerce like inlaid works of 
gold'.* 

The land imports were diamonds from the Deccan, wheat and 
barley from Malwa, spices from Sind,^° indigo and spices from Labor, 
and silk, horses, myrobalans, and spices from Cabul. The sea imports 
were : Of minerals, copper, lead, quicksilver, vermillion, and alum 



Chapter 11. 
Trade. 

Sixteenth 
Century. 

£keportt. 



Imports. 



* Cambay opium is (1554) the best to send to Malacca and the Malabdr coast. Mon, 
Ined. V. I. 13. 

* Indigo. 'A great quantity of indigo' (Caesar Frederic: Hakluyt's Voyages, II, 
343). The best indigo probably came by land from Lihor and Agra. But much ^ras 
grown in Gujarat, chiefly at Sarkhej and Nadidd. Gladwin s Ain-i-Akbari, II. 64. 

' Animals. ' A wonderful quantity of horses ' (Stanley's Barbosa, 55). Oxen and 
camels were famous ; but no mention is made of their being exported. Gladwin's 
Ain-i-Akbari, II, 64. 

* Cotton cloth was the staple export, Varthema (Badger's Edition, 107) (1508) says 

■ every year 40 or 50 vessels are laden with cotton and silk stuffs' ; Barbosa (65) speaks 
of ' many cloths of white cotton, fine and coarse' ; and Frederic (1585) of ' an infinite 
quantity of cloth made of bombast of all sorts, white, stamped, and painted,' (Hakluyt's 
Voyages, II. 343). The Portuguese brought MalabAr pepper and Malacca spices to 
exchange for Cambay cloth (Mon. Ined. (1523-1554) V. I. 13, and V. II. 79). They 
(1638) called Cambay 'the' garment of the world,' for it yielded cloth enough to coyer 
the whole east and a large part of the people of the west. Don Joao de Castro, Prim. 
Kot. des. Indies, 113-116. 

5 Camlet is a plain stuff of goat's hair, of wool, or half wool half cotton. 

* Woodwork. Great artists with the turning lathe, says Barbosa (66). One of their 

■ works of art ' was a bedstead, wrought with gold and mother-of-pearl, very beautiful, 
given by the king of Melinda in Africa to Vasco de Gama in 1502. Gama's Voyages, 
III. 306. 

' Lac is doubtful. It was at this time chiefiy grown in Pegu (Barbosa, 184). But 
may also, as in the seventeenth century, have come from the hills of castGujarAt. 

' Silk is doubtful. It was grown in Bengal (Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II. 9). But 
came chiefly from CAbul and China. The trade in silk stuffs was almost as great as in 
cotton cloth. 

9 Ivory. Barbosa, 65. Compare Frederic (Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344). ' An infinite 
number of artificers that made bracelets of elephant's teeth.' One of the chief changes 
in Cambay trade during the sixteenth century was the decay in the leather manufac- 
ture. Barbosa, though he notices (52) the embroidered shoes of veryigood leather worn 
by the Hindus of Gujarat, the stout leather leggings of the Muhammadan soldiery (56), 
and the stamped kid skins with which the Cambay carriages were lined (65), nowhere 
speaks of leather as one of the manufactures of GujarAt. In Frederic's list sandals 
appear among the imports, while Mandelslo (1638) expressly mentions the shoes as 
being of red Spanish leather (Harris, II. 122), and somewhat later (1651) Tavemier 
notices shoes made of Maroquin or Turkey leather. (Harris, II. 357). „ , _ 

■" SiND SPICES. The chief Sind spice was COSTUS, kuth oi piitchock, also called Badix 
dulcis or Lignum dulce. This went to China where it was much burned as incense. 
The Portuguese ship that goes (1585) every year from Malacca to China, is oaUed 
the ship of drugs, because she carries divers drugs of Cambay,' (Frederic m Hakluyt a 
Voyages, II. 366). Ougal or Balsamodendron, probably bdeUiwm, was also found id 
Sind, KithiAwAr, and Cutch. Yule's Marco Polo, II. 331, 332. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter II. 
Trade. 

Sixteenth 
Century. 

Imports. 



192 



STATES. 



from Aden/ Goa, and Ohaul; gold, uncoined from Africa and 
Abyssinia, and botli coined and uncoined from Mecca and Ormuz j 
silTer from the Eed Sea and Persian Gulf j iron from Malabar ; 
tin from Siam ; and salt and sulphur from the Persian Gulf. There 
was a large trade in precious stones. Rubies came from Pegu and 
Ceylon, topazes and cat's-eyes from Ceylon, and turquoises, emeralds,, 
and lapis-lazuli from Persia. Of grains, fruits, and vegetablb 
DYES, rice, cardamoms, betel-leaves, areca nuts, and cocoanuts came 
from Malabar ; opium, betel-leaf,* madder, ginger, and galls from 
Arabia ; ^ and raisins, dates, the root ruinas for dyeing, and musk 
and rhubarb * from Persia. Of piefumes and spices ; cloves came 
from the Moluccas, nutmeg and mace from Pegu and Banda, white 
sandalwood from Timor, camphor from Borneo and Sumatra, 
benjamin or benzoin from Siam, Malacca, and Sumatra, cassia from 
Malabar, cinnamon from Ceylon and Java, eaglewood or lign-aloes 
from Cochin-China, pepper from Malabar, Ceylon, Bengal, Sumatra, 
and Jdva, and ginger from Quilon. Of animals, horses were 
brought from Persia and Arabia, and elephants from Ceylon and 
Malabar. Of animal products, coral came from the Red Sea, pearls 
from the Persian Gulf and Ceylon, ivory from Africa, tortoiseshell 
and cowries from the. Maldives, pigeon's dung used as a dye from 
Africa, lac from Pegu and Martaban, musk from Ava, and ambergris 
from Africa, Sokotra, and the Maldive Islands. Of manufactured 
articles, velvets, brocades, and woollen cloth came from the Red 
Sea, fine muslins from Bengal and the Konkan, and porcelain from 
Martaban and China. ^ 

These details describe Cambay trade in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. Of the state of things towards its close (1585), 
Caesar Frederic has left the following summary : Barks came in laden 
with all sorts of spices, with silk of China, with sandals, with elephant's, 
teeth, velvets of Vercini, great quantity of pannina from Mecca, 
with gold pieces and money, and divers sorts of other merchandise. 
Barks went out laden with an infinite quantity of cloth made of 



' Most of these articles reached Aden from Europe by Suez and Jadda. It was this 
trade that was most affected by the new Cape of Good Hope route. Throughout the 
greater part of the sixteenth century, the chief import of these articles into Cambay 
was by Goa and Chaul. But, as noticed above, towards its close, the trade between 
Gujarit and the Bed Sea had considerably revived. 

' Betel-lbaf is doubtful. Frederic (Hakluyt's Voyages, IT. .S43) says : ' Great 
quantity of pannina which cometh from Mecca.' This may be pan which in Ibn 
Batuta's time (1342) was reared in Arabia and much esteemed by the people of India, 
(Lee's Ibn Batuta, 59). After its cession to the Portuguese (1534) great quantities of 
betel-leaf went from Bassein to Cambay. Mon. Ined. II. 158. 

' Gaixs were (1514) brought from the Levant through Mecca to Cambay, and 
from Cambay distributed to China and Jdva where they were worth a great deal." 
Barbosa, 191. 

* This musk and rhubarb came by land from Tartary. Other supplies were brought 
by sea from China. 

' In the sixteenth century European velvet, scarlet cloth, and cloth of gold, chiefly 
of Venetian make, would seem to have been more prized than cloths of the same 
kind made in the east. Thus the Gujarit weavers are praised (Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, 
II. 63) for imitating the silk manufactures of Turkey and Europe, and the velvets 
imported from the Ked Sea were esteemed over the whole of the east. (Barbosa, 186 
and 188). Terry (1616-1618) says expressly, the Indian velvets, satins, and taffetas 
are not so rich as those of Italy, Kerr, IX. 392. 



Gujar&t] 



CAMBAY. 



193 



bombast of all sorts, white, stamped, and painted, with great quantity 
of indigo, with ginger and myrobalans dried and conserved, 
with borax in paste, great store of sugar, great quantity of cotton, 
abundance of opium, assaf cetida, puchio, and many other drugs, Diu 
turbans, and great carnelians, granates, agates, and bloodstones.^ 

The merchants were of two classes, residents and strangers. Of 
the residents some were Musalmans and some were Hindus. Of the 
Hindu trading houses some had branches, or correspondents, in 
many ports both Indian and foreign. Among Indian ports, mention 
is made of colonies of Cambay merchants in Dabhol,^ Cochin, and 
still more in Kalikat where they were much honoured, lived in good 
houses in separate streets, and followed their own customs.^ At this 
time Gujarat Hindus do not seem to have settled east of Cochin. 
West they were found at Ormuz, and, in great numbers, at Melinda 
and Mombaza in east Africa.* Many resident Musalman traders 
were foreigners, descendants of the Arab and Persian merchants 
mentioned by the early Arab travellers.^ Of the stranger merchants, 
the greater number were, in the early part of the century, 
Musalmans from Western Asia,® and later on, Portuguese and other 
Europeans.^ 



Sixteenth 

Century. 

Trader). 



' Cffisar Frederic (1563-1585) : Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 343. 

" DAbhol (north latitude 17° 34' east longitude 73° 16') in Ratnagiri was, in the 
14th and 15th centuries, a great Musalmdn place of trade. 

' Barbosa, 146. Early European travellers differed much intheir estimate of Hindu 
merchants. Marco Polo, (1290) and Jordanus, (1323) describe the GnjarAti Hindu 
traders of Kalikat as the best merchants in the world, and the most truthful. (Yule's 
Marco Polo, II. 299, and Yule's Jordanus, 22). This agrees with Frederic's description 
of the perfect trust stranger merchants placed in the Hindu brokers of Cambay 
(Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 343), and with Laval (Voyages, II. 214-220) who says, though 
fine and subtle, they are (1610) neither cheats nor easily cheated. On the other 
hand, Barbosa (1514) found the Hindus of Gujardt, ' great usurers and falsifiers of 
weights and measures, and merchandise and coin, and liars and cheats' (52) ; and Peyton 
(Kerr, IX. 230) (1615) calls the Surat brokers 'subtle, and, unless well looked after, 
ready to deceive both the buyer and the seller' ; and De Coutto (1600, Dec. IV. Lib. I. 
Chap. VII. ) thought that, from the religious care they took to cheat Christians, the 
Gujardt Vdnids must be descended from the lost tribes of Israel. 

* Ormuz. Abd-er-Kazzak (1442) mentions idolaters in great numbers (Major's 
XVth Century, I. 7), and Newberry (1583) found Gentiles there. (Hakluyt's Voyages, 
II. 379). Vasco de Gama (1498) found many Gentile merchants from Cambay inMelinda 
and Mombaza (Kerr's Voyages, II, 337, and Correa's Three Voyages of De Gama, 137, 
note 1. Compare Barbosa, 13). 

^ See above p. 184. 

' Hieronimo (about 1490) found at Cambay some Moorish merchants of Alexandria 
and Damascus (Major, IV. 9). So many Turks, says Varthema (1508), resided 
constantly at Diu that it was known as Diu-bandar-rumi or the Turk's Diu, as distin- 
guished from Diu or Diul Sind, whose westward trade was almost entirely with the 
Persian Gulf. Badger's Varthema, 92. 

' Frederic (about 1585) gives an account of the relations between the 
European merchants and the class of Hindu traders, who, under the name of brokers, 
have played so important a part in the establishment of European trade settlements 
in India. ' On arriving at Cambay the merchant chooses his agent from among the 
brokers. Gentiles and men of authority, every one of them with from fifteen to twenty 
servants. Leaving a list of his goods in the broker's hands, and taking on land the 
furniture he brought with him in the ship, for household provision all merchants 
coming to India must bring with tliem, the merchant drives to an empty 
house in the city where bedsteads, tables, chairs, and empty jars of water 
have been made ready by the broker against the arrival of some stranger. 
While the merchant rests, the broker is clearing the goods and bringing them to the 
house, the merchant not knowing anything thereof, neither custom nor charge. 
Then the broker tells the merchant the ruling rates both of the goods he has to 
■ell and those he may wish to buy, asking whether he will sell at once or wait. 

B 561—25 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



194 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 

Trade. 

Sixteenth 
Century. 



The Harbour. 



Eegarding the land trade that centred in Cambay, Httle haa 
been traced. The chief routes were through Ahmedabad^ north 
to Agraj Delhij and Lahor, and west, through Radhanpur, to Tatta 
in Sind.i Within Gujarat limits almost all merchandise was carried 
in bullock carts,^ and west from Gujarat on camels. The country 
was unsettled, and the merchants were liable to be robbed 
by bands of Rajputs and KoHs. Generally the traders went in 
caravans, trusting for safety to the escort of a Bhat.^ 

During the whole of this period Oambay harbour was unservice- 
able for large trading vessels. At the beginning of the century, 
Barbosa notices the difi&culty and danger of the navigation at the 
head of the gulf, and advises no one, without the help of a native 
pilot, to venture as far as Gandhar, between Cambay and Broach. 
At that time (1514), though the larger vessels occasionally passed 
to the head of the gulf,4 as a rule, ships trading to distant ports 
loaded and unloaded in Din, Gogha, and Gandhar, the goods 
finding their way to and from Cambay in small boats." Later on, 
the harbour was even more unserviceable. No craft but small 
vessels or barks went to Cambay, and these only twice in the month 
at the time of new and of full moon.® Early in the century_(1507), 
a fleet, equipped from Cambay, acted with Egyptian vessels against 
the Portuguese. Though many ships were lost at Diu in 1509, a 
Gujarat fleet was kept up, till, in 1529, it was destroyed by the 
Portuguese in Bombay harbour. A few years later (1534) the 
Gujarat king agreed, in acknowledgment of the Portuguese 
supremacy at sea, that no Gujarat ships should trade without a 
Portuguese pass.' In return for this concession, the Portuguese 
occasionally sent their fleets to act against pirates in Cambay 
waters.® These expeditions had no lasting effect. Towards the close 
of the century (1585) so many pirates went robbing and spoiling 
along the coast, that, except with very well appointed and well 
armed ships, or 'with the fleet of the Portugals', there was no safe 
sailing.^ 

The merchant makes his choice. After he has chosen, the whole work of bartering, 
or of selling and buying, rests with the broker, for ' tarry as long as he will the 
merchant's goods cannot be sold by any man but by the broker that had taken 
them on land and paid the custom.' Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 343, 344. 

1 Sidhi AliKapodhan (1554), Trans. Bom. Lit. Soo. II. 9, 10. 

2 Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II. 63. 

^ If the Rajputs meet the caravan with the intention of robbing them, the Bhdts 
draw their daggers, and threaten to kill themselves if|the least harm should happen 
to the caravan. If their charge is molested, the Bh^ts kill themselves, and the 
Rajputs are judged guilty of death by their RAjds. When camels were hired at 
Ridhanpur the Bh^ts were dismissed (Sidhi Ali in Trans. Bom. Lit. Soo. II. 9, 10). 
Barbosa seems to refer to the Bhits (translated pateb p. 54) calling them BrAhmans 
of a lower rank, who, even if there should be war or thieves, always pass safely. 

* Compare Varthema (1508), who says you cannot go to Cambay either with large 
or middle sized ships except at high water, 105. 

' These boats were of a peculiar build, and were called tahveri, Ain-i-Akbari, II. 64. 

* Frederic in Hakluyt's Voyages, n. 343. 

7 Faria Suza in Kerr, VI. 114, 117, 209, 227. 

^ Attacks are mentioned on Seal Bet in 1530, and in 1568 against pirates who 
were infesting the Portuguese trade. Kerr, VI. 222, 422. 

9 Frederic (1563-1685) : Hakluyt's Voyages, IL 344. Not many years after (1596), 
on the fall of Portuguese power, so greatly did their ships suffer from sea robbers that 
the King advised the Viceroy to trade in V4uia not in Portuguese boats, Arohivo 
Portuguez Oriental, II, 588. 



Oujarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



195 



Towards the close of the sixteenth century Surat rose to be a 
dangerous rivals and, in the early part of the seventeenth century, the 
establishment of the Dutch and English head-quarters at Surat gave 
a severe blow to Oambay trade.^ The Dutch and English opened 
factories in Cambay. But, though during the greater part of the 
seventeenth century its cotton and silk manufactures maintained 
their position among the most valued exports of "Western India, 
the general trade became more and more limited.^ The- more 
important articles were, of exports, silk and cotton stuffs of all 
kinds, and of imports, money, dates, and other merchandise.' Besides 
the home trade to Diu and Goa, Cambay goods went west to the 
Persian Gulf and to Mocha, and east to Achin in Sumatra. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Cambay, though 
subordinate to Surat, was in products and manufactures inferior to 
few Indian towns. The staples of its trade were carnelians and 
agates, grain, cotton, silk, and embroidery, the best in India, 
perhaps in the world.* Half a century later, among the Cambay 
exports, were, salt like coarse sand with a special virtue for the weak, 
carnelian, and ivory articles, and cloths like those of Persia, Arabia, 
Abyssinia, Constantinople, and Europe.^ Towards the close of the 
century, great quantities of coarse coloured cotton cloth were still 
manufactured in the city and exported for the African markets. 
But the weavers were few and poor, and, except the English broker, 
there was no merchant of eminence.® In ] 787 the only exports were 
carnelians, salt, and tobacco. Indigo was grown but none was 
exported as the makers mixed it so that no one would buy it/ 



Chapter II. 

Trade. 

Seventeenth 
Century. 



Eighteenth 
Century. 



' Of Cambay (1601 - 1611), before the bulk of the trade passed to Surat, Pyrard de 
Laval writes : Next to Goa no Indian city has so rich a trade as Cambay. Three or four 
times a year great fleets, from 200 to 300 sail, called the kafila of Cambay, come to Goa. 
Its arrival causes great rejoicing like the arrival of the Indian fleet in Portugal. The 
chief articles that came from Cambay were, indigo, beautifully worked precious straiea, 
crop crystal, iron, copper, alum, wheat 'the best in the world', rice, many drugs, 
butter, oil for eating, perfuming and anointing the body, black and white soap, sugar, 
pepper, wax, honey, much opium, cloth covering men and women from head to feet 
from the Cape of Good Hope to China, worked cloth, painted cloth, silk, beautifully 
worked coverlets and canopies, painted and lacquered bedsteads and other household 
goods, bed tapes, cotton hunting hammocks, carpets like Persian but not so fine or 
dear, inlaid work of mother-of-pearl, ivory, gold, silver, and precious stones all of 
great skill, tortoiaeshell boxes, and no end of gold, silver, iron and wood work. 
Voyages (Goa, 1862), II. 214 - 220. 

' The chief local cause of the transfer of trade from Cambay to Surat was the 
silting of the head of the guK. In the beginning of the sixteenth century (1508) large 
ships would seem to have been able to pass to Cambay. (Varthema, 105). Later on 
this became possible only to small vessels, and towards the close of the century (1585) 
to small vessels only at spring tides. (Frederic in Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344). In 
the beginning of the seventeenth century (1608) there was a topping trade for all sorts 
of cloth and rich drugs. (Finch in Harris, I. 89). Fifty years later ships of burden had 
to lie a good distance from the shore. Small vessels might, at high water, anchor close 
by the city, but at low water they lay dry. (Ogilby's Atlas, V. 212). About the 
same time, Tavemjer (1642 - 1666) says the trade is almost lost because the sea, that 
ance came so close to the town that fittle vessels could anchor by it, is now half a, 
league distant from it, and near the coast is so shallow that great ships can come^ Ofi, 
Bearer than three or four leagues. Harris, II. 353. 

3 Mandelslo (1638), 101-108 ; Baldeus (1660) in Churchill, III. 506. 

* Hamilton's New Account, I. 145. 

■> Bird's MirAt-i-Ahmadi, 104, 105. Tieffenthaler (1750) mentions only salt aad 
cotton cloth, 

" Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, II. 19, and III. 70. ^ Hovd's, Tours, 49, 5©. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



196 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 

Trade. 

Nineteenth 

Century, 

1839 -1878. 



Jmporla. 



Of Cambay trade in the present century the earliest available 
figures are for 1840. The following statement shows the exports 
and imports for 1840, 1875, and 1878 : 







Carribay Trade, 1840, 


1875, 


and 1378. 












1839-40. 


1874-75. 


1877-78. 


Articled. 


IMPOETB. 


Eipoata. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


lupoRis. Exports. 




Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan 
tity. 


Valne. 




Owt. 


£. 


Ont. 


£. 


Owt. 


£. 


Owt. 


£. 


Cwt. 


£. 


Owt. 


£. 


Olarifledbutter 






129 


863 






ii 


72 


2020 


11,882 


130 


670 


Cocoanuts 


.•■ 


3106 


• •• 




... 


8808 






... 


8087 




... 


Carnelians 




1785 


.•• 


"369 


... 


818 


..« 


8437' 2382 


1440 




619 


Cotton 




3:1 


• •• 






56 


... 


11 




629 




2310 


Cotton seed 


• •. 


t<. - 






'367 


124 


.it 


... 


'468 


152 


" 1 




Cotton tape, twist, 


























thread, and yarn... 


181 


8397 


• •• 


90 


236 


1293 


,,, 


6 


15 


77 


... 


... 


Dried fruits 


1183 


1670 


• »■ 




3837 


1895 


■ .< 




833 


307 


... 


... 


Dyea, m o r 1 n d a, 


























toranffi ; safflower, 


























kunmbo ; and indigo 


195 


443 


J199 


601 


479 


495 


71 


74 


237 


400 


... 




Grain 




3277 




448 


... 


1360 




95 


92,997 


46,968 


8 


"is 


Grocery 


"876 


422 


"312 


617 


693 


608 


1682 


643 


703 


761 


,,, 




Ivory and tortoUo- 


























ehell, kaehakda ... 


80 


403 


■ •• 




23 


40 


■ ■B 


.(t 


14 


871 






Mahuda flower 


• •> 




1743 


"488 


(It 


... 






1721 


610 


IS. 


... 


Matcbee 






... 


... 


... 


350 


• *■ 


,,, 




1019 


• ft 




Metal 


1733 


i960 


... 


... 


1269 


1130 


• tl 


X. 


2391 


2803 


2 


"' 1 


Uolasaes 


fi331 


6221 


••• 


... 


31,621 


14,021 


• •S 


• >« 


17,705 


11,459 


••i 




on 


147 


212 




... 


150 


286 






124 


607 


«.> 


■ t. 


Oil-seeds 


UB2 


1143 


••• 




..■ 


... 


1224 


"246 


1379 


1276 


• a. 




Fiece goods 




1565 




16,827 


... 


712 




13,227 




18,123 




191 


Salt 


"172 


122 


"237 


75 


865 


230 


... 




• •• 




• *i 


... 


Bilk 


10 


284 








6 


... 


••• 


74 


4886 


<■■ 


... 


Eoap 


<*• 






2835 


... 




... 


... 


64 


47 


• •( 


.•( 


Btone 


• *• 


"io4 


"«2 


168 


, , 


"196 


... 


.it 


41 


244 


• •■ 


■ •. 


Sugar 


1C81 


2070 






2874 


3542 


... 




2063 


3957 


*■• 




Stindriea 




4669 


i.t 


"913 


■1* 


2297 


... 


"733 


... 


16,005 


,,, 


10,061 


Timber 


... 


3223 






..* 


4564 


... 




• .( 


4440 


■ •• 


19 


Tobacco 


... 


... 


43,196 


11,105 


••t 




64,663 


64,085 


1.. 


880 




76,287 


Wooden bracelets ... 






... 


24 


... 


... 


... 


287 








46 






84,903 




33,713 




37,832 


... 


77,816 


... 


131729 


... 


90,017 



The figures show an increase in the imports from £34,903 in 
1839-40 to £37,832 in 1874-75 or 8-39 per cent, and to £131,729 in 
1877-78 or 277*41 per cent. Most of the great increase in 1878 is 
special, due to the large quantity of grain imported to meet the failure 
of crops in north Gujarat and Kathiawar. The exports increased 
from £33,713 in 1839-40 to £77,816 in 1874-75 or 130-81 percent, 
and to £90,017 in 1877-78 or 167-01 per cent. The increase in 
1877-78 is owing to large tobacco exports amounting to about 
six- sevenths of the whole export trade. Compared with the 1875 
figures there is in 1878 a fall in many leading exports mainly due to 
the failure of local crops. 

The chief imports are : unhusked rice ddngar from the Konkan, 
cleaned rice chokha and wheat from Bombay, peas vatdna from 
Bilimora in Surat, and hdvto Panicum frumentaceum from Balsar, 
piece goods, clarified butter, molasses chiefly from Balsar and 
Bilimora, silk, timber chiefly from Balsar, Bilimora, and Daman, 
sugar chiefly from Bombay, cocoanuts chiefly from Bombay and 
the Konkan, dried fruit from Bombay and Veraval in Kathidwdr, 
metal from Bombay, and carnelians from Broach. During the 
thirty-eight years ending 1878, the import of grain fell from 



shijarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



197 



£3277 to £1360 in 1875^ and, from special circumstances, rose 
to £46,968 in 1878 ; molasses rose from £5221 to £14,021 in 1875, 
and to £11,459 in 1878 j piece goods fell from £1565 to £712 in 
1875, and again rose to £18,123 ; silk fell from £284 to £5 in 1875, 
and again rose to £4886 ; sugar rose from £2070 to £3542 in 
1875 and £3957 in 1878 ; and metal fell from £1960 to £1130 in 
1875, but has again risen to £2802. On the other hand there is 
a fall in the import of cotton yam from £3897 to £1293 in 1875 and 
£77 in 1878 ; of dried fruit from £1570 to £307; of cocoanuts from 
£3106 to £3087; and of carnelians from £1785 to £1440. In 
1840 salt valued at £122 was imported. This import has ceased. 
Of fresh imports are, clarified butter worth £11,882 ; maAwcia flower, 
£510 ; tobacco, £880 ; soap, £47 ; cotton seed, £124 in 1875 and 
£152 in 1878 ; and matches, £350 in 1875 and £1019 in 1878. 

The chief exports are : tobacco, sent south as far as Kolaba and 
chiefly to Daman and Bombay, west to Kathiawar, and north to 
Cutch; clarified butter, carnelians, and wooden bracelets to Bombay ; 
grain, pulse, and Indian millet to Bilimora and Bombay; and 
piece goods, especially black cloth. During the last thirty-eight 
years, the figures show a rise in the export of tobacco from £11,105 
to £76,287 ; of clarified butter from £353 to £570 ; of carnelians 
from £369 to £519 ; and of wooden bracelets from £24 to £46. On 
the other hand there is a fall in the exports of piece goods from 
£15,827 to £191 in 1878; and of grain from £448 to £13. In 1840 
soap worth £2835, mahuda flower worth £488, stone worth £168, 
and salt worth £75 were exported ; of these there has been no 
export either in 1875 or in 1878. The export of grocery, valued at 
£517 in 1840 and at £543 in 1878 ; of dyes, valued at £501 in 1840 
and at £74 in 1878 ; and of cotton-yarn, valued at £90 in 1840 
and at £6 in 1875, had ceased in 1878. Of fresh exports are cotton 
worth £11 in 1875 and £2310 in 1878, timber worth £12, and metal 
worth £7. 

In 1878 the shipping of the Cambay port amounted in all to 566 
vessels of a total burden of about 10,000 tons. The details are : 

Canibay Shipping, 1877-78. 





Caue. 


Left. 


Poet. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 




Total. 


Average. 


Total. 


Average. 


Outoh 

Portuguese 

Gnjarat 

Bombay 

Eoukaa 


61 
68 
2S 
248 
134 
40 


1364 
510 
342 
3854 
3319 
710 


22 
8 
13 
16 
24 
17 


16 
58 
17 
312 
133 
24 


893 
6S4 
352 
6487 
3667 
380 


24 
11 
20 
17 
19 
16 


Total ... 


5«S 


10,099 


17 


633 


9933 


17 



These vessels are all coasting craft, chiefly batelds. Boats of six 
tons and under can make the port of Cambay at all ordinary high 
bides, and vessels- of from seven to fifty tons at springs. Ships of 
nore than fifty tons never visit Cambay. 



Chapter II. 
Trade. 

Nineteenth 
Century, 
1839-1878. 
Import!. 



Xhyports, 



198 



STATES. 



[Bombay Gazetteer) 



Chapter II. 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 



Edjpipla 
Camelians. 



The trade with Gujarat and Central India that formerly passed 
through Cambay has, since the opening of the Bombay and 
Ahmedabad railway (1863), almost entirely left its former route: 
For several years Cambay trade was entirely local, gathering exports 
and spreading imports within a radius of about forty miles. The 
special grain demand, caused in 1878 by the north Gujarat scarcity, 
showed how readily a great sea trade might again spring up. Over 
4600 tons of grain were imported, and, chiefly because on the return 
voyage they were able to offer specially low rates, the boats gained 
an unusual share of the tobacco and cotton exports, 

MANUFACTUEES. 

The fame of Cambay manufactures has long passed away. There 
remain only agate ornaments and cotton cloth. 

The^ working in precious stones is the most interesting of Cambay 
industries. The term ' Cambay Stones ' includes two classes of 
gems J agates^ found in different parts of Gujarat within a radius of 
about 120 miles of Cambay ; miscellaneous foreign stones brought to 
Cambay to be worked by its lapidaries. Of the first class the most 
important is the agate, known from its fleshy colour, as carnelian. 
In its natural state, of a dull cloudy brown or yellow, the carnelian is 
in Gujarati called ghdr and when worked up aMk. Oarnelians are 
found within Rajpipla limits, on the left bank of the Narbada, about 
fourteen miles above Broach. The mines are on the sloping side 
of a small sandstone hill known as the Bawa Ghori or Bawa Abas 
hill, perhaps Ptolemy's (150) Agate Mountain.^ The borings show 
a surface bed of gravel with red and yellow ochre below ; under 
these fuller's earth and red ochre ; then a thin seam of iron-bearing 
rock ; and last the carnelian clay.* The mine shafts are about four 
feet in diameter, and on an average about thirty feet deep. At the 
foot of each shaft, galleries five feet high and four feet wide, 
branch off on all sides. These passages, seldom more than a hundred 

> This account is compiled from Hov^'s Tours (1787), Bom. Gov'. Sel. XVI. 49-51 ; 
Milbum's Or. Com. (1813), I. 278 ; Captain Fulljames (1832), Trans. Bom, Geog. Soo; 
II. 76, 77 ; and Mr. Summers (1848), Bom. Gov. Sel. IV. 15. 

2 The agate is a quartz atone usually containing from seventy to ninety-six 
per cent of silica, with various proportions of alumina coloured by oxide of iron or 
manganese. It is generally found in round nodules or in veins in trap rocks. The 
number of agate balls it contains often gives a rook the character of amygdaloid, and 
■when such a rock is decomposed, the agates drop out and are found in the beds of 
streams. The chief varieties of agates are ; (1) calcedony with the colours in parallel 
bars ; (2) carnelian or red calcedony ; (3) Mokha stones ; (4) moss agates ; (5) blood- 
stone ; (6) plasma, a grass-green stone probably a calcedony coloured by chlorite ; and 
(7) chrysoprase, an apple-green stone coloured by oxide of nickel. The English word 
agate is generally derived from the Greek dxamis, said to be the name of a stream in 
Sicily once famous for agates. A more probable origin is the Arabic aJcih a river bed. 
In very early times (180 A.D.) agates were brought from Arabia to Eome (Vincent, II. 
751). 

3 From the details of the Broach, Barugam, agate trade given in the Periplus (247) 
(McCrindle, 126), it seems probable that Ptolemy's Agate Hill was further inland in 
the Deccan or Central Provinces whence the best agates still come. (See below, p. 205). 

* The formation containing carnelian, stretching over about four miles, is a deep bed 
of red gravel, very like London gravel. In it calcedony pebbles of various form 
and size are irregularly imbedded. (Dr. Lush, 1836. Jour. As. Soc. Beng. V. 2, 766), 
In 1842 Mr. Orlebar found that, from the decay of the trade, the mines had been, 
given up, and the holes filled in, so that he could not examine the strata. Jour. 
Bom. As. Soc. I. 195, 



Gujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



199 



yards long, in many cases join the galleries of other mines. Every 
mine has a band of thirteen men, each with a small iron pickaxe, a 
few bamboo baskets, and a rope. They work in turns, and, before 
he is relieved, each man must fill a certain number of baskets. 
The basket is drawn up by a rude roller or pulley supported by four 
uprights. At the mine mouth the stones are chipped, and the likely 
ones carried to Eatanpur, the village of gems, and there made over to 
the contractor or his agent. The average outturn of two men working 
from eight to ten hours, is from ten to forty pounds weight of stones. 

The contractor divides the stones into two classes, those which 
should and those which should not be baked. Three stones are 
left unbaked : an onyx called mora or bdwa ghori, the cat's-eye called 
chesJiamddr or dola, and a yellow half-clear pebble called rori or 
lasania. Of these the mora or bdwa ghori onyx^ is of two kinds, 
one dark with white veins, the other greyish white with dark veins. 
These stones are found in different shapes, and seldom more than 
one pound in weight. Except these three varieties, all Eatanpur 
pebbles are baked to bring out their colour. During the hot 
season, generally in March and April, the stones are spread in the 
sun in an open field. Then in May, a trench, two feet deep by 
three wide, is dug round the field. The pebbles are gathered into 
earthen pots, which, with their mouths down and a hole broken 
in their bottoms, are set in a row in the trench. Round the pots 
goat and cowdung cakes are piled, and the whole is kept burning 
from sunset to sunrise. Then the pots are taken out, the stones 
examined, and the good ones stowed in bags. About the end of 
May the bags are carted to the Narbada, and floated to Broach. 
Here they are shipped in large vessels for Cambay, and are offered 
for sale to the carnelian dealers. The right of working the Rajpipla 
mines is every year put up to auction. It would of late seem to 
have become more valuable as the average for the last four years 
(1873-1876) has been £323 (Rs. 3230) compared with £189 (Rs. 1890) 
in the twenty previous years. The contractors are generally Baroda 
and Cambay merchants, Vanias and Bohoras by caste. 

By exposure to sun and fire, among browns the light shades 
brighten into white, and the darker deepen into chestnut. Of 
yellows, maize gains a rosy tint, orange is intensified into red, and 
an intermediate shade of yellow becomes pinkish purple. Pebbles 
in which cloudy browns and yellows were at first mixed are now 
marked by clear bands of white and red. The hue of the red 
carnelian varies from the palest flesh to the deepest blood red. 
The best are a deep clear and even red, free from cracks, flaws, or 
veins. The larger and thicker the stone, the more it is esteemed. 
White carnelians are scarce. When large, thick, even coloured, 
and free from flaws, they are valuable. Yellow and variegated 
stones are worth little. 

Four agates, the common, the moss, the Kapadvanj, and the 
veined, rank next to the Rajpipla carnelians. The Common Agate 
is of two kinds, a white half-clear stone called dola or cheshamddr. 



Chapter II. 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 



Carne&mis. 



1 The true or Sulimini onyx comes to Cambay from Jabalpur. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



200 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 

Common 
Agates. 



Mou Agates. 



Kapadvanj 
Agates. 



Veined Agates. 



Miscellaneous. 



Jasper. 



Chocolate Stonea, 



and a cloudy or streaked stone called jdmo. The colour varies, but 
is generally a greyish white. Both kinds come from north-east 
Kathiawar, near Mahedpur in Morvi, three miles from Tankara. 
Of the stones, which lie in massive blocks near the surface, the 
most perfect do not exceed five pounds in weight, while those of 
inferior quality, in many cases cracked, weigh as much as sixty 
pounds. These stones are brought to the Oambay dealers by 
merchants, who, paying a royalty to the Morvi chief, hire labourers, 
generally Kolis, to gather them. When worked up, the common 
agate is a greyish white, and being hard, brittle, and massive, it 
takes a high polish. 

Like the common agate, the Moss Agate, sua bhdji, comes from 
Bud Kotra, three miles from Tankdra in Morvi. Found in the 
plain about two feet under the surface in massive layers often 
cracked and from half a pound to forty pounds in weight, they are 
gathered in the same way as the common agate. When worked up 
they take a fine polish, showing, on a base of crystal sometimes clear, 
sometimes clouded, tracings as of dark-green or red-brown moss. 

Besides from the town of Kapadvanj in Kaira, where, as its name 
shows, the Kapadvanj agate is chiefly found, this stone is brought 
from the bed of the river Majam, between the villages of Amliyara 
and Man dva, about fifteen miles from Kapadvanj. It is found on 
the banks and in the beds of rivers, in round, kidney, and almond 
shaped balls from half a pound to ten pounds in weight. Picked up 
by Bhils, they are sold to a Mandva Bohora who disposes of them to 
the Cambay stone merchants at from 6s. to 24s. for forty pounds 
(Es. 3-12 a man). When worked up the Kapadvanj agate takes a 
high polish. It varies much in colour and pattern. In some cases 
they are variegated, in others they have forms of finely marked 
plants grouped into landscape and other views. The trade names 
of the chief varieties are kha/riyu, dgiyu, and rdtadiu. 

The most valued Cambay agate, the Veined Agate, dordddr, comes 
from Eanpur in Ahmedabad. Found near the surface, in pebbles of 
various shapes not more than half a pound in weight, they are 
gathered in the same way as moss agates, and when worked up, 
take a high polish, showing either a dark ground with white streaks, 
or dark veins on a light back ground. 

Of other Cambay stones the chief are : the jasper or bloodstone, 
the chocolate stone, a variegated pebble known as mdimariam, '. 
crystal, the lapis-lazuli or azure stone, the obsidian or jet, and the ' 
blue stone, piroja. Of these the first four are found in Gujarat. 
The rest are foreign stones brought from Bombay. The Jasper, 
Heliotrope, or Bloodstone comes from the village of Tankara in 
Morvi, about twenty miles north of Rajkot. Found on and near 
the foot of Bhag hill, in massive layers of from half a pound to 
forty pounds, it is gathered in the same way as the agate. When 
worked up it takes a high polish, varying in colour from Kla 
chhdntddr a green variety with red streaks or spots, to the finer 
patolia whose green base is more equally mixed with red and 
yellow. The Chocolate Stone, rdthia, comes from Tankara in Morvi. 



ftujarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



201 



Found on the surface, or a few feet underground, in masses of from Chapter II. 

one to eight pounds, it is too soft and earthy to take a high polish. Mantifectures. 

Mdimariam is a liver brown, marbled with yellowish marks of shells p r, q 

and animalculse. Dug in blocks of considerable size at Dhokovada """ ^^ °''*'*' 

on the Ean of Cutch about sixty miles north of Deesa, it is too 

soft to take a high polish. Cambay Crystal, phatak, comes from Cryttal. 

Tankara in Morvi, where it is found in masses of from one to twenty 

pounds. As clear as glass it takes a high polish. The best 

Cambay crystal comes from Madras, Ceylon, and China. Lapis-lazuli, LapU-latuH. 

or Azure Stone, rdjdoarat, is deep blue with a sprinkling of silvery 

or golden spots. A foreign stone coming to Cambay through 

Bombay, it is found in rounded balls in Persian and Bukharan river 

beds. It is too soft and earthy to take a high polish. Jet, or Jet. 

Black Stone, kdla phatar, is also foreign coming through Bombay 

from the hills of Bassora and Aden, where it is found in large 

blocks. Like glass in fracture, it is not very heavy, and takes a 

high polish. The Cambay jet trade has almost entirely ceased. 

The Cambay Blue Stone is not the true piroj a, hnt a composition Blue^ Stone. 

imported from China in flat pieces of not more than half a pound in 

weight. Like blue glass in appearance, though soft it takes a 

good polish. 

The rough stone generally passes through three processes : 
sawing, chiselling, and polishing. When a stone is to be sawn it is Sawing. 

brought to a strong frame of two wooden uprights, joined at the 
foot by a cross board, and, at the top, by a strong rope doubled and 
tightened by a stick. The stone is then laid on the cross board, 
and fixed firmly to it by a cement of coarse bees' wax and cloth 
fibres. The saw, a slight toothless iron plate in a light wooden 
frame, is then brought up, and, according to the size of the stone, 
is worked by one or two men. To smooth its freshly-cut faces, a 
mixture of ground emery, fine sand, and water, is kept dropping 
into the cleft in which the saw works. To chisel it into shape the Chiselling. 

stone is taken to a slanting iron spike, khondia, driven into the ground 
till only the head is left above the surface. Laying against the edge 
of this spike the part of the stone to be broken off, the workman 
strikes with a horn-headed hammer till all roughness has been 
removed. The article is now handed over to the polisher. He Polishing. 

takes it to a platform sixteen inches long by six broad and three 
thick. In this platform are two strong wooden uprights, and 
between the uprights a wooden roller, eight inches long and three in 
diameter, fastened into a head at one end. This roller works on an iron" 
spindle or axle. On the one end, the axle is screwed and fitted with a 
nut to which certain plates or discs can be made fast. These grinding 
or polishing plates are made of emery mixed with seed lac. The 
emery, karanj, of greyish black, is carefully powdered and 
glistening. The preparation of emery varies in fineness according 
;o the nature of the work. For rough work the proportion is 
;hree parts of ground emery to one of lac ; for medium work the 
3roportion is two and a half pounds of finely powdered emery to 
3ne of lac ; and, for the finest work, lac and carnelian dust, vari, 
bre used in equal quantities. Besides the composition plates, a 

E 561—26 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



202 



STATES. 



Chapter IL 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 



Special 
Proceaaei. 



Course of 
Trade, 



copper disc is occasionally used for polisting very hard stone, such 
as Ceylon cat's-eyes and other precious stones, and for the softer 
sort of pebbles, a plate of teak or other closegrained wood is used. 
Fastening in its place on the roller the disc best suited to the 
stone to be polished, the workman, squatting on his hams, steadies 
the machine with his foot. A bow, with its string passed round 
the wooden roller, is held in his right hand, and by moving the bow 
backwards and forwards, the roller and with it the polishing plate 
is whirled round, while the article to be polished is held in the 
workman's left hand, and, as it revolves, is pressed against the outer 
face of the polishing disc. 

Besides these three regular processes, certain articles require 

special treatment. After beads have been chiselled into shape, to 

smooth their surface, a number are fixed in a pair of wooden or 

bamboo clamps, and rubbed on a coarse and hard smoothing stone 

called dholia. Next they are grasped in a grooved clamp, and 

rubbed along a wooden polishing board called patimdr. The 

surface of this board is cut into grooves, and roughened by a 

composition of emery and seed lac. To give beads their final 

brilliancy, from one to several thousands of them, are, along with 

emery dust and fine camelian powder, thrown into a strong leather 

bag about two feet long and from ten to twelve inches across. The 

mouth of the bag is tied, and a flat leather thong is passed round its 

centre. Seated at opposite ends of a room, two men, each holding 

one end of this leather thong, drag the bag backwards and forwards. 

This rolling lasts from ten to fifteen days, and during the whole 

time the bag is kept moistened with water. When the polishing 

is complete, the beads are handed over to have holes bored. This 

is done by a diamond-tipped steel drill, and as the drill works, 

water is dropped into the hole through a thin narrow reed or metal 

tube. Cut beads are polished on the wheel as well as rubbed 

on the smoothing stone, and knife-handles are prepared in the 

same way as cut beads. In making cups, saucers, and other hollow 

articles, the outside is first chiselled into shape and ground on the 

smoothing stone. To hollow the inside, the diamond- tipped drill 

is worked to the depth of the fourth of an inch all over the space, 

till the surface is honeycombed with drill holes. , The prominent 

places round these holes are then chipped away till a hollow of 

the desired depth has been formed. The inside is then polished 

on a convex mould, of the same composition as the polishing plates, 

and like them fastened to the polishing wheel. Miniature cannons 

are bored by diamond-tipped drills. A smallheaded drill is first 

worked, and then the number of diamonds on the head is gradually 

increased from two to a circle of twelve. Flat ornaments, such as 

paper-cutters, paper-weights and ornamental slabs, are cut into 

layers of the required thickness by the toothless saw. 

Cambay agate ornaments belong to three classes : those suited 
for the Chinese, the Arab, and the European markets.'' For the 

1 In 1787, seal shaped stones went to Europe and Arabia, pearl shaped stones as 
big as a pistol ball, to China, and octagons to the Guinea Coast and Mozambique. 
Hove's Tours : Bom. Gov. Sel. XVI. 49. 



Oujardt.] 



CAMBAY. 



20$ 



Chinese market, carnelian ornaments only are in demand.. Of 
these there are two kinds, flat stones named mugldigul, and beads 
called dol. The flat stones, oval, square, and like watch seals, are 
worn in China as armlets and dress ornaments. Plain polished 
round beads are made into necklaces of fifty stones each. For the 
Arab markets, the stones most in demand are Ranpur agates, 
Ratanpur carnelians, cat^s-eyes, and bloodstone.^ These are wrought 
into both plain and ornamental ring stones, necklaces, wristlets, and 
armlets. Of necklaces there are those made of cut beads, peluddr 
dol ; of diamond-cut beads, gokhruddr dol; of almond-sbaped beads, 
feadamt doZ ; and of spearhead-shaped beads, chamakli dol. Again 
there are necklaces of three stones called rnddaHa or twit, and of 
plain round beads used as rosaries as well as necklaces.^ Of armlets 
and wristlets there are those of two stones, mota mddalia worn 
either on the arm or wrist; wristlets of seven round flat stones, pdtia; 
wristlets of several flat stones, ponchi ; armlets: of one stone cut 
into different fanciful devices, hdju ; and single stones in the shape 
of large flat seals, wiwigfaL 'Rings, anguthi, a,ni stones for setting 
as rings, nagina, are also made of carnelian and cat's-eye. For the 
European markets, the ornaments most in demand are models of 
cannon with carriage and trappings, slabs for boxes or square tables, 
cups and saucers, chessmen, flower vases, pen racks, card and letter 
racks, watch stands, inkstands, knife-handles, rulers, paper-cutters, 
penholders, necklaces, bracelets, brooches, paper weights, crochet 
needles, sUk -winders, marbles, brace and shirt studs, seals, and rough 
stones polished on one side. Within the last thirty years (1851) 
part of the trade with Arabia lay through Veraval in south-west 
Kathiawar. At present (1878), except a very small supply for the 
Sind and Cabul markets taken by the horse-dealers and other 
Afghans who visit Oambay, the whole produce is bought by Bombay 
merchants, chiefly of the Bohora caste, and by them sent from 
Bombay to China, Arabia, and Europe. 

According to the latest details, the trade in Cambay stones at 
present supports about six hundred families of skilled workmen, 
and from five hundred to. six hundred unskilled labourers. The- 
skilled workmen are all Kanbis, the labourers Musalmans and 
Kolis. The whole body of skilled workmen includes four distinct 
classes, each engaged on a separate process. Compared with, the- 
1850 returns, the figures for 1878 show a fall, from two.to, one hundred 
in the number of polishers on the rough stone, doUde.. On. the other 
hand the workers on the lapidaries' wheel, ghdsidsj have remained 
steady at three hundred, the drillers, vindhdrs, at one hundred, and 
the polishers on the wooden frame, patimdrs, at fifty.' 



Chapter II. 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 

Course of 
Trade. 



Poliahtrt. 



• Jet ornaments were formfidy (1851) exported to Arabia, ; of late years the trade has 



2 The demand fbrnecklaoes. of oblong flat beads, kdtU,,is said to have ceased. 

3 Within the last thirty years.about 167 families of agate workers have abandoned 
their craft. Of these, seven have gone to Ahmedabad ;, ten to Baroda ; twenty-five 
to Bombay ; and 125 have become cultivators, in Oambay. Those in Ahmedabad 
have taken tosilk- weaving ; thoseinBaroda to tobaccorse-lling, polishing precious stones, 
and weaving ; those in Bombay to stone-polishing and glass-mending. The Bombay 
settlers still keep up their connection with Caonbay, going there for marriage and 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



204 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Hanufactures. 
Cambay Stones. 



Trade Ouilde, 



Each process is carried on in a distinct workshop. At the head 
of each workshop, kdrlchdna, is a well-to-do Kanbi known as the 
Icdrkhdndvdla, or head of the factory. This headman, though 
generally not above working with his own hands, has under him, 
besides a varying number of labourers, from two to ten skilled 
workers. The skilled workers, all grown men, as women and 
children do not help, receive monthly wages each according to the 
work he has done ; the unskilled labourers, many of them boys, are 
paid by the day or as their services are wanted. From the richest of 
the workshop heads, the highest class of agate workers, the agate 
dealers, akikids, are recruited. The akikia, who must be a man of 
some capital, buys the stones as they come rough into the Cambay 
market. In his factory the rough stones are sawn and chiselled, 
and then, according to the nature of the stone and the use to which 
it is to be put, he hands it over to the headman of one of the 
polishing factories. When the work is completed, the Cambay 
dealer disposes of the finished articles to the agate merchants of 
Bombay, or sends them through Bombay, to Calcutta, China, or 
Jadda. According to the returns, the number of agate dealers, 
akikids, in Cambay has, during the last twenty-five years, fallen 
from one hundred to fifty. 

In each branch of the craft the heads of factories form a distinct 
guild or panchdyat. Th6re is the guild of polishers on stone, 
dolia panchdyat ; of polishers on wood, patimdr panchdyat ; of 
workers on the lapidaries' wheel, ghdsia panchdyat ; and of drillers, 
vindhdr panchdyat. Above them is the dealers' guild, akikia 
panchdyat, in whose factories the work of sawing and chiselling 
is carried on. Over each of these guilds a headman, chosen by 
the votes of the members, presides. There is no combination 
among the workers in the dififerent factories, and there is no record 
of any dispute between the workers and their employers. Any 
skilled worker who raises himself to be head of a factory, may 
become a member of the guild of the branch of the craft to which 
he belougs. On joining a guild the new comer is expected to give 
a feast to the members, the expense varying from £17 10s. to £80 
(Rs. 175 - 800). He is at the same time required to pay the Nawab 
a fee of from £1 10s. to £10 (Rs. 15-100).i Prom time to time the 
members of a guild hold a feast meeting the charges out of the 
common funds. In any factory, if one of the skilled workers 
wishes to have a son taught the craft, or, if a new hand is anxious 
to join, he gives a dinner to the head of the workshop and to the other 
skilled workers. Except in making arrangements for the unpaid 
service due to the Nawab, the trade funds would seem to be applied 

death ceremonies. They have also, both publicly and in their houses, shrines 
representing the tomb of the founder of their craft. (These and some of the particulars 
about the trade unions have been obtained from one of the Kanbis settled in 
Bombay). 

' Some years ago the details were, to join the dolia guild, £19 (£17 10«. in 
dinners and £1 10«. for the Nawdb) ; to join the jr/ttisja guild, £37 (£35 in dinners and 
£2 for the Nawdb) ; to join the patimdr guild, £15 (£12 10«. in dinners and £2 10s. 
for the Naw4b) ; and to join the aidkia guild, £90 (£80 in dinners and £10 for the 
Xawilj). At present (1876) a fee is paid to the Nawdb only on joining the akikia 
guild. 



Qi^jarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



205 



to no purpose but that of entertaining the members. When a guild 
feast is held, if one of its members chances to be sick, his share 
of the dinner is sent him. With this exception, the practice of using 
trade funds to support the sick or those out of work, or to provide 
for widows and orphans, is unknown. 

On paying the Nawab a fee, and agreeing to meet the customary 
charges includinga yearly subscription of £1 4s. (Rs. 12), any member 
of one of the nnder-guilds may become a dealer, akikia. About four 
years ago, the heavy cost of joining the ahikia guild caused a dispute. 
Certain of the polishers, ghdsids, claimed the right to deal in stones 
without becoming members of the akikia guild. The regular dealers 
were too strong for them, and, failing to get any business, they were 
forced to leave Cambay. With some families of drillers they retired 
to Ahmedabad. But, finding themselves no better off there, they 
returned to Cambay. 

The guilds are useful in arranging for the service due to the Nawab. 
When the Nawab wants a lapidary, he tells the dealers' guild what 
work he wishes done. The chief of the dealers sends to the master 
of one workshop in each branch of the craft, telling him what is 
wanted, and asking him if he will undertake the duty. If he agrees, 
and there is generally in each class one master -worker who 
undertakes the NawaVs orders, he receives from £5 to £6 (Rs. 50- 
60) from the guild funds. Among guild rules, one forbids 
master-workers engaging the services of workmen belonging to 
another factory. Another lays down certain days, amounting in all 
to about two months in the year, to be kept as holidays. Breaches 
of the rules are punished by fines varying from 2s. 6d. to 5s. 

(Rs. U-2i). 

Some authorities hold that the murrhine cups so highly prized 
by the Romans, were the moss agate cups still made in Cambay.^ 
Others hold that, under the name Sardonyx Mons, Ptolemy (150) 
referred to the Rajpipla mines. But Ptolemy's Sardonyx hills are 
far inland, and when the author of the Periplus (247) visited Gujarat, 
agates and onyx stones came to Broach from a distance, from Ujain 
in Malwa and from Plithana (Paithan) in the Deccan.^ 



Chapter II. 
Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 
Trade Guilds. 



Ewtory, 



' Vincent (Commerce of the Ancients, II. 407, 412) thinks murrha was porce- 
lain ; Riddle's Latin Dictionary calls it fluor spar ; LJddel and Scott incline to agate. 
The Emperor Nero paid £58.126 (300 talents) for a murrhine cup. (Vincent, II. 
727). According to Pliny (77 a,d.) Indian agates had many wonderful qualities. 
Thfty were good for scorpion bites, had the appearance of rivers, woods, beasts of 
butden, and forms like ivy. The sight of them was good for the eyes, and held in the 
mouth they allayed thirst. Bostock's Pliny, VI. 440. Herodotus (484 B.C.) speaks 
of the sard and onyx being brought from India to be used as finger rings. Every one 
in Babylon wore agate rings (Lassen's Ind. Alt. II. 562). Lassen traces a reference 
to the Cambay agate trade in Vaidurya, that is an onyx, an old Sanskrit name for 
west India from the Narbada to Gokarna. Ind. Alt. I. 180. 

2 Ujain in Mdlwa (north latitude 23° 10' east longitude 74° 47'). Plithina, 
probably Paithan on the GodAvari (north latitude 19° 29 east longitude 75° 28'). A 
trace of this Decean manufacture of agates is preserved, by the Russian traveller 
Athanasius Nikotin (1468-1474), who says, at Kurula, apparently near Gulbargah, 
the afo'i is produced and worked and exported to all parts of the world. (Major's India 
in the XVth Century, III. 30). Neobold (Jour. R. A. Soo. IX. 37) mentions that 
camelians, Mocha stone,and Moss 3.gate are found in the Krislma, Goddvari, and Bhima. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



206 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 

Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 
History, 



So far as has been traced, the Musalman travellers of the ninth 
and tenth centuries make no mention of an agate trade at 
Cambay.^ Marco Polo (1290) says nothing of a special agate 
trade, either in his description of Cambay or in the notices of the 
Arabian and African ports then connected by commerce with 
Gujarat. The fifteenth century travellers make only a casual 
reference to the agate as one of the products of Cambay. Early 
in the sixteenth century, the agate trade seems to have risen 
to importance. Varthema (1503-1508) speaks of two mountains, 
one of carnelians about seventy, the other of diamonds about 
one hundred miles, from Cambay.^ About this time, according to a 
tradition of the Cambay agate workers, an Abyssinian merchant 
came to Gujarat, and established an agate factory at Nandod in 
Eajpipla. At first the stones were prepared by Musalmans, but the 
Kanbis were not long in learning the craft. The merchant died at 
Nandod, and his tomb is near the well known tomb of Bawa Ghor 
at the ford of that name across the river Narbada. After some 
time, according to the same account, the Kanbi agate workers left 
Nandod and came to settle in Broach, and from Broach went to 
Cambay.* A few years later, at the different east African and 
Arabian ports, the Portuguese traveller Barbosa (1514) mentions 
the agates and carnelians, and the grey, yellow, and red beads of 
Cambay as among the chief articles of trade.* At Cambay itself, 
besides some Moorish women who worked in coral, agate, and 
other stones, this traveller found skilled artists with the lathe 
turning beads of great size, brown, yellow, and blue, and cunning 
lapidaries and imitators of precious stones of all kinds. At this time 
few of the agate workers were settled in Cambay. Their head- 
quarters were at Limadura (Limodra or Nimodra), a town inland 
from Cambay, where the agates were found. At Limadura the 
polished stones were bought by Cambay merchants and sent to the 
Eed Sea, Persia, and Nubia, besides supplying the Portuguese, who 



• MAsudi (913), who says nothing of its agates, mentions an emerald, beautifully 
green and brilliant, found near Cambay. It was called makki because the Arabs 
carried it from India to Aden and on to Mokha. Prairies d'Or, III. 49. A doubtful 
passage would seem to show that in the eighth century, Gujardt was so famous for its 
agates as to be called Akihshetra or agate land. Wilson's Mackenzie Collection, 1. u. 11. 

^ -Badger's Varthema, 107, and note. The diamonds were perhaps the crystals still 
found in KAthidwir. So Csesar Frederic (1585), among the products of Cambay, 
talks of several varieties of natural diamonds. Hakluyt s Voyages, II. 343. 

2 The Sidi merchant is still remembered by the Hindu agate workers. Each 
year on the day of his death Shrdvan sudpurnima (July -August full -moon), they 
offer flowers and cocoanuts at his tomb. As it is far to go from Cambay to Bdwa 
Ghor, they have in Cambay a cenotaph, talciya, in his honour, and those of them 
who are settled in Bombay have brought with them this memorial of the founder of 
their craft. The Cambay agate workers assert that the well known shrine of BAwa 
Ghor was raised in honour of their patron. According to their story, while wandering 
from place to place as a religious beggar, the BAwa did business in precious stones, 
and, becoming skilled in agates, set up a factory at Nimodra, Here he prospered 
and died rich. The local legend of the saint of BAwa Ghor makes no mention 
of his success as an agate dealer. The colony of Sidis found by Captain FuUjames in 
1832 was, perhaps, a remnant of the original band of Abyssinian agate workers. 
Trans. Bom. Geo. Soc. 2-76. 

* Stanley's Barbosa, 5, 27, 31 . Barbosa's word for the agate is, in Stanley's trans- 
lation, printed alaquequa. This word probably comes from the Arabic al dkih. 



Chijar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



207 



are said to have increased the demand.^ Two other notices of its 
agate trade occur in sixteenth century accounts of Cambay. One 
in 1554 speaks of a profusion of carnelians^ bdbdghor. The other, 
about twenty years later, mentions great stones like to carnelians, 
granates, agates, diaspry, calcedony, hematists, and some kinds of 
natural diamonds.^ In the beginning of the seventeenth century 
(1611), in Goa all precious stone workers were from Cambay and had 
separate streets and shops.^ Forty years later (1651) Tavernier 
speaks of Cambay as the place where the agate cups are hollowed, 
and, during the eighteenth century, there is more than one notice of 
the agate trade as one of the most important of Cambay industries.* 
For a few years, during the present century, details are available 
showing the estimated value of the outturn of the agate factories. 
Those for 1805 give an export of manufactured carnelians, estimated 
at £6223 (Es. 62,230) j those for 1843 give £9490 (Rs. 94,900); 
and the returns for the five years ending 1878 an average of about 
£7000 (Rs. 70,000).^ 



Chapter II. 

Manufactures. 

Cambay Stones. 
History, 



• Stanley's Barbosa, 65-67. Limadura is Nimodra, a village close to the Rdjpipla 
agate minea. Barbosa gives the following details of the preparation of the agates. 
After being dug up in large blocks, and exposed to fire to bring out the colour, the 
carnelians are handed over to great artists who work them into rings, buttons, 
knife-handles, and beads. Here, too, chalcedony beads which, he adds, they call 
bdbdghor, were worn touching the skin, as they were thought to keep the wearer 
chaste. 

2 Sidi Ali Kapudhan (1554). Jour. As. Soo. Beng. V. 2, 463. Csesar Frederic 
(1585), Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 343. 

3 Pyrard de Laval : Voyages, 11. 214, 220. 

* Tavernier in Harris, II. 353, ' Here they shape those fair agates that come from 
India, into cups, knife hafts, beads and other sorts of workmanship. These agates 
are fetched out of the quarries by a village named Nimodra sixteen miles from Cambay, 
in pieces -as big as a man's fist.' Besides Laval and Tavernier, other travellers of the 
seventeenth century notice the Cambay agate trade. Finch (1608) mentions the 
mine of agates near Broach (Harris, I. 90) ; Herbert (1626) notices agates as one of the 
chief articles oflfered for sale at SwAli (Harris, I. 411) ; Mandelslo (1638) speaks of them 
as 'so famous in Europe' (Harris, II. 113) ; Ogilby (1670, Atlas, V. 216) says, six days 
from Cambay is a mountain which produces carnelians and chalcedony, and a league 
from Broach is another chalcedony mine ; and Ovington(1690) cites them as one of the 
chief articles of export at Surat. (Voyages, 218). Of eighteenth century travellers, 
Hamilton (1700-1720) mentions, among articles made at Cambay, stones for signets and 
rings some of them worth double their weight in gold, cabinets of stone, in some cases 
fourteen or fifteen inches long and eight or nine deep, worth from £30 to £40, bowls 
and spoons of several sizes, handles of swords, daggers, and knives, buttons and stones 
to set in snuff boxes of great value. (New Account, I. 140, 145). Half a century later 
(1750), Tieflenthaler says that the white Katanpur agate, baked red at the mines, was 
m Broach and Cambay, worked into vases, little plates, basins, and other pieces, and 
sold in Surat and thence taken to Europe. He also notices Kapadvanj agates worked 
in Cambay into different figures and made into vases, plates, and saucers. (Res. Hist, 
et Geog. de I'lnde, I. 390, 392). About the same time, the author of the Mirit-i- Ahmadi 
(1748-1762) mentions rings like those of Yeman, necklaces, cups, handles for knives, 
and daggers (Bird, 104). Towards the close of the same century, Forbes (1783) found 
the agate manufacture a valuable part of Cambay trade. (Or. Mem. II. 20). 

^ These figures would seem to show that, during the present century, the agate 
trade has not declined, a result at variance with the fact that the numbers engaged in 
the trade have considerably fallen off. It is to be noticed that the beginning of the 
century was a period of depression, as, in addition to the regular duty of £53 16s. 3d. 
per cent, a special war cess of £17 Ss. 9d. was for some years imposed, making a total 
charge on manufactured agate stones of £71 5s. per cent. The trade fluctuates so 
greatly from year to year, that, without returns for a series of years, no certain results 
can be obtained. The variations during the eight years ending 1878 were : 1871, 
Rs. 75,080 ; 1872, Rs. 78,490; 1873, Rs. 98,840; 1874, Rs. 84,370; 1875, 
Rs. 90,720 ; 1876, Rs. 53,160 ; 1877, Rs. 69,170; and 1878, Rs. 50,970. Figures taken 



[Bombay G-azetteer, 



208 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Mannfactures. 

Cloth. 



Carpets. 



£mbroideiy. 



Salt. 



A certain quantity of the once famous black cloth, kdla kapda, 
is still made for export to Zanzibar in Africa, and to Mokha, Jadda, 
and other Red Sea ports. Of black cloth there are three kiads, 
known in the trade as haddmi, garb hi, and mim judi, costing 
from 6s. to £1 4s. (Es. 3-12) the piece of five yards long and 
one and a half wide. There is also a blue cloth called gulkhdr. 
Several kinds of sheets, chddar, are made in pieces about two 
and a quarter yards long by one broad, and varying in price from 
4s. to 16s. (Rs. 2-8). Scarfs, lungis (sometimes called namidnus), 
are also made. The pieces, of the same size as chddars, are sold 
at prices varying according to quality. Those worked with silk and 
tinsel fetch £1 (Rs. 10). The only Cambay cloth still in request 
is that used for dhotis and sddis. This is woven almost entirely 
by Hindus of the Kanbi and Salvi castes. The prices vary 
according to quality and breadth. 

Cambay carpets had once a great name. Among the articles 
mentioned in the proclamation of 1630, 'for restraining the excess 
of private trade to the East Indies', are 'rich carpets of Cambay.' 
Later on, a chief part of the Senior Factor's duty at Cambay was to ^ 
buy carpets ' valuable in Europe'; and, in another place, Cambay 
carpets are spoken of as equal to any of Turkey or Persia. Though 
this trade has greatly fallen off, there are still four carpet factories, 
each paying the Nawab a yearly tax of £1 10s. (Rs. 15).^ 

Some Muhammadan women still earn a little by embroidering 
children's caps, but the weaving of brocade and cloth of gold has 
ceased. 

Till lately (1880) the Cambay salt works contributed about one-sixth 
of the state revenue.^ They lay inland, beyond the city walls, about 
two and a half miles from the head of the gulf. The pans, covering 
a space about two miles long, and on an average a quarter of a 
mile broad, were surrounded by a row of earthen mounds, gradually 
formed by the earth scraped from the pans. Formerly, at spring 
tides, the sea water came up to this embankment, and by suitable 
cuttings as much water as was needed was easily obtained. 
Latterly, owing to the gradual silting of the gulf, the spring 
tides failed to reach the embankment, and, to get water, 



from the Honourable Bast India Company's yearly sales show that, at the beginning 
of the century, the fluctuations were even greater; 1804, Rs. 49,140; 1805, Rs. 59,900; 
1806, Es. 17,470; 1807, Es. 1,11,870; 1808, Rs. 54,240. Milbum's Oriental Commerce, 
I. 279. 

1 Tavemier (1651) speaks of silk, and silk and silver and gold, carpets made for the 
most part in GujarAt. (Harris, II. 373). The dyes used in carpet-making are saflSower, 
kasumba, Carthamus tinctorius, Indian madder, sorangi, and indigo, imported from 
MAlwa and Gujarat. The cotton thread is washed in cold water, and then dipped 
several times in boiling castor-oil. It is next soaked in water in which madder 
powder has been steeped. The cost of dyeing red is £1 4s. (Rs. 12) for each 40 pounds 
of thread, and the cost of indigo dyeing about 16s. (Rs. 8) for 40 pounds. Weavers 
are paid by piece-work at the rate of 2s. (Re, 1) for 16 square feet (4 square gaz) ; and 
the carpets sell for Is. 3(i. to 2s. (10-16 annaa) every 2 square feet. 

2 Besides the common salt, in the eighteenth century, the medicinal salt called 
smichal is said to have been made at Cambay, by boiling a grass called morand in 
the manner usually followed in procuring the oxide of lead known as murddrsing. 
(Mirdt-i-Ahmadi, 1748 - 1762, 1 05). Sanchal or bit laban is generally said to be made of 
samur, an impure muriate of soda, and emblic myrobalans. Balfour's Cyclopcedia. 



Gujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



209 



trenches had to be dug from a quarter to one mile long. Since 
1878, on receiving a yearly payment of £4000 (Rs. 40,000), the 
Nawab has closed his salt works. He is still allowed, for the use of 
his court, to produce up to 500 Indian mans of salt a year.^ 

MONEY LENDING. 

Money-lending is chiefly in the hands of Vanias and Shravaks 
with a few Brahmans and Kanbis. For merchants the yearly rate 
of interest is usually from' six to twelve per cent, and for cultivators 
it is nearly the same, with a further premium of one or two per 
cent. If ornaments are pledged lower rates are taken. 

When the Nawab is in want of money he obtains funds from the 
town bankers, who, if the loan is for only a short time, do not as a 
rule insist upon interest. If the loan is not paid for a long time, a 
low rate is charged, in no case more than nine per cent. The custom 
of presenting the lender with a sum of money or some articles of 
value at the time of repaying the loan, makes up to the banker for 
the low rates of interest. Large sums, raised on the occasion of a 
marriage or funeral in the Nawab' s family, are generally repaid by 
assigning the revenues of certain villages. 

The Nawab has a mint at which both silver and copper are coined. 
The silver coins are rupees, half rupees, and quarter rupees ; the 
copper coins pice, half pice, and quarter pice. Both the silver and 
copper currency are of the rudest workmanship. The Cambay 
rupee is ff of the Imperial coin, the present (1880) rate of exchange 
being twenty-five per cent in favour of the British currency. 

A comparison of the available price returns shows a most marked 
rise in the value of field produce. The 1878 prices were, by local 
failure of crops, forced up almost to famine pitch. But, though 
1876 was a year of plenty, prices ruled very much higher than in 
1846. 

Prices (Pounds for two ShilUnga), 



Article. 


Ykak. 










1846. 


1876. 


1878. 


Millet 


70 


S9 


17 


Rice 


20 


la 


li 


Pulae 


60 


40 


13 


Wheat 


60 


36 


15 


Gram 


60 


48 


16 


Cotton (cleaned) ... 


8 to 10 


6 


a 


Tobacco 


40 


21 


16 



Chapter II. 
Trade. 



Money Lending. 



Currency, 



Prices, 



' Gov. Res. 273, 13th Jan. 1880. Since 1802, the British Government have had a 
half share in the profits of the Cambay salt works. Before the days (1837) of a salt 
excise the revenue was thus divided. The produce of each pan was piled into two equal 
heaps, one the property of the makers, and the other, half the Nawdb's and half the 
British Government's. The makers took away their share, and the rest was sold by 
British and Cambay officers. When the Imperial salt duty was first levied, the NawAb 
after some objection, agreed to introduce into his territory the rates prevailing in the 
neighbouring British districts, 

B 561—27 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



210 



STATES. 



Chapter II. 
Trade. 

Wages. 



Weight*. 



The daily wages are, for skilled labour Is. 6d. (12 as.) for masons, 
sawyers, carpenters, and bricklayers, and Is. Sd. (10 as.) for 
plasterers; and for unskilled labourers 4^d. (3 as.) To equalize the 
burden of the state demand for unpaid labour, masons, sawyers, 
bricklayers, and plasterers, bring their wages every evening to the 
head of their caste, and the whole is equally divided. A carpenter, 
out of his day's earnings, pays ^d. (4 pies), and from this sum Is. 2d. 
(10 as.) a day are made over to each carpenter who is working 
for the Nawab. The balance goes to repair rest-houses and pay 
for caste feasts. Each unskilled labourer receives 4|cZ. (2 as. 9 pies). 
The other %d. {6 pies) is paid by the employer to a state officer who 
collects t he amount from all employers of labour, and from it pays 
i^d. (3 as.) to every unskilled worker engaged by the Nawab. 

Oambay weights, the ser of one pound, the man of forty pounds, 
and the khdndi of 20 mans or 800 pounds avoirdupois, are the same 
as those in Kaira. 



Gnjardt] 



CHAPTER III. 

HISTORY. 

Cambay history is throughout little more tlan the record of the 
main events connected with its chief town. It divides itself into 
•three parts. An early period lasting till (1304) the final Musalman 
conquest of Anhilvada;* a middle period, about four hundred and 
thirty years (1304-1 730), when Cambay formed part of the Musalman 
kingdom and province of Gujarat; and a modern period, from 1730, 
the record of Cambay aa a distinct state. 

According to Dr. Biihler the ancient Sanskrit name of Cambay is 
Stambhatirth, 'the pillar shrine'. The modern Gujardti Khambhayat, 
or Khambhat, is a corruption of Skamhhatirth, stambh and skambh 
both meaning 'pillar '. According to the phonetic laws of the Prakrit 
languages, initial sk is always changed to hh; rth becomes by 
assimilation tth,^ and medial t between vowels may be dropped. 
Thus the older Prakrit form was Khambhdittha, whence, through the 
loss ^ of the final syllable and the change of i to ya, the G ujarati 
Khamhhdyat, and, by a further contraction of the last two syllables, 
Khambhat have been derived. What is meant by stambh, the first 
part of the name, is somewhat doubtful. The local legend that, in 
olden times, a copper pillar stood not far from the town gate, 
probably grew out of the following passage in the Kumar ika 
Khand.* 

After Kumar's victory over Tarakasur, the grateful gods, 
admiring Guh with folded hands, spoke to him: 'We wish 
to tell thee something, listen. Of a truth it is reported since 
olden times, as a well known custom of conquerors, that those 
who overcome their foes, place on the field of battle a sign of 
their victory. Hence a most excellent pillar, stambha, to celebrate 
thy victory (over Tarakasur), we wish to fix; thou shouldest permit 
us to do that, and the third excellent ling which Visvakarma 
wrought, do, thou, a son of Shiv, place in front of the pillar.' When 



Chapter III. 
History. 



The Name. 



' Anhilpur, Anhilvd,da, or Nehrvdla the modem Pdtan, north latitude 23° 48' 
east longitude 72° 2', on the south bank of the Saraavati river, 65 miles north-east of 
AhmedM)ad. 

' Compare the Jain titthayar=:tirth,ankar. Dr. Biihler. 

' Corrrpaxe Bharukachchha=-Bliaruchchha=:Bhariich. Dr. Biihler. 

* Kumdresh Mahdtmya, Adhydya XXX. This Kumdrika Khand, a very bulky 
legend, mahdtmya, professes to be part of the Skand-Pur4n, and to give the origin 
and history of the KumArika-Kshetra in general and of Stambha-tirtti in particular. 
It has no historical value and has been written by persons who knew very little of 
Sanskrit. It may be from 400 to 500 years old, Dr, Buhler. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



212 



STATES. 



Chapter III. the gods had thus spoken^ highminded Skand gave his consent. 
History. Then the crowds of the gods, chief of whom is Sakra^ placed on the 

The Name ^^^^ °^ battle an excellent, brilliant pillar of pure gold. Aronnd it 

they raised an altar of earth, adorned with all precious substances. 
Jojrfully the Apsaras danced there. The mothers, full of gladness, 
sang songs of auspicious omen for Kumdr. Indra and others 
danced there, and Vishnu himself played (the drum). From the sky 
fell showers of flowers, and the drums of the gods resounded. When 
thus the pillar, called that of victory, which gladdened the world, 
had been erected, the son of three-eyed Shiv established the {ling 
of the) divine Stambheshvar in company with the rejoicing gods, 
Brahma, Hari, Har, and Indra, and with crowds of sages. To the 
west of that, highminded G-uh, with the point of his spear, dug a 
well. There Ganga rises from the ground. The man, son of 
Pandu, who there performs funeral rites, pitritarpan, on the eighth 
day of the dark half of Mdgh (February), and bathes in that well, 
will surely obtain the reward attending the performance of a 
funeral ceremony, shrdddh, at Gaya. If he then worships the divine 
Stambheshvar with perfumes and flowers, he will obtain the reward 
of a Vdjpeya sacrifice, and rejoice in Rudra's seat.' 

Dr. Biihler adds, ' I am not inclined to attach much weight to 
the reason by which the legend explains the fact that Shiv was 
worshipped at Cambay as Stambheshvar or 'lord of the pillar'. 
But it seems to me that the fact itself, which is also mentioned in 
other passages of the Kumarika Khand (III. 40), furnishes a simple 
explanation of the name of the town. I believe that Stambh must 
be taken as one of the many names of Shiv, and that Stamhhatirth 
means etymologically ' the shrine of pillar-shaped Shiv '. Though I 
am not in a position to prove that Shiv received elsewhere the surname 
Stambh, there are two circumstances which afford countenance to 
my conjecture. First, the usual symbol of Shiv, the ling, is in the 
older temples, such as those of Valla, nothing but a simple hexa- 
gonal or round pillar, and might not inappropriately be called a 
stambh. Second, there is another very common name of Shiv, 
athdnu, the etymological import of which is likewise 'a, post or pillar'. 
These two points, coupled with the fact that Shiv was, and is, wor- 
shipped in Cambay as 'lord of the pillar', incline me to translate 
the ancient name of the town as ' the shrine of pillar-shaped Shiv, 
or Shiv Stambheshvar'. The other names of the town, Stambhavati 
and Trambavati are, in my opinion, merely modem attempts to 
make a Sanskrit word out of the Prakrit form.^ Neither name 
occurs in Jain or Brahman writings of any antiquity. The Kuma- 
rika Mahdtmya professes also to fix the date of the foundation of 
the tirth. It informs us, in the third Adhydya, that the sage 
Narad received from a king of Saurashtra or Sorath, called 



' These names are not real Sanskrit. The long a^in Stambhdvati is inappropriate 
and is due to the desire of its inventor to preserve the long vowel which occurs in 
Khambhit. TramMvati is a monster consisting of the Gujardti trdmbun 'copper ', to 
which the Sanskrit affix ' vat ' has beei) added. It has probably been manufactured 
by a la/pidvm caput, that required a support for the copper walls or copper pillar 
attributed by some legends to the ancient to^'n. Dr. Btthler. 



Gnjarit.] 

CAMBAY. 213 

DharmaTarma, a considerable present in money and a piece of land Chapter III. 
at the mouth of the Mahi extending over seven gavyuiis, or, taking History, 

the gavyuti at four thousand hastas, about twenty square miles. 
The Eishi earned this magnificent grant by the explanation of a 
verse, which king Dharmavarma had heard recited by a Khavdni, 
' a voice which did not proceed from a body/ and which had baflled 
all native and foreign Pandits. In order to people his newly- 
acquired territory, Narad went to Katapagram, a locality stated 
to be situated in Northern India near Kedarnath, and where a 
large colony of particularly learned and saintly Brahmans dwelt. 
He persuaded a number of them to emigrate to his kshetra on the 
Mahisagar, and miraculously carried them through the air on the 
topofhisstafe.'i 

The local story of Trambavati^ connects the city with the Gard- Legends, 

dhabins or Gardhabas, a dynasty supposed to have ruled in Western 
India in the early centuries of the Christian era.* According to 
this legend, Gadhesing, a son of the god Indra, and one of the 
Gandharvas or heavenly choristers, displeasing his father, was 
condemned, during the hours of day, to wear the form of an 
ass. Wandering in this shape^ he visited the country between the 
Mahi and the Sabarmati, and, falling in love with the daughter 
of the chief, sought her in marriage. The chief agreed on one 
condition, that, in a single night, the suitor should fence the city 
with a wall of brass. By morning the wall was finished, and eyer 
after the capital was known as Tramb^vati, or the abode of brass. 
From the marriage of the Gandharva with the chief's daughter was 
born Vikram, the third king of that name, who ruled at Ujain in 
Malwa about the middle of the fifth century a.d.* 



' Kum. VI. 46. This is, no doubt, a reminiscence of the settlement of Brdhmans 
at Cambay during the reign of MulrAj of AnhilvAda (942-997) of which an account 
is given below, p. 214. The drawback to the story in the Mahdtmya is that king 
Dharmavarma of Sorath is not mentioned elsewhere. During the last two thousand 
years, Sorath has rarely been under independent princes. It was first (315-178 B.C.) 
a dependency of the Maurya kingdom, ruled by a governor living at Girn^r. Next it 
belonged to the Kshatrapas, or SAkaa (about 150 a. d.), and, between the second and 
eighth centuries, first to the Guptas and then to the Valabhi kings. Only during the 
eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries had Sorath kings of its own, who, accord- 
ing to the Jains, were Abhirs, and, according to their own account, YAdavs. Next, 
in the twelfth century, the province passed to the ChAlukyas of AnhilvAda, and, 
lastly, about the close of the thirteenth century, again to the Yddavs. Dr. Biihler. 

2 Under the Valabhi kings (319-658) mention is made of a city at the mouth of the 
Mahi called Gajni. This, a place of consequence and one of the chief ports of the 
kingdom, is said to have been destroyed at the time of the final sack of Valabhi, an 
event still undetermined, though it probably took place during the seventh century. 
RAs Mila, I. 21. 

' Wilson's Ariana Antiqua, 410. 

■• Wilford (As. Rea. IX. 147-155 ; Prinsep's Ant. I. 342) was inclined to trace in 
this legend a reference to the visit (420 - 440) paid to India by Bahram V. of Persia 
called Gor or the wild-ass. This prince is supposed to have come to India to gain allies 
in his struggles with the Skythian tribe of Euthalites or White Huns, and is said to 
have connected himself by marriage with the house of the king of Kanauj, or, as related 
in another version, with a chief whose territories lay near the mouth of the Mahi. 
According to the latter account, Bahram Gor, when in India, founded a city near the 
capital of his father-in-law. This town was called Oadhendrapuri, and from its name 
and position, ' one day's march north of Broach,' the legend may perhaps have some 
connection with the ruined city of GandhAr on the south bank of the Mahi. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



214 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
History. 



The Balhar4a, 
913. 



The ChAlukyas, 
942-1240. 



Another legend tells of tlie fall of Trambavati and the founding 
of Khambavati. Raja Abhi Kumar of Trambavati^ warned by an idol 
that his town would be buried in a storm of dust and sand, taking 
the idol and its pedestal, left his town, and put to sea. The storm 
rose, and the town was overthrown, but by the pillar's help the king's 
ship came safe to land. Setting up the idol he began to build a city, 
and, after the pillar of the god, called it Khambavati.^ 

The first historical references to Cambay are by the early Musalman 
writers. At the beginning of the tenth century, the Arab traveller 
Masudi (913), describes Cambay as standing on a deep bay larger 
than that of the Nile, the Tigris, or the Euphrates, and with so strong 
central a tide that when it was low the sand was dry, and, even in 
the channel, only a little water was left. The shores of the gulf 
were covered with towns, villages, farms, tilled fields, trees and 
cocoanut gardens full of peacocks, paroquets, and other Indian 
birds.^ The city, famous for its sandals, was governed by a Brahman, 
named Bania, who ruled in the nam.e of the Balhara of Mankir, 
and was full of care for Musalman traders and other strangers.' 

About the middle of the tenth century (942) the Chalukyas* 
conquered Anhilvada. They spread their power over Broach and the 
lands at the mouth of the Mahi, and the town of Cambay was one of 
their ports. Shortly before the close of his reign (997), Mulraj, 
the founder of the dynasty, added to the importance of Cambay 
by settling there a Brahman colony. One company of Brahmans, 
brought by the king from Upper India, refused to stay in Gujaratj 
longing to return to the sacred banks of the Ganges. On consulting 
the holy books, it was found that the spot where the Mahi entered 
the ocean was inferior in sanctity to no place upon earth. Here they 
agreed to settle, and the lands known as the Kumdrika Kshetra, the 
field of Devi, stretching for eight miles round a temple sacred to 
that goddess, were assigned to them.^ On the site of this temple 
stands the old English factory.^ Not long after (1024), by the 



1 EUiot's History, VI. 354. Colonel Tod (Western India, 247) relates the same 
legend under a slightly different form. A prince, finding the ancient city no longer 
fit for a residence, probably from the silting of the head of the gulf, determined to 
change its site. Raising a pillar (athambh vulgo khamV) to the goddess, devi, on the 
sea-shore, he wrote on it a grant of the ancient town, with eighty-four villages, whose 
resources were to be applied to the maintenance of Devi's shrine. 

2 Prairies d'Or, I. 253-254. Reinaud's Memoir Sur I'Inde, 221. Al Istakhiri (951) 
and Ibn Haukal (1193) also mention Cambay. Elliot's History, I. 27, 39. 

^ Prairies d'Or, I. 253 - 254. MAsudi's Balhara of Mankir is now generally supposed 
to have been the RAthod ruler of MAlkhet in the Nizdm's dominions (north latitude 
17° east longitude 77°). His territory stretched along the west coast as far south as 
Chaul. 

* Forbes' R4s MAla, I. 49. ' Forbes' RAs MAla, I. 65. 

'Bom. Gov. Sel., New Series, XXVI. 76, note. This settlement of BrAhmans 
in ' the field of Devi ' would seem to have been accompanied, by the transfer of the 
city from its former site, three miles inland, to its present site near the shore of the 
gulf. The legends of the transfer are, at least so far as the change of site goes, 
supported by later accounts. Two European writers in the seventeenth century 
(Dela Valle, 1623, andOgilby, 1670) notice, a league from Cambay, the ruins of an older 
town ' the ancient royal seat and chief city of Sorath. ' This town De la Valle names 
Naghera (Letters, 108) and Ogilby, Agra (Atlas, V. 213) , So, too, the author of the 
Mir4t-i-Alimadi (174S - 1762) (Vol. III.), writes : They say that in ancient times there 



Gujardt.] 



CAMBAY. 



21f 



destruction of Somnath, Cambay became the chief Gujarat port, 
and, with the growing greatness of Anhilvada rapidly rose in wealth 
and prosperity. By the middle of the twelfth century it was a 
well known naval station, fertile, and with good trade, well supplied 
with water and protected by a fine fortress. ^ About the same 
time mention is made of Parsi and Musalman riots in Cambay. 
One of the Musalmans, whose faction was worsted, made his way to 
Anhilvada, and meeting the king, Sidhraj Jaysing (1094 - 1 143), 
hunting near his capital, complained to him that the Parsis and 
Hindus had attacked the Musalmans, killed eighty of them, and 
destroyed their mosque and minaret. To satisfy himself of the 
truth of the charge, the king set off secretly on a camel, and, moving 
about Cambay under a disguise, heard enough to convince him that 
the Musalmans had been badly used. On his return to Anhilvada 
he summoned two leading men from each class of the people of 
Cambay, Brahmans, Fire-worshippers, and others (Jains), and 
ordered them to be punished. At the same time he made over to 
the Musalmans money enough to rebuild their mosque and towers. 
About the end of the twelfth century, Jaysing' s mosques were 
destroyed when the Bala army invaded Anhilvada. They were again 
rebuilt by a certain Syed Sharaf Tamin, who made four towers 
with golden cupolas.^ 

During the reign of Bhimdev II. in the year 1241, Vastupal, the 
famous Jain minister of Bhim's steward Lavanprasad and of his son 
Sana Virdhaval, was for some time governor of Cambay.^ He 
founded the religious institutions of the Jains, the Poshatas, and 
libraries of Cambay. This is distinctly stated by his friend the 
Purohit Someshvar, in the Kirti Kaumudi (IV. 30 seqq.), and is 
confirmed by the fact that the oldest MSS. of the Jain Bhandars 
date from the first half of the thirteenth century. He also built 
Jain temples, probably those whose stones were afterwards (1308) 
used to build the Jama Mosque. 

Under the Vaghelas, the last of the Anhilvada dynasties, Cambay 
continued to increase in importance. At the close of the thirteenth 
century the Musalman invaders knew of it as the first city in Hind. 
Nor were they disappointed. The writers are full of the beauty of the 
neighbourhood and the wealth of the city. The air was pure, the 
water clear, and the country charming both in scenery and buildings. 



Chapte^XIII. 
History. 



The Pirsis, 
1100. 



The Jains, 
1241 - 1242. 



The VigheUa, 
1240-1304. 



was a great city where the village of Nagrah now is, three miles (1 J ios) from Cambay. 
This city was called Tambtoagri, and its walls were of copper, and in support of this 
it is said that once, digging for a well, the workers found a copper brick (Major J. 
W. Watson). With regard to the date of the transfer, it seems worthy of note, that 
while IbnHaukal (943-968), who wrote before SidhrAj's grant, places the town of 
Kambaya six miles (one parasang) inland (Elliot's History, I. 39), Edrisi (1153), who 
wrote after the grant, places it only three miles from the sea (Jaubert's Edrisi, 171). 
Nagrah is mentioned by Briggs (1838) as a hamlet five miles north-west of the city. 
Cities of GujarAshtra, 166. 

' Jaubert's Edrisi (1153), 172, and Elliot's History, I. 84. 

2 Muhammad Ufi (1211 - 1236) in Elliot's History, II, 162 - 164, where BAla is sup- 
posed to mean MAlwa. 

3 Kirti Kaumudi. III. and Girnir and Abu inscriptions. Dr. Biihler. Their dates 
ahow that the present Jain temples have been built since Vastupil's time. 



[Bom1)ay Gazetteer, 



216 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
History. 



Early Delhi 
Governors, 
1300-1400. 



The plunder was abundant and rich, gold, silver, precious stones, 
clothes both silk and cotton, stamped, embroidered, and coloured.^ 
These praises are borne out by Marco Polo who, about the year 
1290, described Cambay as the chief city of a large country and the 
centre of a great trade.^ 

Cambay's four hundred and thirty years under the Musalm^n rulers 
of Grujarit include three periods. A hundred years (1300 - 1400) 
of active trade, but of much insecurity and disorder; slightly more 
than a century and a quarter (1400 - 1530) of great wealth and 
importance; and two hundred years (1530-1730) of decline, growing 
disorder, and failing wealth. 

About 1304, only a few years after Marco Polo's (1290) visit, 
Cambay was captured by the troops of the Emperor Ala-ud-din Khilji 
(1295 -1315). ' The city was plundered, the temples broken down,' 
and the people slain without pity.' * A local governor was chosen 
and the city soon recovered. Ibn Batuta, who visited Gujarat on 
his wayHo China (1345), found Cambay a very fine city, remark- 
able for the elegance and strength of its mosques and houses 
built by foreign merchants, the chief part of its population.' In 
1346, soon after Ibn Batuta's visit Gujarat rose in rebellion against 
Muhammad Tughlik (1325-1351), and, in suppressing the revolt, 
Cambay was plundered by the Emperor's troops (1347). In a 
second rebellion (1349), the city was sacked by the insurgents and 
afterwards besieged by the Emperor. 



1 EUiot's History, III. 43, 163. 

^ Yule's Marco Polo, II. 332. Polo's contemporary Marino Sanuto calls Cambay 
one of the two chief ports of India (Ditto). Muhammad Ufi's story (p. 215) of the Musal- 
min and SidhrAj Jaysing shows that, about the beginning of the twelfth century, the 
Pirsis were one of the most important classes in Cambay. Captain Robertson (1813), 
in his account of Cambay (Bom. Gov. Sel., New Series, XXVI.), supplies some details 
of the Cambay PArsis as well as of the improvements in the city introduced by one 
Kalidnrii. Captain Robertson gives no dates, and nothing further has been found 
regarding the period to which his narrative refers. Some of the Pdrsis, who, since their 
arrival in India (636), had remained in the south of Gujarat, were attracted to the 
settlement (942-997) in Kumdrika Kshetra at the mouth of theMahi. The first comers 
succeeding in'trade, others followed, and in time the Pdrsi element became so strong 
that by their overbearing conduct they forced the Hindus to leave the city. Among 
those who fled was Kaliinrii a Dasa Lid Vinia. He took refuge in Surat * where, in 
a short time, by trading in pearls, he made a large fortune. Bringing a numerous 
band of Rajputs and Kolis, he, in the night, attacked the PArsis, put many to the 
sword, and set fire to their houses. The rest took to flight, and not a PArsi was to be 
seen in Kumdrika Kshetra. KaliinrAi then formed the design of building a city on 
the ruins of the PArsi town. By restoring order, building reservoirs, improving the 
defences, and favouring trade, KalidnrAi brought many wealthy men to settle at 
Cambay. So successful was his management that he received the voluntary homage of 
eighty-four villages, the Cambay Chordsi. 

* If this is Surat and not Sorath, KaliSnr&i's date can hardly have heen before the 
fourteenth centurj-. 

^The chief Cambay mosque, the J4ma Mosque, built from the remains of Jain 
temples bears the date 1308. 

* EUiot's History, III. 43. An account of the booty found in Cambay is given under 
the head "Trade". 

^ About this time there was in Cambay a MusalmAn of considerable power and note, 
named Shaikh Ali Haidiri, who made many predictions for merchants and seafaring 
men, and they in return made him many offerings. Lee's Ibn Batuta, 146, 164 ; Yule's 
Marco Polo, II. 333, 



Gujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



217 



At tlie close of the fourteentli century (1391), on his being 
appointed to supersede Easti Khan, Cambay sent a deputation to 
Nigor in Jodhpur to wait on the new governor Zafar Khan and 
seek his favour and protection. On Zafar Khan's death (1411) a 
party of nobles, leaguing to oppose Ahmad I. (1411 -1443), took 
Cambay. Failing to collect a force sufficient for the defence of 
the city they retired on Broach. Here they met with no better 
success, and, shortly after, by the submission of its leaders, the 
revolt came to an end. Ahmad' s active care for the trade and 
naval strength of his kingdom greatly enriched Cambay. At the 
close of his reign it was a very noble city, twelve miles round.^ 

During the next eighty years of strong and successful rule, 
especially under Mahmud Begada (1459 - 151 3), who, even more than 
Ahmad I., fostered its navy and trade, Cambay reached its greatest 
glory. In 1514 its houses were of stone and whitewash, handsome, 
and very lofty. The streets and squares were large and the country 
rich, fertile, and full of provisions. There were many craftsmen 
and mechanics, subtle workers after the fashion of Flanders : weavers 
of cotton, plain and dyed, fine and coarse j weavers of silk and velvet ; 
makers of delicate articles in ivory ; skilled embroiderers, silver- 
smiths, and workers in coral and precious stones. Its people, well 
fed and well dressed, led easy lives, spending much of their time in 
pleasure and amusement. Drawn in oxen and horse carriages lined 
with rich silk and stamped kid skin mattresses, cushions, and pillows, 
with bands of musicians playing instruments and singing songs, 
festive parties were continually passing through the streets on their 
way to the rich gardens and orchards outside of the city walls.^ 

From the beginning of the sixteenth century the trade of Cambay 
suffered at the hands of the Portuguese. Many of its former marts 
on the coasts of Africa and Arabia were destroyed and much of the 
traffic with the south coast of India and the islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago was lost. Later on, with the defeat of its navy 
(1528-29), the plunder of its ports (1530-31), and the loss of Diu 
(1536), the chief profits of the great commerce of Gujarat passed 
from local merchants to strangers. In 1 535 the Emperor Humayun, 
in his pursuit of Bahadur, arriving at Cambay too late by only a 
few hours, rested for some days. During his stay, his camp was 
robbed by a body of Kolis, and in revenge the city was pillaged. 
Three years later it was, with little resistance and the loss of only 
twenty-two wounded, taken by the Portuguese captain Don Joao da 
Castro. Most of the Moors were killed and the city was plundered 
and burnt. So great was the booty that the ships could not hold it. 
Cambay was then the richest city on the west coast. From supply- 
ing cloth to the whole of the east and great part of the west it was 
called by the Indians the garment of the world.^ 



Chapter III. 

History. 

Ahmedabad Kings, 
1400-1575. 



» Nioolo de Conti (1420-1444) in Major's India in the XVth Century, II. 5, 20. 

2 Stanley's Barbosa, 60. Barbosa's travels probably lasted from about 1501 to 1517. 
He visited Cambay only a short time after the death of Mahmud Begada (1513), 57. 
Diu was then the port of Cambay and the chief emporium of trade. 

'Prim. Rot. des Indes, 116, Vita de Joao Castro, 42-45, and Die. Hist, Expl. 
(1848), 20. 

B 561—28 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



218 



STATES. 



iJhapter^XlII. 
History. 



'<rhe Moghals, 
J573-1730. 



'The Bngliih, 
158S. 



In the general disorder of the next forty years 
wasj from time to time, handed from one to the other of the 
almost independent nobles. In the partition of Gujarat, during the 
minority of Ahmad II. (1554 - 1561), Cambay, with Patan, Chorasi, 
•Dholka, Gogha, and Dhandhuka, were assigned to Syed Mubarak. 
Shortly after (1560), on his defeat and death, the Syed's estates 
were seized by the regent Itimad Khan. Again, in 1571, in con- 
sequence of his victory over Itimad Khan, Cambay fell into the 
hands of Ghangez Khan, son of Imad-ul-Mulk Rumi, and was by 
him granted to his mother. This gift was the cause of Ghangez 
Khan's death. Bijli Khan, an Abyssinian commander, claiming a 
previous promise of Cambay, slew Ghangez Khan (1572), and 
Cambay again became part of Itimad Khan's possessions. 

In 1573, Cambay, then yielding a yearly revenue of £40,000 
(Rs. 4,00,000), passed under the Emperor Akbar. Visiting the city, 
and amusing himself by sailing on the gulf,^ Akbar brought weavers 
and other skilled workmen, and founded two suburbs, calling one 
after himself and the other Sikandar or Shakkarpura.^ Though, by 
lowering trade and transit dues, Akbar increased the prosperity of the 
province, Cambay was, from time to time, unsettled by the move- 
ments of insurgent bands, and was thrice attacked and pillaged. 
In 1573, Akbar' s cousin and rival, Mirza Muhmmad Husain,' 
-advancing suddenly from Khandesh, surprised Bxoach and Cambay. 
Ten years later (1583), during the rebellion of Muzafar, the last of 
the Ahmedabad kings, Said-ud-daulat, the servant of one Kalianrai 
-of Cambay, collected troops, seized Cambay, and held the city for 
some time (1583-84).* Again in 1606, Muzafar's son Bahadur, 
' proclaiming liberty and laws of good fellowship,' sacked and held 
"■Cambay for fourteen days.^ 

In 1583 the English made their first attempt to open a trade 
■with India. Three merchants. Fitch, Leedes, and Newberry, with 
letters from Queen Elizabeth to Akbar ' King of Cambay', started 
for Gujarat by way of the Persian Gulf. Reaching Ormuz in safety 
their efforts to trade were at first successful. But they were soon 
seized by the Portuguese, imprisoned, and carried to Goa. Escaping 
from Goa, Eitch traded in India for some time, but none of them 
carried out the original scheme of visiting Cambay.^ 

About the same time (1585) the Venetian traveller Caesar ■ 
Frederic found Cambay a fair city, of such trade as he could not 
have believed possible if he had not seen it.'' During one of his 



1 Bird's Mir^t-i-Ahmadi, II. 312. In the lin-i-Akbari (1590) (ftladwin, I. 238), the 
revenue is returned at about £50,000 {dams 2,01,47,986). 

2 Robertson in Bom. Gov. Sel. (New Series), XXVI. 55. 

' This was one of the MirzAs whose revolt from 1571 to 1573 caused Akbar so much 
trouble. 

^ Bird's MirAt-i-Ahmadi, 366. 

5 Finch (1608 - 1612) in Kerr's Voyages, VIII. 275, 302. 

« Fitch in Hakluyt'a Voyages. II, 375 - 402. Tlianks chiefly to the fame of Mahmud 
Begada, European writers in the sixteenth century used Cambay in the sense of India. 

' Csesar Frederic was in Cambay twelve years after Akbar's conquest, that is, in 
1585. Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344. No other notice of the famine to which he refen 
has been traced, unless it was in 1590, when, at the siege of Junigad, the GujarSt 
Iroops were much distressed for want of grain. 



Oujar&t.]: 



CAMBAY. 



219 



visitSj th& city was in so great calamity and' scarceness that the 
Gentile people brought their sons and daughters, and asked the 
Portuguese to buy them, offering them for ten to thirteen shillings 
a piece. ^ 

Except the first few years, Oambay was, during the whole of 
the seventeenth century, free from pillage or disturbance. Its 
manufactures maintained much of their importance, but the honour 
of being the chief Musalman port of Gujarat was gradually passing 
to its younger rival Surat. The old trade route through Cambay 
and Aimedabad north by mount Abu was, for the time, closed by 
the disturbed state of Marwar and Rajputana ; Deccan wars kept the- 
Imperial head-quarters in the south of Hindustan, in Khandesh, and, 
in the Deccan j and the increase in their size, and the growing 
shoalness of the head of the gulf, made the mouth of the Tapti a 
safer anchorage for European ships. In 1608 Cambay had still a 
topping trade for all sorts of cloth and rich drugs. Often near the 
city were as many as two hundred small Portuguese grabs and 
frigates.^ The Dutch established themselves in 1617,*and in 1623' 
had a large and thriving factory.^ The English, in 1613, gained 
leave to start a factory, and in 1616 were strong enough to have the- 
Portuguese dismissed from the town.* 

Shortly after the beginning of the seventeenth century (1611), the 
English traveller Pinch describes Cambay as compassed by a strong 
brick' wall, with high and handsome houses forming straight paved 
streets, each with a gate at either end. De la Valle, who was in- 
Cambay in 1623, though he says little of the trade of the city or 
of the wealth of its people, gives the impression of considerable 
prosperity. The suburbs, stretching far beyond the town, were- 
adomed by reservoirs, especially by one beautifully built with a 
flight of marble steps. There was a hospital with rooms, where 
men and women suffering from incurable diseases were lodged,* 
and wards for aged and infirm animals. Ogilby's account, about 
fifty years later (1670), is interesting, though in some details 
incorrect. The city, twice as big as Surat, was surrounded by a 



CUapter III; 

History. 

The Moghals, 
1573-1730. 

Declijie, 
1600-1700. 



> Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344. 

= Fincli (1608-1612) in Kerr's Voyages, VIII. 308. 

' De la VaUe's Letters,. 64-68. According to some accounts the Dutch had a 
factory at Cambay as early as 1604, but Stavorinus (III. 107) gives 1617. They 
-would seem to have closed their factory before 1670. 

« Sir T. Roe in Kerr's Voyages, IX. 315. 

^ This is probably correct, as Forbes (Oriental Memoirs, II. 18, 19) speaks of it as a 
brick wall. Mandelslo (1638) talks of a handsome wall of cut stone (Travels, 101 - 108), 
Ogilby (1670, Atlas, V. 213) of a double stone wall, and Baldasus (about 1680, Churchill, 
III. 506) of a triple wall. Thevenot (about 1666, Voyages, V. 36), a more careful 
observer, gives some further details. The town walls -were beautifully built of brick 
about four yards high and with towers at intervals. The Governor had a castle, large 
but not beautiful. The houses were built of sunburnt bricks. Outside of the to-wn 
were many fine public gardens and a marble tomb built by a king of Gujarat to the 
memory of a governor of Cambay. Mandelslo (1638) and Baldffius (1680) both speak 
of Cambay as twice the size of Surat. 

" De la VaUe's Letters, 68. This part of the instructions contained in the second 
of Asoka's edicts is not at present carried out in any of the animal hospitals in 
Gujarat. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



220 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The Moghals, 
1573-1730. 

Decline, 
1600-1700. 



The English, 
1720-1730. 



STATES. 



double stone wall with twelve gates. In tlie middle were three 
great market places and fifteen pleasant orchards with four 
pools supplying water all the year round. The streets were straight 
and broad and locked every night by a great pair of gates. The 
houses, partly brick partly freestone, were very moist and very cool. 
In England they would be accounted mean, yet they were the best 
in the country, covered with tiles, and having gutters for the rain 
water. Outside of the walls were great suburbs the chief ornament 
of the city. Though many ships came from all places, the haven 
was of no consequence,. only a bare road. Ships of burden were 
forced to lie a good distance from the shore. Small vessels could 
anchor at high water close before the city, but at low water they 
lay dry. The tides at Cambay were exceeding swift. The 
flood rushed so furiously that no horse could outrun it, and rose 
to its full height in a quarter of an hour.i About the same time, 
Tavernier (1642-1666) states that a bank of silt, about a mile 
and-a-half broad, had formed between the town walls and the water, 
and that great ships could come no nearer than from nine to twelve 
miles.2 Towards the close of the century (1695) the Italian traveller 
Gremelli Careri, though he says it had lost much of its splendour and 
magnificence, found Cambay a large and rich city.' 

Early in the eighteenth century Cambay had further declined. It 
was (1720) still a place of good trade, contributing much to the 
wealth and grandeur of Surat, the chief centre of commerce. But 
it ' was harassed by the Pataners, mostly horsemen and bold fellows 
who borrowed round sums from the city by way of compulsion.'* 
The Kajputs and KoHs plundered even to the gates, and sometimes 
surprised the city itself, for which neglect the governors' heads 
answered. In 1716 they were very bold and presumptuous, so 
that a stop was put to the trade of Ahmedabad and Cambay. 
The Grovemor of Surat ^ raised an army of 20,000 men to chastise 
and restrain them. But they laid so many ambuscades that in two 
months the army was reduced to less than half, and the rest were 
obliged to get home with sorrowful hearts to Surat.® 

The English were the only Europeans who kept a factory at 
Cambay after the close of the seventeenth century.' The history of 
the English at Cambay, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, 



* Atlas, V. 213. 2 Tavernier in Harris, II. 353. 

' Gemelli Careri in Churchill, IV. 188. According to this traveller the cause of 
Cambay's decline was two-fold, the disorders that had overtaken the city since the 
Portuguese ceased to govern it, and the silting of the gulf. Gemelli is mistaken ahout 
the Portuguese. They never held Cambay. 

* These are probably the K^this, called PAtaners, from the city of Dev or Mungi 
PAtan (north latitude 20° 55' east longitude 70° 21') on the south-west coast of the 
peninsula. Pitan, on the south point of VerAval harbour, had within its walls the 
famous temple of SonmAth. 

5 This was Haidar Kuli Kh4n who afterwards was (1721-1722) 51st Viceroy. In 
1716 when appointed both to Cambay and Surat, he chose Surat for himself, and sent 
a deputy to Cambay. 

* Hamilton's New Account of Hindustan, 1.145. 

' It seems doubtful whether the English had a factory between 1660 and 1700. 
See Macpherson's Commerce, 163. 



Onjar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



221 



runs in most respects parallel with the history of their larger 
establishment at Surat. At both places there were the same 
annoyances and obstructions. Both were subject to the oppression 
of Moghal governors, and were harassed on land by lawless 
Marathas, and at sea by no less lawless Kolis and Eajputs. In 1 720 
Mr. Wyard, the Resident, suffered much from the extortions 
of the Muhammadan governor, and in 172-5 the whole city was 
threatened with destruction by two rival Maratha armies, under 
Pilaji Gaikwar and Kantaji Kadam. At PUaji's approach the country 
people flocked in alarm to Cambay. Following them, he demanded 
£50,000 (Rs. 5,00,000), and when payment was refused he set 
fire to the suburbs. Soon after Kantaji came, claiming sole 
power to levy contributions, and offering Pilaji £2000 (Rs. 20,000) 
if he would leave. Refusing to leave, Pilaji was attacked and 
defeated. Then Kantaji demanded a contribution of £11,000 
(Rs. 1,10,000), of which the Bnghsh share was to be £500 (Rs. 5000) . 
Mr. Daniel Innes, the Resident, remonstrated, pleading the privileges 
of trade and the exemption from all payments conceded to the 
English by Shahu Raja. At this ' the armed villains laughed ' . But, 
after receiving the first instalment of £50 (Rs. 500), they were forced 
to leave and nothing more was pg,id. The followers of Hamid Khan, 
the Musalman governor of Ahmedabad, next appeared before Cambay, 
levying £3500 (Rs. 35,000) on the town, and demanding £100 
(Rs. 1000) from the Resident. ' The first time they went back with a 
put-off,' writes Mr. Innes, ' and the next with a flat denial, and I have 
not heard from them since, further than that the governor and the 
geenvm} fellow here has advised them to desist. They are but two 
hundred men, and I am under no manner of apprehension'. The 
governor then locked and sealed the English warehouses. This 
measure Mr. Innes counteracted by menaces and two cases of spirits, 
' more effectual than money in subduing Musalman greed ' . The 
seals were removed, and the eccentric Resident, a month later, 
replies to the congratulations of his superiors with this counter-hint, 
* I shall have regard to your hint of the governor being dry : though 
I have quenched his thirst at my own charge too often for my 
pocket'.^ After Ahmad Khan's followers left, a new deputy was 
appointed on promise of sending £9000 (Rs. 90,000) to Ahmedabad. 
This sum had to be wrung from the people of Cambay, and no 
sooner did the unhappy merchants and shopkeepers hear of his 
approach than they hid themselves, or made their escape to the 
neighbouring villages. For six days not a man was seen in Cambay, 
though the governor threatened, unless the people came back, to give 
over the city to pillage. 

The power of the Moghal Viceroys declined so gradually that it 
is difficult to say in what year Cambay was established as a distinct 
state. Its independence seems to date from about 1 730, when Mirza 
Jaflr Najam-ud-daulah was appointed paymaster to the troops, 
reporter on Gujarat, and governor of Cambay. This Mirza Jafir was 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Moghals, 
1573-1730. 

The English, 
1720-1730. 



The Nawibs, 
1730-1880. 



' Geenim, for ghanim robber, used of the Mardtha agent. 
= Surat Diaries, 1720-1726, in Bom. Quar. Rev. III. 73-75. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



222 



STATES'. 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Nawdbs, 
1730-1830. 



Mirza Jdfir 

(Momin Khdn I,}, 

1730- 174s. 



a Persian of the Najam-i-Sani family, a descendant of one of the 
seven ministera of SMh Ismail Safavi (1500), king of Persia. Coming 
to Gujarat a poor man, the Viceroy MuMriz-ul-Mulk (1723-1730), in 
1725, with the title of Najam-ud-daulah, placed him in command of 
Petlad, about sixteen miles north of Cambay. Soon after he received 
in marriage the daughter of Momin Khan Dehlami, minister of 
Gujarat and agent for Cambay and Surat.^ 

In 1730, Chimnaji Appa, the brother of Peshwa Bajirao I.^ 
demanded from Cambay a contribution of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000), 
exacted nearly ^0,000 (Rs. 2,00,000) from Petlad, and ruthlessly 
plundered Dholka. The trade and city of Cambay were threatened 
with ruin. What the Marathas left the Musalmans tried to extract.. 
Another Maratha visit was (1733) followed by a second Musalman 
levy so oppressive that bankers and merchants closed their shops and 
left the city. Two years later (1735) the Marathas demanded half 
of the customs revenue, threatening, in case of refusal, to lay wast& 
the city with fire and sword.* 

For two years after his father-in-laVs death (1730), Mirza 
Jafir Najam-ud-daulah remained in charge of Petlad. In 1730, in 
consequence of some misunderstanding with the Viceroy, he retired 
to Delhi. Well received at court he returned in the same year (1730) 
to Gujarat with the Maharaja Abhaysing, the new Viceroy. Mirza 
Jafir did the Maharaja good service, inducing Mubariz-ul-Mulk the 
late Viceroy to retire from Gujarat without a struggle. In reward,, 
he was made paymaster of the troops, reporter on Gujarat and 
governor of Cambay, and the management d the lands near Cambay 
was entrusted to his cousin Pida-ud-din Khan. For a time Mirza 
Jdfir held Petlad in farm. But disputing with the Viceroy, he was 
forced to give it up. In 1733, in consequence of Mula Muhammad 
All's disturbances,^ Mirza Jafir was ordered to take charge of Surat. 
But his agent failing to take it, the city remained in the hands of 
Tegbakht Khan. At Cambay Mirza Jafir was nearly independent. In 



' This Momin Kh^ Dehlami, a descendant of the Dehlamite kings of Persia 
(932) is said, like his son-in-law Mirza JAfir, to have owed his advance to the patronage 
of MubAriz-ul-Mulk Sarbuland Khdn. Through the influence of that nobleman, he 
was, in 1714, appointed from Delhi to be agent for Surat and Cambay, and at the same 
time was put in charge of the districts of Baroda, Broach, Dholka, PetUd and NadiM. 
Placing deputies in the other districts, Momin Kh4n Dehlami reserved for himself the 
charge of Surat. In the following year (1715), in consequence of the changes that 
accompanied the appointment of the MahdrAja Ajitsing (48th Viceroy, 1715-1716),. 
Momin Kh&n lost his command. Kegaining it in, 1719, for. the three following years 
he was in a position of so much power that, in the disorders caused by the Mardtha 
inroads, he is said to have aimed at independence. On the removal of Ajitsing (1721), 
Momin Khdn again lost his command. But, in 1722, Asaph Jdh Nizdm-ul-Mulk (52nd 
Viceroy, 1722) for a third time chose him governor of Surat. In the following year 
(1723) Momin Khdn attempted, but without success, to resist Pildji Gdikwdr in an 
attack on Surat. In spite of this reverse he was soon after, by the appointment of 
Mubdriz-ul-Mulk (53rd Viceroy, 1723-1730), chosen minister, diwdn. About 1725 
Momin Khdn gave Mirza Jdfir his daughter in marriage, For two years more Momin 
Khdn Dehlami continued to act as minister, and apparently as agent at Cambay and 
Surat. He died in 1728 (Robertson, 58, gives 1726), and was buried in Cambay, 
where, in 1812, his tombstone was still to be seen. 

2 Letters from the Resident at Cambay, 1730-1735. 

' Details are given in the Surat Statistical Account. Bombay Gazetteer, II; 110, 111. 



Crojarit.] 



CAMBAY. 



223 



1 732, when tlie Viceroy left, he treated Eatansing the deputy Viceroy 
with little respect, and in 1 784, when ordered to relieve Baroda, he 
withdrew, and left the city to fall into the Gaikwar's hands (1 734) . In 
the following year (1 735) the Viceroy suspected Mirza Jafir of secretly 
helping Sohrab Khan to gain Viramgam ; and, so strong was the 
ill-feeling between them, that Mirza Jafir, afraid of assassination, 
withdrew to Oambay. Soon after (1636), engaging a Maratha force 
near Cambay, he was defeated and compelled to retire within the 
walls, where he remained in spite of Ratansing's orders to help him 
against the Marathas. Ratansing, in return, made over Petlad, 
Arhar-Matar, and Nadiad to Sher Khan, one of the Babi family. 
Mirza Jafir was making ready to resist this transfer, when, with the 
title of Najam-ud-daulah Momin Khan Bahadur Piroz Jang, he 
was (1737) appointed Viceroy. Opposed by Ratansing and the 
Jhaloris, Momin Khan was forced to seek the help of the Marathas. 
Summoning Rangoji, he promised that, if they were successful, he 
would make over to the Marathas one-half of the Gujarat revenue, 
except the receipts from Ahmedabad and Cambay. Very shortly 
after (1737) Abhaysing was again chosen Viceroy. At the same 
time Momin Khan was told that the appointment of Abhaysing was 
nominal, and that the Emperor wished Momin Khan to persevere in 
expelling Abhaysing and his adherents. Momin Khan, accordingly, 
appointing his son-in-law Najam Khan,i governor of Cambay, 
advanced against Ahmedabad, and, with the aid of his Maratha allies, 
after a siege of nine months, captured the city.^ During most 
of the five following years Momin Khan's head-quarters were in 
Ahmedabad, But in 1 741, he visited Cambay, and took what steps 
he could tq prevent its decline. In 1743 Momin Khan died. 

As a temporary measure, he was succeeded in the government of 
Gujarat by Fida-ud-din Khan his reputed brother, and Muftakhir 
Khan his son. In the following year (1743-44) Muftakhir was 
formally appointed Viceroy. Failing to hold his own against Jawan 
Mard Khan and other members of the Babi family, he was forced 
to retire to Cambay. Here, along with Fida-ud-din Khan, Najam 
K!han, and Rangoji, plans were discussed for an attack on Ahmedabad. 
In return for his alliance, Rangoji, on the Gaikwar's behalf, demanded 
one-half of the Cambay revenues in addition to those of the rest of 
Gujarat granted by Momin Khan in 1737. Muftakhir Khan and his 
party at first refused ; but Rangoji, bringing an army close to the 
city, made them agree, and advance him a further sum of £8000 
(Rs. 80,000) ? These schemes against the Babi coming to nothing. 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Nawibs, 
1730-1880. 



Najam Khdn, 
Oovernor, 
1737-1748. 



* This Najam KhAn was Zimal Abedin Najam Khin, a descendant of the 
Najam-i-Sslni family. He governed Cambay for about eleven years, and in 1748 was 
poisoned by his brother-in-law MuftAkhir Khdn (Momin Khdn II. ) 

' Maritha help was dearly bought Rangoji in the first instance promised to 
aid Momin Khdn on condition of receiving one-half of the revenues of Gujardt, 
except the cities of Ahmedabad and Cambay. Afterwards, Eatansing made more 
tempting offers, and, to bind Kangoji to his cause, Momin Khdn was forced, in addition to 
his original concessions, to make over to the Mardthds the whole district of Viramgdm. 

' According to the account given in the Surat Diaries, Rangoji sat down before 
Cambay with twenty thousand men, and from this time, although obliged to take less, 
the Mardthds 'claimed half the revenue of the city. , On the occasion of the Mardtha 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



224 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The NawAbs, 
1730-1880. 



1737-1748. 



The CUy, 
17S7-1748. 



Muftakhir Khan for five years remained in Cambay. Prom time to 
time he tried to enforce his right to he Viceroyj but his attempts 
failing, he instead determined to gain possession of Cambay. With 
this object he procured the death of his brother-in-law Najam Khan, 
who, since 1737, had managed the city. 

In these troubles the English factory suffered many exactions. 
In 1737, Momin Khan, pressed by the Marathas for the price of their 
alliance, extracted from Cambay a sum of £15,000 (Rs. 1,50,000). 
Attempting on one occasion to wring a contribution from Mr. Hodges, 
the English Resident, he was at first bought off by the present of a 
fowling piece. He then wanted to buy silk, iron, and sugar to the value 
of £3000 or £4000 (Es. 30,000 - 40,000). This too the Resident 
managed to evade. But he was not always so successful, and had 
from time to time to pay large sums.^ In 1 735, the Company suffered 
from a contest between Daniel Innes and Hugh BidweU, who had 
been appointed to succeed Innes as Resident. Raising a mob, Innes 
tried to force BidweU from the factory. Failing in this, he induced 
the Nawab to bring charges of incompetency against him, and, ia 
consequence, BidweU was removed and Munro sent in his place. 
The change did not benefit Innes, who was forced to retire to Surat. 
In 1741 the Nawab forbade the exportation of indigo, and seized 
some property belonging to Lambton, the chief of Surat, who had 
disregarded his order. This act was declared an infringement of 
the English Company's privileges, and some grabs were ordered to 
seize Cambay boats. On this the Nawab speedUy came to terms. 
The same process of capturing boats was, in 1743, with similar 
results, adopted by Sewel the next Resident.^ 

Though trade was gradually deserting Cambay, the eleven years 
(1737-1748) of Najam Khan's management seem to have been fairly 
prosperous. The Viceroy was interested in Cambay; and, as noticed 
above, in 1741 paid it a special visit with the object of inquiring 
into the causes of its decay. During the years (1743-1748) that 
followed Momin Khan's death, though the Cambay revenues were 
from time to time burdened by Maratha demands, the city was 
never attacked, nor its neighbourhood laid waste. The suburbs 
founded by Akbar were still inhabited, and the other nine quarters 
beyond the walls continued to support skilful and well-to-do crafts- 
men. At the same time the revenues had fallen off, and, in spite of 
the levy of fresh taxes,^ the total receipts were not more than 



advance, tlie Nawab insisted that some of the bastions should be defended by the 
English Resident. He succeeded in mustering a native officer and five peons, but 
the courage of the little party was not tried. The invaders, unprepared to batter 
stone walls, satisfied their revenge by cutting oflF the ears and noses of all Musalmtos 
on whom they could lay hands. Surat Diaries, 1743-1746, in Bombay Quarterly 
Review, IV. 231. 

1 Bom. Quar. Rev. IV. 233. ^ Surat Diaries, 1741-1743. 

^ Najam Khdn was the first ruler of Cambay who taxed grain. Every cart-load 
was charged 6d. (4 as.) For some time the cultivators succeeded in avoiding the weight 
of this cess by iucreasing the cart-load from 1280 lbs. (32 mans) to 2400 pounds 
{32-60 mans). When Najam KhAn found this out, he changed the tax to one of 
3 pice on every 5 mans. Robertson, 65. 



Gujardit. 



CAMBAY. 



225 



£40,000 (Es. 4,00,000). At the close of 1760 (December) the 

Jesuit Father Tieffentlialer found Cambay governed partly by a 

Maratha Damaji, partly by a Moghal. The Moghal paid the 

Emperor no tribute because he could keep from the Marathas 

and the savage Kolis hardly enough for himself and his garrison. 

The city, though much fallen from its former state, was very 

large, girt with bastioned walls more than a Grerman mile round. 

Its streets were narrow and dirty, its market place small and 

mean, and many of its high but dingy brick and cement houses 

were ruined, and others threatening to fall. The only objects of 

interest were two mosques, one of cut stone very beautiful; the 

Governor's house j and the English factory. To the north joiaed to 

the city walls was a fortified suburb about 500 yards round with a 

broad gate. This was ruined and almost without an inhabitant. Most 

of the people were Hindus ; the rest, except 200 Parsis, were 

Musalmans. The English brought various wares from Bombay 

and sent away cotton goods. These goods, woven in considerable 

quantities inthe villages round, were of a specialmake much in demand 

in other countries, even in Europe. The only other industry was 

the manufacture of salt. Only small one-masted craft could come to 

Cambay, and even they, except in the rains and at very high springs 

when they could reach the walls, had to stop half a mile from the 

city. Seven years earlier the tide dashed in Tvith such speed 

that a horseman at full gallop could hardly outrun it. Now (1750) 

the tide set against the east shore of the gulf, but at Cambay 

came so slowly and quietly as to give no great shock to vessels afe 

anchor.^ 

On hearing of Najam Khan's death, the Delhi Government 
confirmed Muftakhir Khan in the chiefship of Cambay, dignifying 
him with the title of Nur-rud-din Muhammad Khan Momin Khan 
Bahadur, and with the rank of a noble of 6000. Fida-ud-din Khan, 
when he heard of the death of Najam Khan, on pretence of 
condoling with the family marched to Cambay, but he was refused 
admittance and forced to retire. Succeeding without opposition, 
one of Momin Khan II. 's first acts was to poison his half sister 
Nur Jahan or Khanum Begam the widow of the late governor.^ 
In 1752, when news reached Gujarat of the division of the province 
between the Peshwa and the Gaikwar, Momin Khan, who was 
always quarrelling with the Gaikwar' s agent, begged the Peshwa 
to include Cambay in his share. The Peshwa agreed, and, in the 
course O'f the year (1752), Momin Khan paid Pandurang Pandit the 
Peshwa's deputy £700 (Rs. 7000), together with a present of four 
small cannon. In the following year (1753, April) Eaghunathrav, 
the Peshwa's brother, advancing within ten miles of Cambay, forced 
Momin Khan to raise his yearly payment to £1000 (Rs. 10,000). 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Nawibs, 
1730-1880. 



Momin Khdn II., 
1748- 1783. 



> Res. Hist.^ et Geog. de I'lnde, I. 381 -383. In Tieffeathaler's opiniou this change 
was due' to the rising of the banks at the head of the gulf, to the filling of the bed, 
and the removal of a groin of Band that used to stop the mouth and pile up the tidal 
waters till they forced their way in and rushed as along a ditch. In nia sketch (458) 
the whole top of the gulf is entered as covered at the flood and dry a* the ebb. 

- Robertson, 65, 

B 561—29 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



226 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Nawdba, 
1730-1880. 

Mardtha Attach, 
1753. 



Further Efforts, 
1755-1757. 



Even this was not enough to protect Cambay from Maratha demands. 
During the rainy season many parts of the Cambay wall fell down. 
Hearing this Shripatray, before the rains were oyer, made ready a 
detachment of troops and sent forward a messenger to examine the 
state of Cambay. That Momin Khan might not suspect his object, 
Shripatrav had a Taluable carriage built. Fitting it with gold and 
silver hangings, he gave out that it was meant as a present for 
Raghunathrav, the Peshwa's brother, and, to escort it through Gujarat 
he left Ahmedabad with a body of horse and a party of five hundred 
Mavalis.i After a few days march, at Petlad, about sixteen miles 
north-east of Cambay, Shripatrav halted and prepared to attack the 
city. Here Vrijlal, Momin Khan's steward, on his way from Bombay, 
hearing that Shripatrav was at Petlad, went to pay his respects. 
Suspecting Shripatrav's designs, Vrijlal sent his master an 
express to be on his guard against surprise. Momin Khan made 
every effort to repair the walls. Nor were his preparations thrown 
away. On the first favourable evening Shripatrav moved from Petlad. 
He counted on being at Cambay by midnight. But the guide lost his 
way, and he did not reach the city till shortly before daybreak. On 
nearing the town, the besiegers met with a second disappointment. 
Where they expected a breach, they found a new and strong fortifi- 
cation. One part of the wall seemed undefended, and this the Mavalis 
scaled. But again fortune declared for the garrison : troops unseen by 
the besiegers were at hand and drove back the assailants. By this 
time Momin Khan was on the spot with reinforcements, and a third 
attempt was repulsed with heavy loss. Next day the fighting was 
renewed, but again ended in favour of the besieged. After a week 
of fruitless effort Shripatrav changed his tactics. Letting loose his 
men, he plundered and laid waste the Cambay villages. This device 
succeeded, and Momia Khan, anxious at any cost to be rid of the 
Marathas, agreed to pay £700 (Rs. 7000). The Marathas withdrew, 
but such had been their violence and greed that the eleven suburbs 
were almost entirely deserted. Momin Khan was brought to the 
greatest straits. For the next year the district round Cambay 
yielded him almost nothing. All but £6000 (Rs. 60,000) had been 
carried off by Shripatrav, and, of what was left, the whole was 
given to the Peshwa, half as his ordinary share, and the rest as a 
special present on condition that no Maratha should in future collect 
the revenue at Cambay. At the same time Momin Khan seeing that 
he could not trust the friendship of the Marathas, determined to 
increase the strength of his army. With this object he was forced 
to resort to many acts of extortion. And though, for the time, his 
measures brought him in large sums of money, they did his state 
a lasting injury, forcing from it many wealthy and peaceable 
subjects. 

Soon after this, the Peshwa made a second attempt on Cambay. 
Bhagvantrav, his agent, sent without troops, was well received. 
But Momia Khan knew why Bhagvantrav had come, and, on getting 
hold of a letter from Bhagvantrav to Salim Jamadar at Ahmedabad 

• These MAvalis, the people of the -west Deccan, mdval west, Shivdji's favourite 
troops were, probably, the most daring of the Maritha tribes, Grant Duff, (Bom. Ed,)B7. 



Gujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



227 



inviting him to attack Cambay, he surrounded Bhagvantrd,v's 
house and made him prisoner. An attempt of the Maratha 
garrisons of the neighbouring towns of Jambusar, Viramgam, and 
Dhandhnka to force the surrender of Bhagvantrav failed j and it 
was finally agreed that Bhagvantrav should be released, and 
that the relations between Momin Khan and the Peshwa should 
remain unchanged. In the following year (1754) Bhagvantrav made 
another attempt on Cambay. After several doubtful engagements 
peace was concluded on condition that Momin Khan should pay 
£1000 (Rs. 10,000). The chief events of the next two years 
(1755-1757) of Momin Khan's rule, the most successful period of 
his life, belong to the general history of Gujarat. He collected 
tribute from Kathiawar, captured Gogha, recovered Ahmedabad 
from the Marathas, -defended Ahmedabad, and was finally forced 
to restore it to the Marathas in April 1757. The conditions of 
surrender were, on the whole, favourable. He kept Cambay, and 
was paid by the Peshwa a sum of £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000). On the 
other hand, he was forced to pay the Marathas a yearly tribute of 
£1000 (Rs. 10,000) and to give up all claims on the town of Gogha. 
On his return from Ahmedabad, Momin Khan was at first harassed 
by his troops for arrears of pay. But on the timely arrival of 
his steward Vrijlal, with the Peshwa's contribution of £10,000 
(Rs. 1,00,000), the demands of the army were satisfied. 

Shortly after this (1757), Momin Khan is said to have instigated the 
murder of his steward Vrijlal. He attempted to evade the Peshwa's 
tribute, and in hopes that his failure might be overlooked, he made 
arrangements for paying a visit to Poona. But Sadashiv Ramchandra, 
the Peshwa's deputy, refused to allow him to leave until he had 
made good his arrears. Advancing against the city he continued 
to besiege it till Momin Khan handed him a sum of £2000 
(Rs. 20,000). Shortly after, Momin Khan set out for Surat, and 
was there received by Mr. Spencer, the chief of the English factory. 
From Surat he sailed for Bombay, where the Governor, Mr. Bourchier, 
treated him with m.uch courtesy. After a short stay, he went on to 
Poona, reaching the end of his journey in 1759. At Poona he was 
received with attention. The Peshwa's cousin, Sadashivrav, 
met him at the gate of the fort and conducted him to Balajirav, 
who, embracing his visitor, seated him in the place of honour 
next his own, and, after a few days, paid him the compliment of a 
return visit. Momin Khan, from his| long intercourse with the 
Marathas, knew well how to please them, and distributing presents 
with a free hand, gaiued great respect. After a two months stay 
he returned to Bombay, receiving from the Peshwa the present of 
an elephant and other valuable gifts. Whatever were Momin 
Khan's views in undertaking this journey, it in no way changed his 
relations with the Peshwa. A fresh treaty was drawn up with 
conditions the same as those previously in force. During his 
stay in Bombay, Momin Khan wrote the Court of Directors a friendly 
and respectful letter. The Court sent a very gracious reply, and 
their letter was preserved as a record to be spoken of to every 
English Resident, or to any Native power with whom Momin Khaa 



Chapter III. 
History. 

The Nawibs, 
1730-1880. 



Momin Khdn II. 

goes to Poona, 

1759. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



228 



STATES. 



Chapter IIL 

History. 

The Naw&bs, 
1730 - 1880. 



Musalmdn 

Mevival, 

1761, 



Momin Khdn's 
Exactions, 
1760-1766. 



Kdthis and Kolis, 
1766. 



had dealings. From Bombay Momin Khan travelled overland to 
Surat, reaching Oambay before the close of 1759. After his 
return, Momin Khan was at pains to gain as a friend Ganesh Apaji, 
the Peshwa's representative, and so successful were his advances 
that it was arranged that the Peshwa's agent should be withdrawn 
from Cambay, and that all Maratha claims should be satisfied by the 
yearly payment of £8400 (E,s. 84,000). 

In 1761, the Delhi Court, taking advantage of the confusion that 
fell on the Marathas after their defeat at Panipat (1761, January 7th), 
directed the chief Musalman nobles to join together in driving them 
out of Gujarat. Momin Khan and the Governor of Broach united 
their forces and succeeded in regaining Jambusar. With this their 
success ended. Damaji Gaikwar advanced to the aid of Sadashiv 
Eamchandra, the Peshwa's deputy, and together they defeated 
Momin Khan, laying waste his territory. Suing for peace, Momin 
Khan was forced to pay the Peshwa half of his revenue, to admit 
a Maratha agent into Oambay, and to make good the difference 
between £8400 (Es. 84,000), the amount of tribute paid during the 
two preceding years, and the half of his revenues. 

From 1760 to 1766, though Momin Khan kept on good terms 
with the Marathas, his exactions and oppressions half emptied 
the city. In 1766, his minister, Aga Eashid Beg, hit on a plan for 
obtainingthe Brahmans' hidden treasures. Asked to meet in one place 
to read prayers and perform incantations for Momin Khan's health, 
Brahmans came, and, at the close of the day, received 6d. (4 as.) 
each. This went on for six days. On the seventh the courtyard was 
surrounded, the Brahmans seized, and, to force them to discover their 
treasures, red hot nails were thrust into their hands. With much 
torture a sum of £20,000 (Es. 2,00,000) was gathered in two days. 
This cruelty caused lasting injury to Oambay. Many learned 
Brahmans and men of position fled for safety to the English in 
Surat. Aga Eashid Beg did not long enjoy his master's favour. 
Suspected of keeping to himself part of the plunder, he lost his office 
and was cast into prison. Afterwards set free, he was, two years 
later, in attempting to escape to Surat, stopped by the Nawab, and 
murdered. 

At this time (1 766) Oambay was so harassed by Kathi and Koli 
forays, that Momin Khan agreed to pay them a yearly sum of £400 
(Es. 4000), and, provided they did not plunder his villages, allowed 
them to pass unchallenged through his lands. After Damaji's death 
(1768, August),^ Momin Khan continued on good terms with the 
Gaikwar. At the same time he satisfied the Marathas with a smaller 
share of his revenues than formerly. From about 1 766 the Peshwa's 
share came to be spoken of as one-fourth, choth, instead of one-half. 
About this time (1771), for a sum of £7500 (Es. 75,000), Momin 
Khan bought from the British the fort of Talaja lately won by them 
from a band of Koli pirates. The fort was held by the Nawab for 



' DAmAji, a great chemist, had often tried to find the philosopher'B stone, and it 
was from breathing the sickly steam of some poisonous drugs that he met his death 
in the town of PAtan, Bom. Gov. Sel. XXVI. 77, 



Onjar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



229 



about two years, and was then, under leave from the British 
Government, made over to Bhavnagar.^ 

In 1772, Momin Khan, ashamed of his excesses or afraid of his 
talents, caused the death of his son Khan Jahan, a youth of twenty- 
two years.* Mirza Teman, his accomplice in the murder of the 
prince, was promoted to be deputy governor, and had great influence 
in Momin Khan's councils. In spite of the crime which gained 
him office, Mirza Teman proved a good governor, and during his 
ten years of power the people of Cambay had some respite from the 
oppression that marked the rest of Momin Khan's reign. In 1 782 
Mirza Teman was thrown into prison, but was afterwards released and 
dismissed. Prosperity had now utterly forsaken Cambay. The 
country round was badly tilled, the people poor and degraded, the 
villages half empty. The grandeur of the city was mingled with 
poverty and desolation, the streets were empty, falling mosques 
and mouldering palaces were the only remains of its ancient 
magnificence. The weavers were few and poor, and, except the 
English broker, there was not a merchant of eminence. The 
revenues had equally decayed. Once the duty from tamarinds alone 
yielded a yearly revenue of £2000 (Bs. 20,000) ; now, when he had 
m.et the Maratha claims, there was left to the Nawab not more than 
£20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000). From this he kept up a small establish- 
ment, maintaining two thousand Sindians and Arab infantry and 
five hundred cavalry.* 

During the ten years of Mirza Teman's power the Nawab of 
Cambay played an important part in Gujarat politics. Damaji, 
dying in 1768, left four sons, Sayaji, Govindrav, Manajirav, and 
Fatehsing. Sayaji being of weak intellect the second son Govindrav 
claimed to succeed, and this claim was, in 1768, recognized by the 
Peshwa. This arrangement continued till, in 1772, Patehsing 
induced the Peshwa to recognize Sayaji's claim, and to appoint 
Patehsing to be Sayaji's deputy. Then followed the intrigues at 
Poena that ended in the murder of Narayanrav, and the succession 
of his uncle Eaghunathrav or Raghoba. Siding with Govindrav, 
the new Peshwa despatched him to Gujarat with orders to remove 
Patehsing from Baroda. Momin Khan, who had formerly supported 
Patehsing, thus became opposed to the interests of Raghunathrav, 
and when, in the next turn of affairs, Eaghunathrav reached 
Cambay a suppliant for help, Momin Khan refused to admit him, 
and Raghunathrav was forced to move on to Bhavnagar and from 
there to Bombay. 

Two year later (1774) Eaghunathrav returned to Cambay. 
Backed by an English detachment he was anxious to be revenged for 
Momin KJian's rudeness. ' Strip him of his city ' was his prayer to 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The NawAbs, 
1730 - 1880. 

Momin Khan 
murders his Son, 



Qdihwdr Affairs, 
1768.178^. 



against Patehsing, 
1774. 



' This fort lies on the east ooast of Kiihi&wiT, a, little north of Gopnith point. It 
is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari (1590), (Gladwin, II. 69), and in Ogilby's Atlas 
(1670, V. 208) as one of the KAthidwAr ports. The conditions were that the 
Nawdb should hold the fort as one of the Company's servants, that when necessary 
he should allow the Company's troops to use it, and, unless allowed by the Company, 
should permit no one else to hold it. Aitohison's Treaties (1876), IV. 301, 302. 

' Summers 2, and Robertson 83. 

' Oriental Memoirs, II. 16, 21, and III. 69, 79. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



230 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The Nawdbs, 
1730-1880. 

English Expedition 

against Fatehaing, 

1774. 



Settlement, 
1780. 



Kvihi Khanum, 



the Bnglisli general. But for this there seemed no sufficient reason, 
nor was it wise to remove one of the few remaining obstacles to 
Maratha power in Gujarat. It was better to reconcile their allies, 
and Sir Charles Mallet, the Eesident, succeeded in inducing 
Eaghunathrav to forego his grudge against Momin Khan and 
present him with valuable gifts. Shortly after, not more than 
thirty miles from Cambay, was fought the battle of Arras, in which, 
not without severe loss, Eaghunathrav, by the help of the English, 
defeated Patehsing and the Maratha army. Then (1779) came the 
change in English politics which led them to abandon Eaghunath's 
cause and allow Eatehsing to rule in Gujarat. When English 
influence ceased, Momia Khan went back to his alliance with Fatehsing, 
and in 1 777 aided Fatehsing in his contest with Govindrav. About 
the same time Fatehsing pressed Momin Khan to join him in 
stopping the Kathi forays. Momin Khan agreed, and, undertaking to 
maintain a line of posts to keep the Kathis from passing east of the 
Sabarmati, he received six villages yielding a yearly revenue of 
£900 (Es. 9000).! In spite of this agreement Momin Khan tried to 
keep up friendly relations with the Kathis. But hearing of his league 
with the Marathas, they plundered great part of his lands. Forced 
to treat them as enemies, Momra Khan posted fifteen hundred foot 
and five hundred horse along the eastern bank of the Sabarmati. 
As this garrison cost more than the original allotment, Momin Khan, 
in addition to his former grant, received from Fatehsing sums 
amounting in all to more than £2000 (Es. 20,000). Of this, £900 
(Es. 9000) were fromFatehsing; £1000 (Es. 10,000) from the Peshwa, 
and £250 (Es. 2600) from the revenues of the Matar sub-division. 

After the British capture of Ahmedabad (1780), Fatehsing, who 
received the Peshwa's share in the revenues of Gujarat north of the 
Mahi, agreed to remit the Cambay tribute. In return for this 
concession, Momin Khan made over to the English the charge of 
the Cambay custom-house gate. This gate was restored to the 
Nawab in 1 783, and, at the same time, under the treaty of Salbdi 
(1 783, February 24th), the right of the Peshwa to share in the 
Cambay revenues was renewed.^ 

Shortly before this (1782), Mirza Teman, the Cambay minister, 
was dismissed from office. The Mirza was succeeded by Kutbi 
Khanum, a woman of great beauty, who formerly had much influence 
over Momin Khan.^ Her heavy extortions were the more keenly 
felt after the comparative security of Mirza Teman' s management. 
Kutbi's term of power did not last long. Before many months, 

1 These villages were Kaajat, Kaneea, Sath, and Bhinbhina in PetMd ; and Jhikar 
and GorAr in Mdtar. 

2 Grant Duff, II, 288, 324, and Bom. Gov. Sel. XXVI. 79. 

3 This Kutbi Khtoum was the grand-danghter of Momin Ehin Dehlami, who died 
in 1728, and was also the sister of Budi-ul-jamdl, wife of MomimKhdn II. the mother 
of the young Khto Jahin who was murdered in 1772. She was the wife of Aga 
Eashid Beg, the minister who devised the scheme for torturing the Cambay 
BrS-hmans. While her husband was minister (1760-1766), Kutbi Khinum was on 
terms of intimacy with Momin Khdn, to whom she had borne a son, Mirza Jini. 
This woman, at the time of her husband's death (1768), retired to Surat. Weary of 
her life there she asked leave to return. Her wish was readily granted, and in 1782 
she came to Cambay, and succeeded the disgraced minister, Mirza Teman. 



Oujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



231 



(1 783), after ruling for tldrty-five years, Momin Klian died. In spite 
of his valour, military skill, and tact, Momin Khfc's rule was ruinous 
to Cambay. His heavy and ill-judged levies forced from the city the 
wealth and skilled industry which might, under better management, 
have outlived the change in the course of trade and the unchecked 
disorder of the rest of the province.^ 

Four months before his death Momin Khan chose as his successor 
Muhammad Kuli, the son of NajamKhan, whom he had poisoned in 
1 748. This Najam Khan had been married to Nur Jahan, or KJianum 
Begam, an illegitimate daughter of Momin Khan I., and so a half- 
sister of Momin Khan II. By her Najam Khan had no issue. But 
an intimacy with the wife of one of his door-keepers resulted in the 
birth of a son. Hearing of the child, Khanum Begam brought him 
from a village some distance off, and, changing his name from Mia 
Manu to Muhammad Kuli, saw that he was well cared for. 
Besides this connection Muhammad Kuli was son-in-law to Momin 
Khan II. by marrying Jogni Khanum, his daughter by a slave girl. 
Muhammad's succession was not unopposed. Taking advantage of 
the power which Momin Khan II. had allowed to drift into her hands, 
Kutbi Khanum, gaining a strong Moghal party, proclaimed Mirza 
Jani, the son she had borne to Momin Khan II. Muhammad Kuli 
gained the day, and Kutbi Khdnum with her sister Jamila Begam 
and a large number of Moghals were driven from Cambay. 

After ruling for six uneventful years (1 783 - 1 789) Muhammad 
Kuli died in 1789. He had only one dispute with the neighbouring 
powers. An offender of the name of Tapidas,^ flying from a Baroda 
village, took shelter in Cambay. Asked to give him up, Muhammad 
refused and allowed him to escape. Fatehsing advanced to Cambay, 
and finding Tapidas fled, forced Muhammad to pay a fine of £1500 
(Rs. 15,000). With this exception the sixyearsof Muhammad's rule 
was a time of quiet and good government. He left three sons, Fateh 
Ali, Bande Ali, and Yawar Ali, the eldest of whom succeeded in 1789. 

About the same time, at Baroda, Manajirav succeeded his brother 
Fatehsing. One of Manaji's first acts was to demand back the six 
villages granted by Fatehsing, to pay for the garrison against the 
Kathi inroads. Fateh Ali refused, and it was finally arranged that 
the Baroda state should be allowed to withhold the yearly money 
payment of £1000 (Es. 10,000) on account of the Kathis, 
and that the six villages should continue to belong to Cambay. 
Fateh All's next act was to send a large present to Delhi. In 
return he received the title of Najam-ud-daulah Momt^z- 
ul-mulk Momin Khan Bahadur Dilawar Jang, and the rank 
of a commander of six thousand as Nawab of Cambay. In the 
early years of Fateh All's rule, Cambay was from time to time 
disturbed by Maratha demands. In 1792 the six disputed villages 
were again annexed by Baroda, but were a second time restored to 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The Nawibs, 
1730-1880. 



Muhammad KuU, 
1783-1789. 



Fateh Ali, 
1789. 



1 Momin Khto'a exactions made Cambay a heap of ruins. Except the English 
factory and the dwellings of the English brokers, there was (1787) no house worth 
looking at. The people had failed to pay their taxes and the late Naw4b had ordered 
their houses to be pi5led down. Even the large mosque had been confiscated and 
made a store house. Hov^'a Tours : Bom, Gov. Sel. XVI, 50. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



232 



STATES. 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The NawAbs, 
1730-1880. 



2%e British, 
180S -1.807. 



Odihedr Claims, 
1806. 



British Ascenda/ncy, 
1818. 



Bande Ali Nawdtb, 
18S3-1841. 



Tdwair Khdn Nawdh, 
1841 -1880. 



Cambay. About 1799 Atmaram BMu, the Pesliwa's agent, entered 
tlie Cambay district, and was bouglit off only by the payment of 
£3000 (Rs. 30,000). Ag^ain, in 1800, Babaji Apaji, general of 
Anandrav Gaik:war,in passing to collect the Kathiawar tribute, under 
the name of arrears, extorted from Fateh Ali a sum of £5000 
(Es. 50,000). 

At this time so low had Cambay fallen that the British factory 
was (1797, Aug. 21st) 'negative in point of utility and in expense 
positively burdensome'.^ The Bombay Board were of opinion that 
everything could be done through native brokers. Before this 
opinion could be acted on, events took a turn which brought the 
British Grovernment into closer relations with Cambay. Malharrav 
of Kadi attempted to take Baroda from his cousin Anandrav. The 
Bombay Grovernment, appealed to for help by their ally the 
Gaikwar, sent a detachment of troops, which under the command of 
Major Walker, arrived in Cambay in 1802, Mr. Duncan, Governor 
of Bombay, accompanied this force and held interviews with Ravji 
Apaji, the Gaikwar's minister. The arrangements then made 
(1802, March and June) did not affect the position of the Cambay 
state. But by the treaty of Bassein, passed soon after (1802, 
December 31st), all the Peshwa's rights in Cambay were ceded to the 
British. In the following year (1803, May 24th), at the Nawab's 
request the Bombay Government agreed to farm the tribute to the 
Nawab for four years, the Nawab engaging to pay yearly a sum 
equal to the amount formerly paid to the Peshwa. This arrangement 
has since remained in force.^ 

In the following years, Babaji Apaji, by putting a stop to the 
Kathi forays, made the Cambay forts along the east bank of the 
Sabarmati no longer necessary. Under these circumstances, in 1806, 
Bapu Kashi, commander of the Gaikwar's Mahi Kantha force, 
received orders to annex the six villages whose possession had so 
often been disputed by the Gaikwar and Cambay. At the same 
time Bapu Kashi took bonds from many of the Cambay villages for 
the . payment of sums of money. Fateh Ali complained to the 
Governor of Bombay, and Major Walker, the British Resident at 
Baroda, had the bonds restored under promise that the English 
Government would put pressure on Fateh Ali to pay the Gaikwar's 
lawful claims. 

In 1818, in consequence of the increase of their power in Gujarat, 
the British Resident at Cambay was withdrawn, and, in his place, 
the chief executive officer in the newly constituted district of 
Kaira was appointed Agent. 

In October 1823 Fateh Ali Khan died. As he left no male issue 
he was succeeded by his brother Bande Ali Khan, who ruled for 
eighteen years. Dying (1841, 15th March) without a son, the 
succession went to his brother Yawar Ali Khan. This prince 
waived his right in favour of his son Husain Yawar Khan the 
present ruling Nawab, whose hereditary title is Najam-ud-dauMh 

1 East India Papers (1795-1800), IH. 16. 

« Bom. Gov. Letter, Political Dept. 55 of 1864, Vol, 23 of 1864 : Aitohison'B 
TreRties (1876), IV. 303 -304, 



Gujarat.] 



GAMBAY. 



233 



Mumtaz-ul-mulk Momin Khan Bahadur Dilawar Jang. Jafir AH 
Khan, the Nawdb's eldest son, at present (1880) twenty-four years 
of age, is quiet and well conducted. He is married to a relation of 
his mother's, the daughter of the Mulvi of Masulipatam. There is 
no male issue. 

Since 1818, the relations between the Cambay state and the 
Imperial Government have remained unchanged. There are no 
treaty engagements, and, except the payment of a yearly tribute, the 
Nawab of Cambay is almost uncontrolled in the management of his 
state. Over his own people he has the power of life and death. There 
is no appeal from any of his awards ; and the Political Agent, the 
Collector of Kaira, exercising no direct authority, is little more than 
the recognised medium between the Nawab and the Government of 
Bombay. Under the proclamation of 1857 the right of any succession 
valid according to Muhammadan law, has been secured to the 
Nawab, and he is entitled to a salute of eleven guns. The state has 
a military force of six field and two other guns, thirty-five artillery- 
men, 250 cavalry, and 830 infantry and police. 

In 1838, three years before the accession of the present Nawab, in 
spite of the long peace, the lands round Cambay were desolate, the 
city ruinous, and its trade dead. Since 1838 trade has to some 
extent revived. But the improvement is small. No efforts have been 
made to foster industry or commerce. The harbour has been left to 
itself, and no steps have been taken to clear the silt or make less 
dangerous the gulf's troublesome navigation. 

The following is the Cambay family tree : 

(I. ) Mirza JAfir Najam-ud- : 
dauUh, Momin Ehin I. 
(died 1743). 



Olia Begam, daughter of 
Mirza Abdul Huaain 
Dehlami Momin 'Khia, 
minister, diwdn, of 
Gujardt (1723-1728). 



(II.) Muftikhir KMn, Nur-ud- 
din Muhammad Khto 
Momin Khin II. (died 1783). 



Chapter III. 

History. 

The Naw4bs, 
1730 - 1880. 



Condition, 
ISSS-IHSO. 






(III.) Mia Manu or Muhammad : 
Euli, the illegitimate 
son of Ziraal Abedin 
Kajam Ehdn, governor 
of Cambay (1743-1748) 
(died 1789)^ 



(IV.) Fateh Ali Kh4n Najam- 
ud-daul4h Momt4z-ul- 
mulk Momin KhAn III. 
(died 1823). 



(V.) BandeAliKhAn 
Momin Khdn IV. 
(died 1841). 



: Jogni Eh&num, 

illegitimate 

daughter. 



YAwar Ali KhAn. 

I 
(VI.) Husain Ydwar Khta 
Momin Khan V. 
(present Chief). 

Jifir AliEhin 
(Heir-Apparent). 



The order of suooession is indicated by Roman numerals. 
B 561—30 



[Bombay Gkuette«r, 



CHAPTER IV. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

Cihapter IV. The lands of Cambay are tilled either by peasants holding 

Administration, direct from the state^ or by the yearly tenants of the village head- 

men. The peasant-holding, hhdtahandi, system is in force in the 

better class lands capable of regular tillage ; the yearly tenant, 

ganotia, system is ordinarily adopted only in the poorer soils. 

Under the peasant-holding system land pays the state a fixed sum, 
and, though without the Nawab's leave he has no power to transfer 
the land, the holder cannot be ousted so long as he pays his rent. 
In ordinary cases the right of occupancy has no money value. But 
if the former holder has improved the land, the new comer pays 
such sums as arbitrators or a committee of villagers may award. 
Under the yearly tenant, ganotia, system there is no fixity either 
of possession or of rent. This system is commonly in use only in 
the poorer lands which, from year to year, the village headman lets 
out at low rates to any one willing to take them. 

No land is liable to be sold in payment of the holder's private 
debts. And, though there is no special exemption in favour of the 
cultivator's property, the civil courts are expected to use discretion 
in attaching field tools. 

Except in the coast, bdra, villages, the land assessment is paid in 
money. In the coast villages, after deducting the estimated coat of 
production, the crop is divided into two equal parts, one for the 
state, the other for the cultivator. A few large landholders sublet 
their fields. But, except the poorer soils cultivated by yearly 
tenants, the land is generally tilled by the person in whose name 
it is held. 

As the state has not yet been surveyed, the method of realizing 
the land revenue is somewhat rough and irregular. For first-class 
land capable of yielding sugarcane, opium, and tobacco, found 
almost solely in Undel and Pachisgam, the rates sometimes rise to 
nearly £5 the acre (Rs. 35 the Jjigha) . In other villages the assessment 
%on the best lands varies from 14s. to £2 16s. the acre (Rs. 5-20 
the bigha) ; on rice land from 5s. Qd. to 17s. the acre (Rs. 2-6 the 
higha) ; and on dry-crop land from 5s. 6d. to 14s. the acre (Rs. 2-5 
the higha) . These rates, though nominally fixed, are changed at the 
Nawdb's pleasure. Compared with the corresponding assessment in 
the neighbouring British lands these rates are high. On the other 
hand remissions are constantly claimed and granted, while the 



Gojar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



285 



record of the area under cultivation is often so imperfect that many 
a farmer raises crops on double the area for which he pays. The- 
coUection of the revenue is nominally spread over a large part of the 
year^ and certain days, in November, December^ February, and April, 
are set apart for paying the different instalments. These rent days 
are seldom kept, the time for collecting depending on the pleasure 
of the manager, or on the needs of the state. 

Formerly the land revenue was farmed. Now, except in a few 
villages, the state share is collected by village accountants under 
the control of a central superintendent, ddroga, with whom are 
associated two head-quarter clerks, a Hindu, and a Musalman. 
Arrears are strictly collected. A certainjnumber of men are billetted 
on the defaulter, and, besides the cost of their keep, he has to pay 
a daily money fine of from 3c?. to 2s. (2 as. - Ee. 1). Should 
stronger measures seem necessary, the old method of setting the- 
debtor in the sun with a block of wood on his head is said to be 
still occasionally resorted to. When poverty, or loss by fire is 
proved, the revenue superintendent has power to grant special 
remissions. In villages whose revenues are farmed, if the people fail 
to pay their rents, the revenue superintendent aids the contractor- 
in recovering his demands. 

The Nawab pays little attention to- the land revenue, and, as a 
rule, its management is loose rather than oppressive. In the villages- 
assigned to the Nawab's sons there may be occasional oppression, 
but in these cases complaints do not reach the Nawab. On the 
whole, the land assessment is by no means heavy, and its collection 
is not so irksome as to nlake the people move to the neighbouring 
Kaira villages. 

Except serious cases tried by the Nawab in person all ordinary 
criminal charges are heard in the city by the city magistrate, kotwdl^ 
and in the districts by the rural magistrates, ddrogds. Cases calling 
for severe punishment are by them referred to the Nawab, who also 
hears criminal appeals. The Munshi, who carries on correspondence 
with the Political Agent at Kaira, is the head of the political 
department. 

There are three civil courts : the original civil court, diwdni addlat ; 
the first appellate court, tajvizsani ; and the highest appellate court, 
diwdn khdna, where the Nawab, assisted by an assessor, hears 
final appeals. In miscellaneous appeals and caste disputes the 
head of the merchants' guild, nagar seth, and one or two chief 
merchants act as assessors. In cases of Hindu law a hereditary and 
paid Shastri is attached.to the court. Most debt cases are decided 
by arbitration. When brought into, court the judge is guided by the 
following rules. If the suit is filed within six years of the date of the 
loan, both principal and interest are awarded ; if the suit is filed after 
six and within twelve years, only the principal can be claimed ; if 
between twelve and twenty years have passed, only half the principal 



Chapter rV. 
Administration. 

Laud, 



Justice. 



1 The Nawab's second aon is now (1880) city magistrate.. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



236 



STATES. 



Chapter IV. 

Administration. 

Justitse. 



Police. 



can be recovered ; if after twenty years, only one-f ourtli ; and no suit . 
may be brought after thirty years from the time the claim began to 
run. A fee of 2-^ per cent is taken on all money claims. The failure 
of the defendant to pay the amount decreed is commonly punished 
by imprisonment. 

There is a divorce court presided over by a salaried and hereditary 
of&cer styled Kazi who is an assessor in all religious matters. As 
head of the registration department the Kazi signs and seals 
all bonds affecting immovable property. The proceeds of the 
registration fees are equally divided among the Nawab, the 
Munshi, and the Kazi. In divorce cases, the Kazi levies fees graduated 
according to the social standing of the person claiming relief. 
The following statement shows what fees are charged and how 
the revenue is distributed. In cases of certified poverty part of the 
fees is remitted : 

Divorce Feet. 





Amount 


Revenue how DiaTRrauTED. 


CuraAKT. 


fl 


4^ 


1 






1 


A 


i 








■§§> 


^ 


g 


■i 


fl 


-i 


g- 






0, 


I'l 


i 


s 


3 


'a 


Mg 


o 








P'*-' 


a 


g 




-ca 


S . 










ai 


o 






M 








£. «. d. 


&. s 


s. 


a. 


ff. 


«. ' 


t. d. 


*• 


euiti.ato«... {^=X^,'^" ::; 


8 3 


6 


18 


4 


2 


14 


3 


1 


1 


4 18 6 


3 10 


18 


2 


2 


i 


1 


6 


1 


Garf^enera 


S 18 6 


2 10 


18 


2 


2 


4 


I 


6 


1 


Milkmen 


5 8 6 


4 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Oil-sellers and blacksmitha .. 


4 8 8 


3 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Watermen, tailors, and bakers,. 


3 8 6 


2 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Cotton-oleaners 


3 8 6 


2 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Fishermen 


3 7 6 


2 


18 


2 


1 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Barbers, Ehoemakers, anc 




















Musalmdn Kolis 


2 18 6 


1 10 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Market-gardeners, water-carriers 




















MusalmSn-Dhedis and Musal 




















roan-soldiers 


2 8 e 


1 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


Sweepers 


1 14 e 


6 


18 


2 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 



Civil and criminal codes have lately been introduced, and the 
procedure is supposed to be regulated by their provisions. The 
practice is irregular and open to abuse. In the criminal 
courts neither summons nor warrants are issued, and persons 
apprehended on the merest suspicion, are often kept until bail is 
given, evidence found, or release purchased. Civil justice is 
little less free from abuse. Complaints of bribery and extortion are 
general, and, so little are the court officers controlled, that decrees, 
passed by the Nawab himself, are said sometimes to be set aside or 
left unexecuted. No appeal lies to the Political Agent. But a 
complaint, found by him to be reasonable, can be referred to the 
Nawab, and in such cases justice is usually done. 

As in other parts of Gujarat, the village headman is called chief, 
mukhi. The office is sometimes, though not always, hereditary ; and 
the holder is rewarded by the grant of rent-free land. He ha,s no 
magisterial powers. The other village officers are the rdvania, a 



Gujar&t.} 



CAMBAY. 



237 



Eajput, Koli, or Musalman paid from 4s. to 6s. (Ra. 2 - 3) a month, 
who helps in collecting the state demands, guards collections on 
their way to the treasury, auddoes the ordinary work of a messenger ; 
and the tracker, pagi, a Koli, paid in land and commonly held 
responsible for stolen property traced within the limits of his village, 
who goes with the headman round the Tillage at night, watches, and 
tracks thieves. In large villages there is a Koli or Musalman 
messenger and pound-keeper, havdldar, paid in grain and by. twenty 
per cent of the pound fees. In some places the villagers keep private 
watchmen. 

In 1879 the gross state revenue was returned at £38,863 
(Rs. 3,88,630). This is derived from four chief sources, land 
assessment, salt, land and sea customs, and miscellaneous cesses. 
The yearly tribute settled under the treaty of Bassein (1802) is 
£2547 10s. (Es. 25,475-5-1). The British Government has also a 
share in certain cesses, which in 1878 yielded £105 14s. (Rs. 1057). 
During the same year the British share in the salt excise amounted 
to £6171 18s. (Rs. 61,719). 

The cash received from the different branches of revenue is 
lodged in treasuries in the Nawab's palace. The district land 
revenue is, under the care of a superintendent, kept in a separate 
treasury called the country office, pargana kacheri. From the land 
revenue all establishment, food, and clothiag charges are met, 
and the balance transferred to the Nawab's private treasury. The 
receipts from the coast villages, collections on account of land and 
sea customs, and the proceeds of the miscellaneous cesses are 
considered the Nawab's private revenue and are at once lodged 
under the care of the private treasurer, toshdhhama ddroga} 

In former years the Cambay customs and transit duties were a 
heavy burden on trade. The duties were (1854), on cotton 4'31 
per cent, on carnelians 7'60 percent, on cotton goods 6"05 per cent, 
on grain 6*50 per cent, and on tobacco 10"98 per cent. These duties 
were greatly enhanced by unauthorized levies extorted from 
merchants at every toll-bar, ndJca. In 1854 the attention of the 
Bombay Government was drawn to this taxation, which, besides 
injuring Cambay, was seriously affecting the traffic through the 
neighbouring districts. After much negotiation the Nawab agreed 
to fixed and moderate duties. The toll-bars were removed, and, 
instead, a single charge was levied. Of the proceeds of this tax, 
which varies from one-half to three per cent on the estimated value 
of the article, the British Government receives one -fourth, and the 
remaining three-fourths are handed over to the Nawab. The terms 
of this agreement were revised in 1871, when it was provided that, 
to protect the roads, the Nawab should maintain from his share 
a fixed establishment of foot and mounted police. The yearly cost 
of the police force amounts to nearly £500 (Rs. 5000). Of the 
balance two-thirds are now spent on improving the city of Cambay, 
and the remaining third on education. 



Chapter IV. 

Administration. 

Police. 



Revenue. 



Toshdhhdna is literally the present department. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



238 



STATES. 



Chapter IV. 

Administration. 

Eevenue. 



Tost. 



Instruction. 



Though Cambay is recognized as a British port, only the 
British tariff of valuations, not the tarifE of duty, is in force. 
British rates are generally levied on imports, but on exports there is 
a uniform charge of five per cent. The custom-house arrangements 
are equally in the hands of the Nawab and of the Bombay Govern- 
ment. Two sets of books are kept, and the Nawab has power to 
object to any decision passed by the British Customs Officer. 

The Imperial share of the land and customs revenue is realized 
by a superintendent, mahdlkari, a clerk, and five messengers, 
maintained, under the Collector of Kaira, at a yearly cost of £144 
(Es. 1440), with a guard of a head and six constables of the Kaira 
police. 

Besides rent the land yields three minor items of revenue, the 
hdjri cess, the Jcotra cess, and grazing fees. The bwjri cess is a 
tax of 3s. b^d. (Cambay Rs. 2) on every cart-load of millet. The 
kotra cess is a tax of one per cent on every holding paying a yearly 
rent of £8 13s. (Cambay Rs. 100) and upwards. The object of this 
cess is to pay for the keep of the Nawab's horses. The grazing 
fee, paid by Rabaris and other cattle owners, is a charge varying 
from Is. 9^. to 6s. lid. (Rs. 1-4) the head of cattle. The yearly 
collections amount to about £430 (Cambay Rs. 5000). 

Of non -agricultural cesses there are two : the craft tax, mohatarfa 
vero, and the profession tax, kasah vera. The tax on crafts yields about 
£170 8s. (Cambay Rs. 2000) a year. The profession tax is levied at 
the following rates : on each oil-press 3s. b^d. to 8s. 7|cZ.(Rs. 2 - 5) ; 
on each cotton-carding machine, 3s. b^d. to 8s. 7^d. (Rs. 2 - 5) j on 
each shoemaker's shop, 3s. 5^^. (Rs. 2) ; on each grocer's, 5s. 2J(Z. 
(Rs. 3); on each blacksmith's, 3s. b^d. to 8s. 7^d. (Rs. 2 - 5) j on each 
carpenter's, 3s. b^d. to 8s. 7^d. (Rs. 2 - 5) ; on each tailor's, 5s. 2Jd. 
(Rs. 3) ; on each goldsmith's, 5s. 2id. to £1 2s. 6id. (Rs. 3 - 13) ; and 
on each potter's wheel, 3s. 5^d. to 5s. 2id. (Rs. 2 -3). In the case 
of tanners the tax, I7s. S^d. (Rs. 10) and upwards according to the 
size of the village, is levied in one sum from the whole community, 
and from weavers of the Dhed caste a charge of 8s. 7|d. (Rs. 5) is 
made on each loom. In addition to these special cesses, there are 
one or two taxes peculiar to the city of Cambay. The chief of these 
is a house-tax, at present fixed at a uniform rate of Is. lei. (10 
annas). This tax,- known as the kdthia pal vero, was originally 
levied to protect the people from Kathiawar robbers. A special 
additional fee is levied on houses in the better streets. There is 
also a market cess of 6i per cent on all articles sold. 

The post is under the charge of the Inspector of Post Offices, 
Gujarat Division. From Cambay a runner passes daily through 
Petlad to Anand Railway Station in Kaira. 

According to the 1872 census, of 38,134, the total Hindu male 
population, 3541 or 9'28 per cent were able to read and write, or 
were being taught. Of 33,371, the total Hindu female population, 
23 were able to read and write, or were being taught. Of 
6095 Musalm^n males, 487 or 7-99 per cent were able to read 
and write, or were being taught. Of 5787 Musalm^n females only 



Oujar&t.] 



CAMBAY. 



239 



two were able to read and write. Within the last two or three 
years education has made much progress. Besides several private 
schools, there are now two schools under the charge of the Political 
Agent, with an average attendance of some 280 children. These 
schools are supported from a grant of one-third of the Nawfib's inland 
customs, a yearly subscription of £50 (Es, 500) from the Naw^b, and 
the school fees. Seven scholarships, at a cost of £700 (Rs. 7000), 
have lately been endowed by Mr. Varjivand^s M^nekchand, a 
Cambay merchant. To complete their studies the holders are sent 
to the Nadidd High School. 



Chapter IV, 
Administration. 

Instruction. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter V. 

Places of Interest. 

Caubat. 



CHAPTER V. 

PLACES OF INTEREST, 

Cambay, nortli latitude 22° 21' and east longitude 72° 48', with 
a population of 33,709 souls, is tlie seventh city in Gujarat and the 
fifteenth in the Bombay Presidency. Keotangular in shape it covers 
about four square miles. Portions of its old brick wall remain. 
Through the wall, besides two small openings for foot and horse 
travellers, there are eight gateways broad enough for carriages. 
Beginning from the north and passing east, the chief gates are, on 
the north two, the Fateh and Pit ; on the east three, the Mandla, 
Chaka, and Gavara ; on the south two, the Purza and Makai ; and 
on the west the Chakamali gate. Beyond the city wall, though the 
sites of the old suburbs can scarcely be traced, there are some 
modern buildings and a few of the older remains in a state of good 
repair. Of these the chief are, on the north-east of the city beyond 
the Mandla gate, a reservoir also called Mandla, a garden, and 
some fine buildings, said to have been raised in 1802 in honour of 
Mr. Duncan, Governor of Bombay. On the north-west, beyond the 
Pateh gate, is another large reservoir, and a small house, said to 
have belonged to Kalianrai, the reputed founder of the present 
town. Kalianrai's memory is still preserved by the Vanias of the 
city, who, on Dasera day (October), visit the garden and perform 
ceremonies in his honour. Near this are other gardens kept in 
order by the Nawab, and at a short distance is the Idga or 
Musalman place of prayer. Here, twice a year, on the Ramzdn 
and Bahri Ids, the Nawab, with a large retruue, comes to worship. 
On the south-east, beyond the Furza gate, is the English burying- 
ground surrounded by a well built wall. And, on the south, beyond 
the Makai gate, are some warehouses and stores. 

The chief buildings are the Nawab's palace, his court, and the 
dwellings set apart for his household, all in fair order. There is 
also the large residence, originally the English Factory, and 
afterwards made into a sanitarium for European oflBcers. This 
property was, in 1835, sold for £4000 (Rs. 40,000) to Karsetji 
Pestanji Modi, a Bombay Parsi.^ At present part of the building 
is occupied by the resident British Native officer, and the rest is 
used as a public rest-house. 



> Briggs' Cities of Gujarishtra, 160. 



Onjar&t.] 

CAMBAY. 241 

Of the older remains, the chief is the Jama Mosque, built about Chapter V. 
the beginning of the fourteenth century,^ from the stones of Hindu Places of Interest, 
temples. It measures 200 feet by 210, and its inner court ^ 

120 by 135. Except that it is somewhat smaller, its plan and 
arrangements are almost the same as those of the Altamash Mosque 
at Ajmir. In other respects the two buildings are most unlike. 
The three Cambay arches are plain to baldness, and low to suit the 
Jain pillars of the interior. The pillars, all taken from Hindu 
temples, though arranged with little care, form a picturesque whole. 
One of the mosque's most remarkable features is the tomb of Imrar 
bin Ahmad Kajarani the founder. Wholly composed of Hindu 
materials, it is two stories high, and was crowned with a dome 
twenty-eight feet in diameter. The parts, taken apparently from 
different buildings, were so badly fitted, that, after standing some 
three centuries, it fell, and has since remained a ruin, singularly 
picturesque in form and exquisite in detail.^ 

Another place of Musalman resort, where persons who have 
escaped shipwreck come to pay vows, is known as the Khaja 
Kheder Mosque. Near the site of this mosque are the ruins of 
an old light-house. Outside of the city walls, near the Narangshar 
reservoir, is the tomb of a saint known as the Balasir Pir held in 
much veneration by Bohora Musalmans, Of Hindu remains there 
is a Jain temple of Parasnath. This is of two parts, one above 
ground, the other under ground with the date 1526 (S. 1582). 
There are also, in and near the city, nine reservoirs, of which 
the chief is called Narangshar. These works are said to have 
been built at the charge of a dancing girl, named Nagina, who 
chose for each a word beginning with N, the initial letter of her 
own name. Many wells near the city are of great age and much 
beauty. One object of some interest is the hospital for animals 
maintained by the Nawab, out of respect for the wishes of his 
Jain subjects. 

On the whole Cambay is poor and ill-cared for. Little money 
is available to improve the town or repair its buildings ; and, with 
dull trade and few industries, its craftsmen and traders have little 
to spend on their shops and houses. 



' Fergusson gives 1325, Mr. Summers (Bom. Gov. Sel. IV.) 1308. 
' Fergusson's Architecture, III. 537. 



E 561—31 



SURAT STATES 



MFi'mNCES 



H raluia,aKix and Ma/ictt 

A Collec(or's Bun^edow^.^^^ 

A TmrdljTs-^So. 

^^S^ JimJwi^ Statwrt/ 

^^ Made Hood/ ^_ 

a Ma Fort 



I K IV 



1 PapidaJim abine 10.000 

2 „ iOmeru J0.000\ 

&■ 7.som 

5 iebveen 7.S0(h 

& s.ooo] 

4 . ietirem J.OOO] 

* ^J0(^ 



f 




\, r,lim///77-y^/^/ 



-^ 






4^1 life i ^ 

%% 4^ 




ihu:0ma:Foiinal879. 



Scale of Miles 



eio E 4 6 a 10 la 14 16 

I > I -I -I 1 I I i I I 



eajardt.] 



SURAT STATES. 



B A N S D A'. 



Ba'USda (Vansda), a tributary state under the supervision of 
the Surat Political Agent, in 20° 44' north latitude and 73° 25' 
east longitude, with an estimated area of 240 square miles, had, in 
1872, a population of 32,154 souls or 133'9 to the square mile, and, 
in 1879, a gross revenue of £13,986 (Ks. 1,39,860). 

It is bounded on the north by the Gaikw^r's Anaval sub-division, 
and the river Ambika, on the east by the Gaikwar's Viara 
sub- division and the Khandesh Dangs, on the south by the 
Dharampur state and Kalvan sub-division of Nasik, and on the 
west by Dharampur and Chikhli in Surat. 

It is a belt of rough tree-covered country, full of small hills and 
valleys, lying between the Sarat plain and the Sahyadri mountains. 

Eising in the Dang forests, the river Ambika flows through 
several Bansda villages. The Kaveri, from its source in 
Mankunia hill, flows, by the town of Bansda, towards Chikhli and 
Balsar, where, at Vagarach, it joins the Ambika. There are few 
wells and ponds. From the large area of brushwood and forest, 
much of the water is always charged with vegetable matter and 
unwholesome. After a season of scanty rainfall, even bad water is 
very scarce. To improve the supply, at a cost of about £30 (Rs. 300) 
two wells were sunk in 1877, one at Champaldhara, and the other 
at Vandarvek. In 1878, £310 (Es. 3100) were spent on six wells 
and two ponds. A dam, hdndhdra, has, at a cost of £118 (Es. 1180), 
been built across the river near Bansda. 

Though by clearing forests the climate has of late somewhat 
improved, it is still, especially from the end of the rainy season to 
the middle of the cold weather (October - January), unhealthy. 
Fevers and other diseases prevail throughout the year. The 
average rainfall for the last three years is estimated at sixty-four 
inches. In the hot weather the temperature is much the same as 
in Chikhli, the thermometer ranging from 90° to 105°. 

Of minerals a black hard stone useful for building is found in 
abundance. Of timber trees, there are teak, sag, Tectona grandis ; 
blackwood, sisam, Dalbergia sissooj haladvan, Adina cordifolia; 
tanachh, Ujainia dalbergioides ; sddado, Terminalia arjuna ; bibo, 



B&nsda. 

Deacription. 



Boundaries. 



Aspect. 
Rivers. 



Climate. 



Produots. 



' From materials supplied by Rdo BahSdur KeshavUl Nathubhdi, Superintendent 
of Bflnsda. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



246 



STATES. 



Bdnsda. Pterocarpus marsupium ; kalam, Stephegyne panifolia ; catechu. 

Products. hher, Acacia catecliu ; mhowa, mahudo, Bassia latifolia ; jdmbudo, 

Eugenia jambolana ; hasan, Briedelia montana ; timru, Diospyros 
montana ; hanti, Acacia kerek ; vdjari ; and kangdoli. Of these 
haladvan and^ sddado are of special, and the rest of middling, 
value. Though Bansda lies close to the Dangs its timber is not nearly 
so valuable. Till the time of Raja Gulabsingji (1862 - 1876), when 
some lands were reserved in five or six villages, the forests were 
farmed out and freely used by the cultivators. In 1877-78 to prevent 
the destruction of valuable timber, teak, blackwood, catechu, 
tanachh, haladvan, sddado, bibo, siven, hanti, vdjari, and mahuda 
were set apart as state trees and can be cut by cultivators only 
on showing passes, and for housebuilding or field purposes. To 
cut dhdman, kalam, kangdoli, saras, timri, dhamodi, bedo, sdmar, 
bod/ra, kirai, and other firewood trees, no pass is required. In 
1877, 247 passes were issued, and about £200 (Rs. 2000) worth 
of timber and bamboos were cut. Of late, the forest establishment 
has been increased, and all forest lands suited to the growth of 
valuable timber have been marked off and are strictly preserved. 

Animals. Except that, from scanty pasturage, the cattle are smaller and 

poorer, the domestic animals do not differ from those found in 
central Gujarat. The chief wild animals are the Tiger, vdgh, Pelis 
tigris ; the Leopard, dvpdo, Felis leopardus ; the Bear, rinchh, Ursus 
labiatus ; the Hunting Leopard, chitdh, Felis jubata ; the Hog, 
dukhar, Sns indicus ; the Fox, lonkdi, Vulpes bengalensis ; the 
Antelope, kalidr, Antelope bezoartica ; the Pour-horned Antelope, 
bhekar, Tetraceros quadricornis ; the Deer, cMtal, Axis maculatus. 

Population. According to the 1872 census the population numbered 32,154 

souls, of whom 31,313 or 97"3 were Hindus, 620 or 1'9 per cent 
Musalmans, 210 or "065 per cent Parsis, and 11 'Others'. 
The percentage of males on the total population was 52 '1 and of 
females 47-9. Of the 31,313 Hindus all but 1436 (males 771, 
females 665) belong to the kdliparaj or black races. Almost all of 
them are very poor living from hand to mouth, and spending their 
earnings on spirits. The four chief tribes are Konkna Kanbis, 
Chodhras, Dhondias, and Gamtas. Of these the Konknas with 
thirteen clans^ are the largest. Living in the hilly villages in the 
south and east and speaking a corrupt Gujarati, though thriftless 
cultivators they are very faithful and honest. They are firm 
believers in ghosts and witchcraft. When any one is attacked with 
fever or other disease, a holy man, bhagat, is called in and is given 
palm juice, tddi, and other spirituous drinks. He then makes an 
offering to the fire, and shaking his head like one possessed, 
utters some woman's name as the cause of the sick man's distress. 
The woman is supposed to be a witch and is ill-treated by the 
sick man's friends sometimes so severely as to cause her death. The 
Parsis, liquor-sellers and revenue contractors, enrich themselves 



' They are : Bhagaria, G^ekwAr, MihAla, Gdmit, Sarkar, Bhoia, Chodhri, J4dav, 
G4en, MohAkAl, BerAri, Kamdi, and Bedra. 



Sujarit] 



SURAT. 



247 



at the expense of the dark races. Of 87 inhabited villages i, 6 had Bdnsda. 

a population of less than 100 souls ; 20 from 100 to 200 ; 43 from Agriculture 
300 to 500; 9 from 500 to 760; 5 from 750 to 1000 ; 3 from 1000 to 
1500 ; and one from 2000 to 3000. The number of houses was 4050 
or eight persons to each house.^ 

There are some tracts of black landj but over the greater part of 
the state the soil is light. Eich in the more level tracts to the north 
and west, it is, among the hills and valleys stony and poor. A few 
river bank villages water their lands by Persian wheels. Of the 
whole area only one-sixth is tilled. Of the rest about one-third 
is arable waste and two-thirds are unfit for tillage. Among the 
early, kharif, crops are, rice* ddngar Orjza. sativa, guvdr Cyamopsis 
psoralioides, tal Sesamum indicum, ndgli (white and red) Eleusine 
coracana, kodra Paspalum scrobiculatum, Indian millet juvdr 
Sorghum vulgare, banti Panicum spicatum, maize makdi Zea mays, 
vdl Dolichos lablab, adad Phaseolus mungo, and mag Phaseolus 
radiatus. The late, rabi, crops are castor-oil seed diveli Ricinus 
communis, gram chana Cicer arietinum, peas vatdym Pisum sativum, 
and ldm,g Lathyrus sativus. Other crops are sugarcane serdi 
Saccharum officinarum, kulthi Dolichos uniflorus, kharsdni and 
bhagar or vardhi. Of these, rice, adad, vatdna, and red and white 
ndgli are grown in large quantities! Some of the soil is well suited 
for sugarcane, raising it with one-fourth less water than elsewhere. 
The best rice bengdliu is grown at the base of the hills in the beds 
of small streams. It is planted after three-fourths of the usual 
rainfall is over, and is nourished by moisture th'at oozes up from 
underground. 

Under the revenue contract, yara, system, which since 1876 is Husbandmen, 
being rapidly replaced by direct settlements with the land-holders, 
the condition of the cultivating class was far from good. So long 
as the farmer paid the promised amount, the state did not 
ask how the rents were gathered, or what was left for the 
husbandman. The contractors, chiefly Parsis, the actual landlords, 
had all power in their hands. As revenue and police authorities 
tliey could do as they pleased. Only when driven by some 
special oppression did the people appeal to the chief. Besides 
rents the contractors levied many petty but harassing dues, 
haks, so that in many cases the cultivator was forced to hand over all 
his produce, trusting to the contractor's forbearance and self-interest 



' One village BibibAri on the borders of the Dangs is waste. Its ownership is in 
dispute between BAnsda and the Dings. 

* This very large average household is said to be due to the habits of the aboriginal 
families who either sleep in the open air or huddle together much more closely than 
bigher class Hindus. 

There are twenty-two varieties of rice, bengdliu, suhhvel, eldkhi, gosAliu, sdliu, 
Icada, toma, tulsiu, ddbhel, hebhad, khadsi, nadagiu, ddngi, pan, kalvi, kamiodi, 
bengdliu (inferior aoT:t) , jiriu, mdrvel, rdmsal, dmbdmohar, and Icauchi. 

* The estimated cost and profit of tilling an acre of rice-land of the better sort is : 
ploughing 6«. (Rs. 3), seed 8s. (Rs. 4), sowing 4s. (Rs, 2), weeding 2s. 6d. (Re. IJ), 
cutting 2s. (Re. !), rent 14s. (Rs 7) ; total £1 16s. 6rf. (Rs. 18 as. 4). Tbe outturn is 
estimated at 12J owts. (35 mans) worth £3 ISs. 9rf. or a net profit of £2 2s. Zd. 
(Rs. 21 as. 2). 



[Bombay Gazetteer. 



248 



Sdnsda. 

Husbandmen. 



Monej. 



Roads. 



STATES. 



to give back a part for his support. As they were liquor-sellers as 
well as revenue contractors^ most of the crops, even of the better 
class of cultivators, found their way into the Parsi middleman's 
hands. And even for the well-to-do, the want of local markets and 
the badness of roads prevented the profitable sale of their field 
produce. Besides their money and grain payments, they had, 
village by village, to perform forced and unpaid state labour, veth. 
Gangs, occasionally from long distances had to come into Bansda 
and work for the chief, returning without any payment either in 
money or grain. They were also in constant fear that the rates 
should be raised or their land taken over by the contractor. Daring 
the last year of his lease, it was usual for the contractor to do his 
best to enrich himself, taking the tenants' corn and even their cattle. 
Left often from February till harvest with a too scanty store of 
even the cheapest grain, the cultivators had to work as labourers 
and borrow grain from the contractors and Vanias. 

In 1876, when the state came under British management, forced 
unpaid labour was stopped. As the village leases fall in, the 
lands are measured, a small fixed money rent is imposed, and a. 
settlement made direct with the cultivator. Though the change was 
fiercely opposed by the contractors, and was not popular even with 
the land-holders, the condition of the people has, under the new 
system, steadily improved. Some families have already, to a great 
extent, freed themselves from their bondage to the middleman, 
and silver ornaments are worn where they were before unknown. 
Of only two years of scarcity, 1835 and 1877, do local records 
remain. In 1835 the crops failed from want of rain, and, in 1877, 
with 29 instead of about 60 inches, the rice crop was ruined, and 
remissions, amounting in all to about £427 (Rs. 4270), had to be 
granted. 

The money-lenders, Marvadis, Brahmans, and Parsis, supply the 
cultivators with grain, taking back at harvest time double the 
quantity of grain given for seed, and one and a half times the 
quantity given for food. Neither land, cattle, nor field tools can be 
sold to pay private debts. When money is borrowed, the rates of 
interest vary, according to the debtor's character and position, from 
nine to eighteen per cent. Almost all transactions, revenue receipts, 
and state payments, are made in Broach currency. The only 
exception is, that to supply money for expenditure out of Bansda, the 
revenue contractors have to make one-fourth of their total payments 
in British currency. The exaction of forced unpaid labour by the 
state and the revenue contractors has, as noticed above, been 
stopped. The only skilled labourers in Bansda are carpenters, who 
are paid Qd. (6 annas) a day. Labourers, if paid in cash, get nearly 
2d. (1 anna 4 -pies) a day, and if in grain, four pounds, sers, of rice, or 
five, of Icodra. Cartmen are either paid by the day, or at the rate of 
2s. (Re. 1) for every twelve miles. 

The country is approached by land only, having neither ports nor 
navigable rivers. There are two cleared roads, one of eighteen, and 
the other of two, miles. The two mile road between Bansda and 
the Dangs was opened in 1876. A third road, of about seven 



Gujardt.] 



SURAT. 



249 



Land Trads. 



mileSj is being opened between Bansda and Unai. A bridge on Bdnsda. 

the road between Bansda and Hanm^nbari at the cost of £81 Roads. 

(Rs. 810)j a weir across the Bansda river, and two rest-houses were 
built in 1877-78. Until the state came under British management, 
there was no regular post. Now a self-supporting branch post 
office has been established at Bansda, and an office built at a cost 
of £50 (Rs. 500) . One of the lines of communication between 
Khandesh and the coast passes through Bansda. Formerly pack- 
bullocks brought from the inland districts large quantities of 
grain and other merchandise taking back chiefly salt. The opening 
of the Great Indian Peninsula and the Bombay and Baroda railways, 
to a great extent, put an end to this through traffic. But since a 
road for wheeled vehicles has been made, hundreds of timber carts 
pass every year to and from the Dang forests. The manufactures 
are limited to cotton tape, baskets, and coarse woollen cloth. 

During the dry season, at Bansda, Anklach, Khambhla, Limjar, Fairs. 

Moti Valjar, and Champaldhara weekly markets, hajdrs, are held, 
where traders from Ohikhli, Gandevi, and other neighbouring places 
open booths. Dealings are carried on with the upper classes by cash 
payments, and, with the dark races, chiefly by barter. At a large 
fair held every year at Undi on the 15th Ghaitra (March - April), 
about 1000 traders attend, offering Nasik and other Deccan copper 
and brass vessels, and Ahmedabad waist- cloths, dhotars, worth 
altogether from £2000 to £2600 (Rs. 20,000 - 25,000). These 
articles are bought by higher class Hindus who pay in cash. The 
Dhondias and other dark tribes, in exchange for corn, take coarse 
cloth and brass ornaments. The average sales vary in value from 
£1000 to £1500 (Rs. 10,000 - 15,000). 

The Bansda chiefs are Solanki Rajputs. Of their early history no History, 

details have been obtained. They claim to have ruled at Bansda for 
twenty generations. But the first eight names are doubtful, 
and no details are available before the opening of the eighteenth 
century.^ The ruins of a fortified enclosure near Bansda, and the 
remains of several temples and water works, point to former 
prosperity. It seems probable that their lands once stretched 
to the sea coast, and were gradually narrowed by the advance of 
Musalman power. Virsingji, the first chief of whom details 
are available, after ruling during the first fifteen years of the 
eighteenth century, was succeeded by his son Raybhanji who, dying in 
1 739, left by different wives two sons, Gulabsingji and Joravarsingji. 
Each claiming the succession for her son, the ladies referred the 
matter to Damaji Gaikwar, who decided that the state should be 
divided into two equal shares, and one with Bansda made' over to 
Gulabsing, and the other with Bisanpur given to Joravarsing.^ 



' The first eight names are Muldevji, Khadhaldevji,, BAldevji, Karandevji, Ude- 
singji I., Mol Karauji, and Udesiugji II. 

2 Biaanpur now belongs to the Qiikw&r. Half of it was, in 1750, made over by the 
BAnsda chief to the Peshwa, who, in the following year, ceded it to DAmdji GdikwAr. 
The Peshwa took it back in 1760, and restored it in 1762. In 1763 the G4ikwdr took 
the whole sub-diyision, and, in spite of the chief's protest and the Peshwa'a order has 
since held it. 



E 551—32 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



250 



STATES. 



Binsda. 

History. 



British 
Management, 
1876-1879. 



On GuMbsing's deatli in 1753, the minister raised a distant 
cousin to the chiefship. His claim was contested by Joravarsing, 
the late chiefs half-brother. In the end, by the arbitration of the 
Peshwa and Nazim-ud-din Bakshi of Surat, Udesing the cousin 
was confirmed, and Joravar presented with five villages. On 
Udesing's death about 1770, the succession, disputed by Kiratsing 
and Parbatsing, was, by the Peshwa's minister, decided in favour 
of Kiratsing. Ten years later on Kiratsing's death the rival claims 
of two brothers Virsingji and Naharsingji were decided in 
Virsingji's favour, who raised £5000 (E.s, 50,000) from the chief 
of Mandvi, and spent it on the Peshwa and his court. On 
Virsingji's death, in 1789, his brother Naharsiogji claimed the 
succession. He was strongly opposed by Dayaram, the late 
chief's minister, who stated that Naharsingji had already passed a 
deed of relinquishment, and that Virsingji's widow was pregnant. 
The Peshwa's minister decided that Naharsing should refrain from 
pressing his claim till the chief's widow was delivered of a child. 
Disregarding this decision, Naharsing took Bansda by force, and 
on paying a fee, nazardna, of £8500 (Rs. 85,000) was, about 1790, 
confirmed in the chiefship. From that time, besides succession fees, 
of a revenue of £3600 (Rs. 36,000), the Peshwa received £760 
(Rs. 7500) as tribute and £150 (Rs. 1500) as transit dues. Dying 
in 1793, Naharsing was succeeded by his son Raising, during whose 
reign, under the terms of the treaty of Bassein (1802, December 
31st), the rights and position of the Peshwa as the over-lord of 
Bansda were transferred to the British. Raising was, in 1815, 
succeeded by his remote cousin Udesingji, who ruled till 1829. On 
his death Hamirsingji a child of eighteen months was, with the 
approval of the Bombay Government, adopted by the four widows 
of Udesing and of his predecessor Raising. At first the state was 
left in charge of the Ranis, but in 1832, in consequence of their 
misconduct, affairs were administered by an ofiicer under the 
supervision of thdIAgent to the Governor at Surat. Few changes 
were made in the system of management. The resources of the 
state were most carefully husbanded, and, in 1852, when the minority 
of the chief ceased, besides £3145 10s. (Rs. 31,455) in cash, the 
state had a credit balance of £13,000 (Rs. 1,30,000) invested 
in Government notes. In 1856, in consideration of the British 
Government foregoing its share of transit duties, the chief agreed 
to pay a yearly tribute, choth, of £150 (Rs. 1500) and to limit 
his customs demands to certain rates approved by Government. 
Dying in 1862, Hamirsingji was succeeded by Gulabsing, who 
on his death in 1876, left one son Pratapsing, the present chief, 
then a boy of twelve years. The young chief is being taught at the 
Rajkumar College in Kathiawar, while his state is managed by a 
Superintendent appointed by the British Government. 

Tinder British management (February 1876 to November 1879) 
the revenue has risen from £10,384 (Rs. 1,03,84) to £13,986 
(Rs. 1,39,860), the chief item of increase being £2508 (Rs. 25,080) 
under land revenue. The forests, formerly farmed for about £400 
(Es, 4000), have, since 1877, been brought under state manage- 



&njar&t.] 



SURAT. 



261 



ment. A road has been opened twenty miles to Chikhli, schools 
have increased from one with thirty pupils to six with 212, and a 
dispensary has been established at a yearly cost of about £170 
(Rs. 1700). 

The Bansda chief pays a yearly tribute of £735 (Rs. 7350), and 
maintains an armed force of 153 men. He has power to try his own 
subjects for any ofEence. The family follows the rule of primogeni- 
ture, and has been vested with the right of adoption. The chief is 
entitled to a salute of nine guns. 

The following is the Bansda family tree r 

(VIII.) TTdesingji II.» 

(IX.) Virsingji I. (died ip 1716)'. 

I 
(X.) EAybhtoji (died in 1739). 

i 



(XI.) Gnlibsingji (died in 1753). 

(XII.) Udesingii III. (died about 1770),. 

a consin of Gnldbsiugji. 
(XIII.) Kiratsingji (died in 1780). 



JorAvarsingji. 



(XIV.) Virsingji II. (difidinl789). 



(XV.) NAhtoingji (died in 1793). 

(XVI.) EAising (died in 1815). 
(XVII.) Udesing IV. (died in 1829), a dis- 
tafat cousin of R&isingji, 
adopted 
(XVIII.) Hamirsingji (died in 1862). 



GuMbsingji (died in 1876), a 
cousin of Hamirsingji. 



(XIX.) 

(XX.) Prat^singi'i (the present Chief)- 



' The Games of Uaesingji's seven piedecessors are given at p. 249. 

As only a small part of the state has been surveyed, the whole 
area is not accarately known. It may be roughly estimated at 
about 240 square miles. Of the eighty-eight villages, eighty-one 
belong to the state, and seven are alienated. The land revenue 
system, in no way altered when the state was formerly (1833- 
1852) under British management, was to lease groups of villages 
to contractors, ijdrddrs, for terms of five years. This system had 
the advantage of ensuring the state a regular revenue collected 
with little trouble or detail. But under it, when, in 1876, Bansda 
again came under British management, so wretched was the state of 
the people that it was determined, as the leases^ fell in, to 
replace them by a settlement direct with the cultivators. Accordingly 



Bdnsda. 

History. 



Land. 



' Of the leases running in 1876, one for one village lapsed in 1876 ; a second for 
18 villages in 1877 ; a third for two villages in 1878 ; and a fourth for 27 villages in 
1879. A fifth for 31 villages lapses in 1880. The land belonging to the town of 
Btosda is divided into four farms, two lapsing in 1877 and two in 1882. The deserted 
village of BibAbiri on the borders of the Ddngs is not farmed. 



[Bom1)ay Gazetteer, 



252 



STATES. 



BAnsda. in 1875, when the lease of the village Vaghai lapsed, the lands were 

l]^a. surveyed, a headman appointed, the holdings of each cultivator 

measured, and his rent fixed. The contractors, feeling that one chief 
source of gain was passing from them, strongly opposed the new 
system, and so thoroughly succeeded in alarming the people, that the 
rates could be inrtoduced for one year only. From the character 
and condition of the people, the unhealthiness of the climate, and 
the distance from markets, the rates had to be pitched very low, rice 
lands paying only 6s. an acre and dry crop lands from 4s. to 2s. 
Since 1876, when the state came under British management, thirty- 
nine villages, twelve in 1876-77, eight in 1877-78, and nineteen in 
1878-79, have been surveyed and new rates fixed. For rice lands 
the first class acre rates range from 6s. to £1 (Rs. 3 - 10), and the 
second from 5s. to lis. (Rs. 2| - 5^). For dry crops the first class 
rates range from 2|s. to 8s; (Rs.l|-4), and the second class from 3d. 
to 6s. {annas 2 - Rs. 3). 

In each of these villages were some substantial holders, paying 
rents varying from £2 10s. to £25 (Rs. 25 - 250), and taking 
their crops for sale to Bilimora, Ohikhli, Gandevi, and other markets. 
The financial result of the new system has been from the first group 
of twelve villages, including Yaghai, a rise in revenue from £877 
(Rs. 8770) to £1252 (Rs. 12,520); in the second group, from 
£1007 (Rs. 10,070) to £1389 (Rs. 13,890) ; and for the third group 
from £3584 (Rs. 35,840) to £5263 (Rs. 52,680). Along with the 
measurement and assessment of the lands, a village establishment 
has been introduced. The staff paid by allotments of land includes 
accountants and messengers, and headmen chosen where possible 
from the dark, kdliparaj, races. When the state came under 
British management, fourteen villages were, during the lifetime of 
the present grantees, held on quit-rents as service, yagi Mr, charitable, 
dharmdda, and subsistence, jivdi, grants. Besides these large 
grants, lands have in many villages been made over in charity to 
Brahmans, and, in reward for services, to revenue officers, the 
chief's mercenaries, sihandi, and the Dheds. 

Justice. Formerly civil disputes might be brought before the chief, who 

with the help of his manager, gave judgment. But so high a fee, 
twenty per cent of the award, was levied that civil suits were 
generally settled by arbitration. Since 1876, the fee has been 
reduced to ten per cent, and, in 1878, the number of suits had 
risen to thirty-eight. In 1878 forty-eight boundary disputes were 
settled, and seventeen remained for decision. The people are quiet 
and orderly, seldom guilty of crime. Formerly clerks, hdrkuns, heard 
criminal complaints, and disposed of them keeping a memorandum 
of their decisions. Since 1876, the system in force- in the neigh- 
bouring British districts, has been introduced, the Superintendent 
being invested with first class, the mdmlatdd/r with second class, 
and his first clerk with third class, magisterial powers. In 1878, 
of 144 cases sixteen were disposed of by the first class magistrate, 
fifty-nine by the second, and sixty-nine by the third. Besides these 
there were three appeal cases, and two committed to the Agent's 
court. 



Gujard,t.] 



SURAT. 



253 



About a century ago (1 790), the revenue of the state was returned Bdnsda. 

at £3600 (Rs. 36,000), of which £3000 (Rs. 30,000) were recovered Rev^e. 

from the land and other sources, and £600 (Rs. 6000) from transit 
dues. In 1852 the revenue stood at £6203 (Rs. 62,030), and from 
that it steadily rose to £7250 (Rs. 72,500) in 1862, and 
£11,550 (Rs. 1,15,500) in 1872. Since the introduction of 
British management, chiefly by the change from the contract to 
the revenue survey system, the revenue has (1879) risen to £13,986 
(Rs. 1,39,860). . 

In 1875-76, when the state came under British management, Instruction, 
there was only one vernacular school in the town of Bansda. In 
1878 there were five boys' schools with an attendance of 212 pupils, 
of whom 185 were of the upper, ujli, and sixty-three of the 
lower, kali, classes. In 1879 a girls' school was started with an 
attendance of thirty pupils. Four of the six schools are provided 
with buildings. 

In 1877 a dispensary was opened in Bansda. In the first year it Health, 

was attended by 2557, in the second by 3304, and in the third by 
4550, patients. The chief diseases were fevers, bowel complaints 
and skin affections. In 1878-79, 866 children were vaccinated 
against 1082 in the year before. 

Ba'usda, the chief town in the state, had, in 1872, a population Places of Interest, 
of 2321 souls. It has a dispensary, a school, and a post office. 

Una'i, a small village on the north border of the state, with a 
hot spring, has, on the 15th Chaitra (March - April), a large fair 
attended by some six or seven thousand people. Twenty-five per 
cent belong to the Anavla Brahmans, who according to mythology, 
were, at the Unai spring, consecrated as Brahmans by the god 
Ram. About fifty years ago some religious mendicants set up a 
female figure and called it the goddess Unai. The fair lasts for sis 
days, but the 15th., punam, is the chief holiday .i 



1 A fuller account is given in the Surat Statistical Account. Bom. Gaz. II. 333. 



[Bombay Gazetteer^ 



Dharampnr. 

Bescription. 



Boundaries. 



Aspect, 



Water. 



Climate. 



Products. 



DHARAMPUR. 

Dharampur, a small state under tlie supervision of the Political 
Agent of Surat, in 20° 31' nortli latitude and 73° 15' east longitude, 
lies to the east of the Balsar and Pardi sub-divisions of Surat. It 
has an estimated area of about 800 square miles, a population, 
in 1872, of 74,592 souls or 94-13 to the square mile, and, in 1878, a 
revenue of £25,000 (Es. 2,50,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the Chikhli sub-division of the 
Surat district and the state of Bansda ; on the east by the Peint and 
Surgana states ; on the south by Peint, Daman, and Thana ; and on 
the west by the Balsar and Pardi sub-divisions of Surat. 

The west of the state is flat, rising gradually towards the eastern 
hills which separate it from Surgana and Peint. The east of the 
country is hilly, rather bare of trees, and not suited for tillage. 

The state is well supplied with rivers. The Damanganga, the 
Kolak, the Par, the Vanki, the Auranga, and the Ambika, all flow 
through it on their way to the gulf of Cambay. Though of no great 
size these rivers have pools of water all the year round. Its hills, 
the number of its water-courses, and its height above the sea, ensure 
a rapid and complete drainage. There are few lakes or reservoirs 
of any size, but at all seasons the beds of the rivers and brooks 
afford a sufficient supply of water. In the north and west are a few 
wells, but in other parts the wild races are content with water 
drawn from river-bed holes. 

Except in the west the water is bad, the climate unhealthy, and, 
in the hot season, the heat is severe. The prevailing diseases are 
fever, cough, dropsy, diarrhoea, and asthma. No accurate estimate 
of rainfall can be given, but it may be pat down as something over 
seventy inches. No thermometer readings are available, but the 
mean temperature is probably somewhat lower than in Balsar. 

Besides a sprinkling of jack, phanas, Artocarpus integrifolia, and 
jdmhudi, Eugenia jambolana, there are large numbers of mango, 
dmba, Mangifera indica, tamarind, dmli, Tamarindus indica, and 
pipal, Ficus religiosa. There is some sparse teak copse wood 
towards the east, and, towards Peint and Thana, a forest of bamboos, 
teak, wiahuda, Bassia latifolia, blackwood, tanach, Oogeinia dalber- 
gioides, catechu, haladvan, Adina cordifolia, and sddado, Terminalia 
arjuna, is being preserved and gradually becoming valuable. Tigers, 
vdgh, Felis tigris, are now and then found in the eastern hills, and 
Panthers, dipda, Felis leopardus, wander all over the state. There 
is hardly any small game. 



OiUardt.] 



SURAT. 



255 



According to the 1872 census, the population numbered 74,592 Dharampur. 
souls. Of these 73,428 or 98-5 per cent wereHindus, 910or]'2percent Population. 
Musalmans, and 254 or '3 per cent Persia. Of the 910 Musalmans 
868 were Sunnis and 42 Shias j and of the 254 Parsis 239 were 
Shahanshais and 15 Kadmis. Of the Hindus about 50,000 or 67-03 
per cent belonged to the early or dark races, kdliparaj.^ Arranged 
according to occupation, persons employed by the state numbered 
760 or I'Ol per cent of the entire population; professional persons 
72 or '09 per cent; personal servants 1181 or 1'5 percent; hus- 
bandmen 54,119 or 72'5 per cent; traders 202 or "2 per cent; 
craftsmen 4962 or 6"6 per cent; and miscellaneous persons 13,296 or 
17'8 per cent. There are no beggars. There were 13,521 houses, 
or on an average, 17'1 to the square mile. Of the whole number, 53, 
lodging 217 persons or "3 per cent of the entire population with 
a population per house of 4'09 souls, were of the better sort, tiled 
and brick walled. The remaining 13,468, accommodating 74,375 
persons or 99 "7 per cent, with a population per house of 5'5 souls, 
were thatched huts with mud walls. Of the 264 villages, 133 had 
200 inhabitants, 99 had from 200 to 500, 27 from 500 to 1000, 
4 from 1000 to 2000, and one from 2000 to 3000. 

Towards the west the soil is a poor black, eastwards it becomes Agriculture, 
poorer, and, amongst the hills near Surgana and Peint, yields only 
scanty crops of the coarser grains. In some hollows among the hills 
the soil is better, and rice and sugarcane are grown to a limited extent. 
Except in Dharampur and five or six other villages bordering on 
Balsar and Chikhli, water is drawn both from wells and rivers. Rice, 
dangar, Oriza sativa, both fine and coarse, is the chief crop ; while 
among pulses tuver, Cajanus indicus, and mag, Phaseolus radiatus, 
and sugarcane, serdi, Sacoharum officinarum, are grown to a 
limited extent. In the west the crops are the same as those in the 
east of Balsar. To the east and south inferior crops of the poorer 
grains, such as ndgli, Bleusine coracana, and Itod/ra, Paspalum 
Bcrobioulatum, are grown. The mode of tillage is the same as in 
the neighbouring British districts. 

There is a cleared road from Dharampur to Balsar, passable for Trade. 

carts except during the rains. Another cleared road running from 
Peint to Chival, a village in Pardi, passes through about twenty miles 
of Dharampur territory. Prom Chival to Pardi, a made road passable 
for carts all the year round, affords an easy approach to the railway. 
A cart road passing south through Peint joins Dharampur with the 
Nasik station on the Great Indian Peninsula line. A regular post 
kept up by the chief runs between Balsar and Dharampur. Trade 
is small and there are no available returns. Wood and some 
grain find their way to Balsar and Daman ; and articles of luxury 
and salt pass to Dharampur from Balsar. There is some little 
through traffic from Peint to Balsar. Besides the ordinary gold, 
iron, brass, and wood work, the only manufactures are mats, baskets, 
and other bamboo articles. 



1 The details are : DublAs 1150 ; Ndikds 2953 ; Dhundida 17,713 ; K4thodi4a 50 ; 
Bhirpis 73 ; Agria 4630 ; and DhArlis 23,347 ; total 49,916. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
256 STATES. 

Dharampur. The ruling family are Sisodia Rajputs of the Solar race. According 

History, to their own traditions, they, about 700 years ago, under a certain 

Ram Raja, conquered the country from the Bhils ; and from their first 
leader their territory used to be, and, still is, called Ramnagar.^ In 
the 15th century the fort of Parnera belonged to it.^ In 1576* 
the chief of Dharampur, or Ramnagar, went to meet Raja Todar Mai 
at Broach, gave him £1200 (Rs. 12,000) and four horses, and was 
allowed to assume the rank of 1500 horse, and agreed to serve the 
Gujarat Viceroy with 1000 cavalry. In 1609 to check the 
incursions of the Ahmednagar armies, a force of 25,000 men was 
stationed at Ramnagar in Dharampur, the chiefs sending contingents 
according to their respective power and position,* Shivaji, 
in his attacks on Surat (1664-1670)^ was helped by the chiefs of 
Ghar and Ramnagar. In 1672 paying a complimentary visit to the 
chief he took the fort of Ramnagar, saying that he must have the 
key of his treasure, Surat, in his own hands. Early in the eighteenth 
century 1727, the Marathas further increased their power over 
the Raja, taking away seventy-two of his villages® and forcing him 
to pay one-fourth of his transit dues. In 1 785, a year of drought, 
the people rose on the chief, marched on Dharampur, and burnt the 
castle.^ The connection of the British with the Dharampur chief 
dates from 1803, when, under the terms of the treaty of Bassein 
(1802, December 31st), the Peshwa's claims to tribute were made 
over to the British.^ In 1831, Raja Vijaydevji fell so deeply in 
debt that an Arab officer, who had become his surety, threatened 
force if his claims were not paid. The chief called in the Bombay 
Government, and an arrangement was made under which, many 
villages were mortgaged to the creditors, and a fixed sum set apart 
for the chief's support. The chief spent the rest of his life in 
Surat and Baroda living in the most extravagant and dissolute 
style, and always sunk in debt.^ He was in 1857 succeeded by 
his son Ramdevji, and he in 1860 by his son Narandevji, the present 
chief, who, living at Dharampur, manages his affairs with prudence, 
and, subject to the advice and general control of the Political Agent, 
himself administers the state.'" The chief change since the accession 



' The head-quarters would seem to have at first been at Gambhirgad near Saujdn, 
then at Asharsheta, next (1710) at Nagar in the Fatehpur Nagar Haveli. They were 
finally moved to their present site by Il4ja Dharamdevji in 1766, when the name 
of the town was changed from ModvegAn to Dharampur. 

^ Briggs' Ferishta, IV, 51. Grants of land and writings on temples and wells show 
that Dharampur once included the eight divisions of Gambhirgad, Segva, Asharsheta, 
BAhdra, Udva, BAMpur, Dharampuri, and Nagar Haveli. 

3 Bird's Mirdt-i-Ahmadi, 344. 

* Major Watson's History of Gujardt, 68. 

= Orme's Historical Fragments, 27, 28. 

5 These villages were afterwards made over to the Portuguese by the Max&th&B, and 
now form part of Daman . 

' The state records were destroyed in a fire in 1785, and nothing regarding the 
early history of the state can now be traced. 

« Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 318, 319, CXXIII. 

' The whole of this debt has been paid off by the present ruler Ndraudevji. 

" No family tree of the Dharampur house is available. According to bardic 
accounts the present chief is the twenty-first in descent from the founder of the house. 
The names of the former rulers are. Ram Rdja, Somshih, Purandarshih, Dharamshah I , 



Oajarit.1 



SURAT. 



257 



of the present ruler, was, in 1870, on condition of lowering tte rates Dharampur. 
to Khandesh and paying a yearly sum of £900, the grant of the History, 

perpetual farm of the British share of transit duties. 

The Dharampur chief exercises second class powers, trying his 
own subjects for every class of ofEences. The family follows the rule 
of primogeniture and has a patent, sanad, allowing adoption. He 
maintains a force of 203 men and is entitled to a salute of nine 
guns. 

The land revenue and licjuor contracts are for the most part farmed Land, 

to Pdrsis and sometimes to Hindus and Musalmans. The farmers, as a 
rule, pay the Raja partly in cash and partly in grain and grass. There 
are many cesses, but all are generally included in the gross sum 
leviable from the village householders. The land is not liable to be 
sold for private debts. The incidence of the land tax is much the 
same as in Bansda. 

The chief is the final authority in civil and criminal matters. Justice. 

Under him is a judge, nydyddhish, in whose hands all details of 
procedure are left. Except civil suits settled by arbitration the judge 
hears both civU and criminal cases. Depositions are taken in hia 
presence and the case is decided summarily. Murder is punished by 
life imprisonment, other heinous crimes by imprisonment, and less 
grave offences by fine and whipping. There is no village police. 
A regular district corps under a chief constable has lately been 
formed. 

There are three schools at Dharampur, one for girls and two for Instruction, 
boys. One is an Anglo-vernacular school teaching English up to the 
fifth standard. There are five more schools in other parts of the state. 
Arrangements have lately been made for introducing vaccination. 

Arua'i, about nine miles south of Dharampur,,has a hot spring where Places of Interest, 
a yearly fair is held on Ghaitra sud 15th (April-May) . Dharampur, 
with, in 1872, a population of 3233 souls, has, besides the chief's 
straggling inconvenient palace, some well built houses. It has 
a dispensary and a good school, and something has been done 
to water and light its streets. Nagar, the ancient capital of the 
state, about twenty-four miles south-west of Dharampur has a 
yearly fair on Ghaitra sud 15th (April -May). Pa'nikliadak and 
Panga'rba'ri have small yearly fairs in the month of Ghaitra 
(April -May). Pindval and Veta'l, small hills, have the ruins of 
old forts. 



GopnahAh, Jagatshih, NiranshAh I., DharamshAh 11., Jagder, Lakshmandev, Som- 
dev II., Edmdev I., Sadev, Rdmdev II., Dharamdev III. , Harandev II. , Somdev III., 
Eupdev, Vijaydev (died 1857), R4mdev III. (died 1860), and NArandev III. (the 
present Chief). 



B 561—33 



[Bomljay Gazetteer, 



Sachin. 
Deaoription, 



Ctimate. 



Product?. 



Population, 



Tillage. 



SACHI N', 

Sachiu, an estate of twenty villages, scattered tbrongh tie 
Chorasi and Jalalpur sub-divisions of Surat, in about 21° 41' north 
latitude and 73° 5' east longitude, has a total area of sixty-five 
square -niiles, with, in 1872, a population of 17,103 souls or 263"12 
to the square mile, and, in 1878, a revenue of £17,717 (Es. 1,77,170). 

Especially in the villages of Dumas and Bhimpor at the mouths 
of the Tapti and Mindhola, the climate is healthy and pleasant. The 
average yearly rainfall is about thirty-six inches, and the average 
range of the thermometer from 80° to 90°. The common forms of 
sickness are fever, cough, and bowel affections. 

There are no forests, but, as in the neighbouring parts of Surat, 
there is a free growth of mango, dmba, Mangifera indica, tamarind, 
dmli, Tamarindus indica, nim, limhdo, Melia azadirachta, banyan, 
vad, Ficus indica, piplo, Picus religiosa, wild date, khajuri. 
Phoenix sylvestris, and other trees. 

The 1872 census gives a total population of 17,103 souls, of 
whom 14,678 or 85-8 per cent were Hindus, 2272 or 13'3 per cent 
Musalmans, and 153 or '9 per cent Parsis. There were, in 1872, 
4491 houses, or an average of 100 houses to each square mile. Of 
these, 415, lodging 1964 persons or 11-4 per cent of the whole 
population at the rate of 4" 7 souls to each house, were built of 
stone or fire-baked brick. The remaining 4076, accommodating 
16,554 souls or 88'6 per cent at the rate of 4'06 persons to each 
house, were mud walled, grass or palm-leaf thatched huts. Of 
the twenty villages, two had a population of less than 200 souls, six 
had from 200 to 500, six from 500 to 1000, four from 1000 to 2000, 
and two from 2000 to 5000. Except deep-sea fishers, sailors, and 
tile turners, who sometimes leave their homes for as long as eight 
months at a time, the whole of the Sachin people is stationary. 

The soil is in some places black, and in others light. The 
number of ponds and wells, of which there is a good supply, is 
being yearly increased.^ The chief crops are rice, ddngar, Oryza 
sativa ; millet, hdjri, Penicillaria spicata ; Indian millet, juvdr, 
Sorghum vulgare ; wheat, g'/iaw, Triticum sesti\um j tuver, Cajanus 
indicus; mag, Phaseolus radiatus; sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum 
officinarum; and cotton, hapds, Gossypium herbaceum. The tillage 
is the same as in the neighbouring British and Gaikwar villages. 



> From materials supplied by Mr. E. 0. K. OUivant, Assistant Collector in charge 
of Sachin. 

2 In 1878 a sum of £456 (Es. 4560) was spent in building and repairing wells 
and pouda. 



Giijar&t.] 



SURAT. 



259 



A lately built breakwater at Dumas and a causeway at Bhimpor, 
by keeping out the tidal water, prepare the way for making culturable 
a large area of salt land. 

The business of money-lending is almost entirely in the hands of 
grain-dealers, as a rule Marvadi Shravaks. Formerly most state 
demands were payable in Broach rupees ; but the British is the 
only currency now recognised. Except labourers employed by the 
state, whose daily wages in the lifetime of the late Nawdb were 
Bd. (2 annas) for a man, 2id. (1| annas) for a woman^ and l^d. 
(1 anna) for a boy, the same prices and wages prevail as in the 
neighbouring British villages. The weights and measures are the 
same as in Surat. 

Up to the death of the late Nawab (1873), except three miles, 
between Bhimpor and Gaviar on the way to Surat, ' there were no 
made roads. Since 1873, bridged and metalled roads have been 
made^ from the Bhimpor road to Dumas 1^ miles, from Sachin to 
the railway station three-quarters of a mile, and from Sachin to 
Lachpor on the Mindhola river two miles. The Sachin section 
of the Sachin and Surat road is now under construction. A bridge, 
over the tidal creek at the village of Udhna was completed in. 
1877-78 at a cost of £1635 12s. (Rs. 16,356), and in 1877-78. a rest-. 
house was built at Sachin. 

There are three ferries on the Mindhola river between Sachin and 
the Gaikwar's Maroli sub-division. 

There is one post-ojBSce in the town of Sachin,, under the manage- 
ment of the British post department. 

The Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway runs through 
about seven miles of the state. The average traffic at the Sachin 
station, during the five years ending 1877, was, of passengers 22,988, 
and of goods 1672 tons.^ 

The hand-loom weaving of cotton cloth is carried on in one or 
two villages, chiefly in Kotha, whose cloth, woven by Musalman Tais, 
is held in high local esteem. Near Sachin station is a steam cotton 
ginning and pressing factory. 

The Nawab of Sachin is of African descent.* When his 
ancestors came to India is doubtful. During the fifteenth century, 
under the name of the Sidis of Danda-Rajapur and Janjira in 
the Konkan, they were known, first as the Bijapur (1489-1686), 
and afterwards as the Moghal, admirals. Under Bijapur, their fieet 
guarded commerce and carried pilgrims to Mecca, and, in 1660 
on receiving a yearly grant of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000) from the Surat 
revenues, they became Aurangzeb's admirals. In the eighteenth 



Sachin. 



Capital. 



Roadsi. 



Ferries. 

Post-office, 

Railway. 

Manufactures. 
History. 



' In 1878, £2069 (Rs. 20,690) were spent on road repairs. 

' The details are: 1873, passengers 20,318, goods 1483 tons; 1874, passengers 
24,448, goods 1228 tons; 1875, passengers 23,142, goods 1419 tons ; 1876, passengers 
23,143, goods 1900 tons ; and 1877, passengers 23,890, goods 2329 tons. 

« In western India Habshi includes not only Abyssinians but Africans from the 
Somali coast. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
260 STATES. 

Sachin. century on tlie decline of Moghal power, the Janjira Sidis became 

History. notorious pirates, plundering tte ships of all nations except the 

English, whose friendship they cultivated.^ During the early years 
of the eighteenth century, the Sidis were at constant war with the 
Marathas, and, though thePeshwa succeeded (1736-37) in annexing 
the greater part of their lands, he failed, in spite of yearly expeditions, 
to take their island fort.* In 1762, to the exclusion of Abdul 
Eahim the rightful heir, Sidi Yakut succeeded at Janjira. Helped 
by the Marathas, Abdul Rahim, though defeated and a fugitive, 
was so formidable a rival, that Sidi Yakut compromised the dispute 
by promising that, on his death, Abdul Rahim should succeed to 
Danda-Rajapur and Janjira. Under this agreement Abdul Rahim 
succeeded in 1772, and continued to rule till his death in 1784. On 
Abdul Rahim's death, to the exclusion of his eldest son Abdul Karim 
Yakut Khan commonly called Balu Mia, Sidi Johar, commandant 
of Janjira seized the chiefship.^ Balu Mia fled to Poena. His 
cause was strongly supported by Nana Phadnavis, who was anxious 
by some means to gain power over the unconquerable island of 
Janjira. Johar appealed to the English to settle the dispute, declaring 
that he would fight as long as he had one man left and the rock 
of Janjira remained. Efforts were made to prevent the outbreak of 
war, and, on his making over his claims on Janjira to the Peshwa, 
Yakut Khan or Balu Mia was guaranteed a tract of land near Surat 
estimated to yield £7500 (Rs. 75,000) a year.* 

The first instalment of the grant consisted of seventeen detached 
villages in the Chorasi sub-division known as the sattargdmpa/rgana. 
As it was found that the territory, then granted, did not yield the 
promised revenue, an addition was made of three Parchol villages 
now part of Jalalpur. But as the Peshwa never succeeded in 
reducing Janjira, no farther grant of territory was made. Balu Mia 
arrived at Surat, and, after a short residence there, proceeded to 
the small fort of Sachin, which he had chosen as his head- quarters. 
Shortly after on paying the Emperor Shah Alam II. a fee, nazarwna, 
he received the title of Nawab. He afterwards changed his 
residence to Lachpor, and, dying in 1802, was succeeded by his son 
Ibrahim Muhammad Yakut Khan. In 1816 an attempt was made 
to induce the Nawab to transfer to the British, criminal and civil 
jurisdiction in his villages. But as the concessions offered were not 
considered sufficient, the negotiations fell to the ground. His 
(extravagant habits plunged the Nawab into money difficulties, and 
jin 1833 an inquiry, made by the British Government, showed 

f- In a .treaty with the Sidis, the British Grovemment, in 1733, pledged itself to 
.perpetual alliance and sincere friendship. 

' In 1736-37 the Peshwa acquired half the revenues of eleven mahdls in the 
Habshi's territory. During their ascendancy, every year between 1682 and 1736 the 
MarAthAs attacked Janjira, but, having to leave during the rainy season, always failed 
to take the islaJtid. 

s Sidi Y^kut had made a will bequeathing the principality to the second son of 
Abdul Kahim at his father's ,d^th,ttiiider the guardianship, in case of a minority, of 
his own friend Sidi Jojiar. Grant Duff's History, (Bom. Ed.) 507. 

* Aitohisou's Treaties (I876), IV. 315, CXXIII. 



Onjar&t.] 

SURAT. 261 

claims against his estate amounting altogether to £132,823 10s. Sachin. 

(Ra. 13j28,235). At his request the British Government agreed to History. 

effect a settlement. In 1835 ^ the debt was guaranteed ; and all the 

villages, except Sachin and L£chpor, were attached and the country 

managed by the District Judge then Agent at Surat ; and, after 

setting apart £1800 (Rs. 18,000) a year for the maintenance of 

the Nawab, the balance, about £6700 (Rs. 67,000), was spent in 

paying off the debt.^ Dying in 1 853, the Nawab was succeeded 

by his son Sidi Abdul Karim Khan. In 1859,3 when £78,581 

(Rs. 7,85,810) of the debt had been paid, the attachment was 

withdrawn, and, as the revenue had fallen to £7891 (Rs. 78,910), 

G-overnment agreed to hand over the whole estate to the Nawab, on 

his promising to pay, every year before the first of June, a sum 

of £3500 (Rs, 35,000), until the outstanding sum of £54,242 

(Rs. 5,42,420) should be cleared off. In 1859 the Nawab received 

a patent, sanad, guaranteeing the succession of his state according 

to Musalman law. Till his death in December 1868, he regularly 

paid the yearly sum of £3500 (Rs. 35,000). He was succeeded by 

his son Ibrahim Muhammad Yakut Khan, who died in 1873 leaving 

a son Abdul ■ Kadar, the present chief, then a boy of nine years. 

Since 1873 the state has been managed by an assistant to the 

Political Agent of Surat, and, by regular yearly instalments, the 

whole of the debt was cleared off in 1877. 

The following is the Sachin family tree : 

(I.) Abdul Karim YAkut Khin (commonly known as BAlu Mia) 
(died 1802). 

I 

(II.) Ibrahim YAkut Khdn 

(died 1853). 

(III.) -Abdul Karim KMn 
(died 1868). 

(IV.) Ibrahim Muhammad Yikut Khdn 
(died 1873). 

(V.) Abdul KAdar 
(the present Chief). 

The chief is entitled to a salute of nine guns, and has power to 
try all offences committed by the people of his state. He maintains 
a force of sixty-two men. In point of succession the family follows 
the rule of primogeniture. 

The state lands are tilled on the holding, khdtabandi, system. In Land, 

theory, possession depends on the Nawab's pleasure ; in practice, 
a holder cannot be ousted unless he fails to pay the assessment. 
Holdings can be transferred only with the chief's sanction and on 



' This and not 1829 (Aitchison's Treaties, IV. 311) seems to have been the date of 
the attachment. 
" The terms of the agreement are given in Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 316. 
' This and not 1864 (Aitchison's Treaties, IV, 311) seems to be the correct date. 



IBomltay Gazetteer, 
262 STATES. 

Sachin. the payment of a fee, nazardna, varying from five per cent of the 

Land. assessment in the case of direct male successionj to twenty per cent 

on a transfer to an outsider.^ 

Arable waste taken for tillage pays a fee, nazardna, of about 
twenty per cent on the first year's assessment. Neither land nor 
field tools are liable to be sold for private debts. In all the villages 
the land assessment is paid in money, and generally speaking the 
fields are tilled by the persons in whose names they stand. Of 
26,814 acres the total area, 23,604 belong to the state, and 3210 
are alienated. Of the state land 63,921 acres are unarable. Of the 
arable area 15,649 acres are occupied and 1568 acres waste. On 
the occupied arable land the assessment averages 16s. 3d. (Rs. 8 as. 2) 
an acre, compared with IS*; 4^ci. (Rs. 6 as. 11) including the 
local fund cess, in the neighbouring British villages. The acre rates, 
on land able to yield sugarcane and similar crops, vary from £2 6s. 
to £3 (Rs. 23-30), on rice land from £1 Is. to £2 18s. (Rs. 10^-29), 
and on ordinary dry crop land from 4s, to £1 10s. (Rs. 2-15). The 
revenue is collected in two villages in two instalments, December 
and February, and in the rest in three instalments, December, 
February, and April. The process for the recovery of arrears is the 
same as in British villages. Billets, mohsals, are seldom resorted 
to. Remissions are granted in cases of damage by fire or flood,. of 
extreme poverty, or in specially bad seasons. 

Justice. Civil and criminal authority rests with the Nawab and his officers. 

Formerly to settle questions of usage, caste heads and councils, 
panchdyats, and in fiscal matters, village headmen and other hereditary 
revenue officers, were consulted by the Nawab. In cases decided 
by the Nawab, the statements of witnesses were taken iu writing 
by the court clerks, and were then read over to the Nawab in the 
Darbar room, usually in the absence of the parties. In civil suits 
a commission of ten per cent on the amount at issue was paid by 
the plaintiff in advance, and recovered from the defendant if the 
plaintiff gained the suit. Process fees were also levied at rates 
varying from 3d. to 4s. {annas 2 - Rs. 2). In criminal cases, the 
usual punishment was, in the lighter offence^ tine, and in the more 
heinous, imprisonment. On the complainant paying a fee of 2s. 
(Re. 1) petty offences might be compromised. During the minority 
of the present Nawab, British codes and acts have been introduced, 
and the following courts established. The court of the minister, 
dvwdn, with jurisdiction in civil suits up to £100 (Rs. 1000) ; of the 
sub-divisional magistrate, tahsilddr, with the powers of a second class 
magistrate; of the Assistant Agent in charge of the state with, in 
criminal matters, the powers of a district magistrate and assistant 
judge, and in civil cases the powers of an assistant judge ; and of the 
Agent to the Governor with the powers of a pistrict and Sessions 
Judge, Government exercising the powers of the High Court. In 

* The details are : direct male descent, 5 per cent ; direct female descent, 10 per 
cent ; collateral succession, 10 per cent ; transfer, 20 per cent. 



3ujar^t.] 

SURAT. 263 

1878-79, 306 civil, 126 criminal/ and three appeal cases were Sachin. 

disposed of. Registration is practised, and fees levied according to Justioe. 

the following scale : on deeds of sale and mortgage bonds, a five 

and four per cent fee ; on wills and adoption deeds, a fixed fee of 

10s. (Rs. 5) J and on all other deeds, a fixed fee of 8s. (Rs. 4). From 

the Kolis of Dumas a divorce fee of £5 (Rs. 50) is levied, and 

a fee of 2s. 6d. (Re. IJ) on applications for the restitution of 

conjugal rights. A. fee of 2s. (Re. 1) is also charged on powers 

of attorney, petitions of appeal, sealing decrees, ard withdrawing 

from, or compromising, suits. A fee of Is. (aivnas 8) is charged on 

agreements and security bonds. On ordinary petitions the fee is 

l^d. [anna 1). 

Most villages have a police as well as a revenue head whose Police. 

emoluments are fixed. The other village servants combine revenue 
and police duties. The chief of them, the village messenger, havdlddr, 
is paid at 8s. (Rs. 4) a month ; the rest, from one to five in number, 
of the Dubla or DJjieda cast, enjoy rent-free plots of land. At 
the head of the police is a chief constable, faujddr, whose head- 
quarters are at Sachin, and who has the control of the troops, 
sihandi, 64 in number, 24 Arabs, 1 7 mounted, and 23 foot police. 
The Arabs, the armed police of the state, are directly under a 
jamdddr, an Arab of some importance, who supplies the contingents 
in Dharampur, Bansda, and Sachin. The mounted police and 
constables, though ordinarily employed on revenue or escort duties, 
are available for police purposes. Occasionally proprietors, girdsids, 
are called on to supply police guards at the Nawab's residence. 

During the forty-three years ending 1879, the gross yearly revenue Revenue, 

has risen from £9500 to £18,956 (Rs. 95,000- 1,89,560). After paying 
the last of the debt, and with outstanding liabilities amounting to 
only £1067 (Rs. 10,670), there remained on the 31st July 1878 a 
balance of £14,396 (Rs. 1,43,960). 

As a source of revenue spirits come next to land. This, as in Excise, 

the Surat district, consists of the amount bid by village tavern- 
keepers at a public auction for the right to make and sell spirits and 
palm juice, tddi. 

Under the head cesses, the chief items are : on the cotton press Cesses, 

and ginning yards, from £1 to £5 ; on the village shepherds, from 
£1 10s. to £6 ; on the tanners, 6s. to £2-6 ; on each grain dealer 
and money-lender, 6s. to £5 ; on each goldsmith, 4s. to 12*-. ; on 
each weaver, 4s. to 8s. ; on each butcher, 10s. ; on each cotton 
cleaner, 2s. to 12s. ; on each oil-seller, 4s. to 8s. ; and on 
each fisherman^ and sea-coast Koli, 2s. to 10s. There is also a 
duty of 7^ pounds on every cart-load of 1200 pounds (30 Surat 
mans) of grain imported into Dumas. The right to levy this duty, 

1 The details are : hurt 29, wrongful restraint 4, insult and petty assaults 19, 
mischief 30, house-trespass 1, theft 30, criminal breach of trust 3, cattle pound 
offences 6, and excise 4 ; total, 126. 

2 Besides the poll cess, the Dumas, Bhimpor, and Gaviar fishers pay on each stake 
net, golva, £1 10«. ; on each drag net, lodh, Is, ; on each marriage, lO^d. ; and on 
each re-marriage, 5s, 



tBombay Sazetteer, 



264 



STATES. 



Sachin. as well as the right of selling copper and brass vessels is put to 

Cesses. auction, and brings, on an average, from £2-10 to £3 (Rs. 25-30). 

A yearly sum of £1 5s. (Rs. 12^) is levied from the Dumas shop- 
keepers in consideration of their having the sole right of buying the 
thread spun by the fishermen. Under the head of cesses comes the 
right to levy what is known as the Dumas chohi dues. This right 
is at present farmed for a yearly sum of £201 14s. (Rs. 2017). 
The dues consist of an additional twenty-five per cent on the cesses 
on fishermen and sea coast Kolis, on stake and drag nets, and on the 
masters of ships. This right, which formerly belonged to the British 
Grovernment,^ was made over to the Nawab in 1865, upon his 
undertaking to pay a fixed yearly sum of £170 (Rs. 1700). The 
state draws no revenue from customs or transit dues. Tolls are 
taken at two places, one on the Sachin and Surat road for the repairs 
of a bridge over a tidal creek, the other at the ferry at the mouth of 
the Mindhola river between Bhimpor and the Gaikwar village of 
Danti. 

Crown Dues. Under this hqad comei the crown dues, nazardnds, payments made 

by state servants and others in public assembly on the Dasera, the 
Moharam, and the Eamzdn and Bakri Ids. Village headmen and 
accountants pay 4s. and 3s. (Rs. 2 and IJ) respectively. Besides 
these items certain original dues, mdmuli haks, of sheep, dried fish, 
rope, thread, vegetables, and earthen vessels, worth about £50 
(Rs. 500) a year, are levied in kind. 

Instruction. According to the 1872 census, of 14,678 the total Hindu population, 

1184 or 8-06 per cent; of 2272 the total Musalman population, 122 
(males 119, females 3) or 5*3 per cent; and of 153 the total Parai 
population, 38 (males 30, females 8) or 24"8 per cent, were able to read 
and write or were being taught. Within the last four years the 
number of schools and pupils has much increased. There are (1879), 
under the education department, five schools maintained at a yearly 
cost of £113 (Rs. 1130), with an average attendance of 176 pupils, 
and two private grant-in-aid schools. 

Health. The dispensary, opened in 1878, was, in that year, at a cost of 

£93 (Rs. 930) attended by 1775 out-door and three in-door patients. 
Of the out-door patients 1728 were cured, one died, ten left, and ten 
were under treatment at the close of \ the year. The chief diseases 
were malarious fever,' liver, and skin afiections. In 1878, 409 persons 
were vaccinated. 

Places of Interest. Bhimpor, a village of 2772 souls on the sea-coast near the mouth 
of the Tapti, has a small temple dedicated to Hanumdn. On the 1 4th 
of the first half of Bhddrapad (September-October) a yearly fair is held 
in honour of the god, when people from Surat throng in numbers. 



' It is hard to say how the British Government came to have this right. The 
present Sachin villages in the OhorAsi sub-division belonged to the G&ikw&r, who 
granted them to Sakh4r&m B&pu from whom they passed into the Peshwa's hands. 
Whetheir the Dumas choM dues ever belonged to the Peshwa, or whether they passed 
direct to the British as an appurtenance of the port and city of Surat, or were 
acquired by them through the GAikwir, is doubtful. 



(iiijarit.l 

SURAT. 265 

Dunia<S, a village of 4531 souls, a mile from Bhimpor, with, some Sachin. 

good houses, excellent water, and a cool climate, is, during the hot 
season, a favourite resort for the European residents of Surat. It 
has a school-house, with room for 200 children, built in 1878 at a 
cost of £200 (Rs. 2000). 

Sachin, a small village of 722 souls, has, besides the Nawab's 
palace and a garden, a school, a dispensary, and a post office. 



B 561—34 



I N D E X'. 



A, 

Abyssinian Agate Workers : 206, note 3. 

Iga: Eashid Beg, minister (1766), 228. 
Agar : state, 142. 

Agates : R. K. 11-12 ; manufacture of, 37 ;',C. 198, 
200. 

Agate Cups : 205, note 1. 

Age : population according to, 21. 

Agriculture : R. K. 38-40 ; C. 183. 

Ahmad I.: 217. 

Ahmad II. : 218. 

Aj^u: river, 92. 

Akhar : 218. 

Ala-ud-diu Khilji : 216. 

Alva : state, 143. 

Amrdipur : estate, 151. 

Amrdvati : river, 5. 

Anamdera : place of interest, 157. 

AudiVla : a Brahman sub-division. See Bhdthela, 

Aughad : state, 150, 

Animals: B. K., 16-17 ; C. 183. 

Area : B. K. l ; C. 181. 

Arndi = place of interest, 257. 

Arras : battle of, 230. 

Ashraphi : a Cambay ulcer, 183, 

Ashvin : river, 5. 

Aspect : B. K. 2 ; C. 181. 

Assessment : B. K. 70 ; c. 234. 

Audich : a BrAhman sub-division, 23. 

B. 

Bdbd,ghor : agates, B. K. 162, footnote ; C. 207. 

Bighvati ; tiger town, 183. 

BdMsinor : state, l, 2 ; area, boundaries, popula- 
tion, sub- divisions, history, family tree, 137-140 ; 
place of interest, 157. 

Balhards : rulers of Cambay (915), 214. 

Bande Ali: Nawdb (1823), 232. See Momin 
Khto IV. 

Bd.nsda : area, boundaries, aspect, rivers, water 
supply, climate, trees, animals, population, soil, 
crops, tillage, husbandmen ; money-lending, 
currency, wages, roads, post, land trade, fairs, 
history ; land administration, justice, revenue 
and finance, instruction, health, vaccination, 
town, 245-253. 



Bdrg&ma : sub-division, 98. 

BarhOSa : traveller (1514), 206. 

Bards and Actors : 25. 

Bdriya : state, 1,2; boundaries, aspect, rivers, hillB, 
climate, products, population, sub-divisions, his- 
tory, development (1865-1876), family tree, 115- 
130 ; place of interest, 157- 159. 

Bassein : treaty of (1820), 232, 250. 

Bivd,pir : place of interest, 159. 

Bd,wa Ghor : camelian merchant, R. K. 168 ; 
C, 206, 

Bawd,rij ; pirates, 188. 

Beggars: 25, 

Bhddarva : state, 152, 

Bhilod : sub-division, 97. 

Bhartharis : songsters, 25. 

Bhdrts : as escorts, 194, 

Bhdthela : a Brahman sub-division, 23, 253, 

Bhils : tribe of, appearance, house, dress, food, 
occupation, character, religion, holidays, festivals, 
customs, community, 26-32, 95 footnote, 

Bhilodia : state, 145, 

Bhimpor : place of interest, 264, 

Bhoi : caste of, 25. 

Bihora: state, 144. 

Birds : 17. 

Blind : 21. 

Bohora : a Musabn^ sect, 185. 

Boundaries : B. K. 1 ; C. 181. 

Brdhmans : B. K. 22-23 ; settlement in Cambay, 
214 ; plunder of, 228. 

British Government : connection with, R. K. 61 ; 
C. (1802-1880), 232, 233. 



CsBSar : Frederic, traveller (1585), 191, 218. 
Cambay : a sanitarium (1837), 182 ; plundered 

(1304, 1.347, 1349), 216 ; (1535, 1538), 217 ; place 

of interest, 240-241. 
Cambay Stones : Camelians, agates and othei; 

varieties ; processes of manufacture, ornaments, 

polishers, trade guilds, trade history, 198 ,207, 
Capital: 41-45. 
Capitalists : R. K. 41 ; C. 209. 
Camelians : 198, 199. 
Carpets : manufacture of, 208. 



» In this index K. K. stands for Bewa Kantha, C, for Cambay. 



268 



INDEX. 



Castes : 22-34. 

Census : see Population. 

Chalukyas : rulers of Cambay (950), 214. 

Chdmpdner : city, 59, 60. 

Chdnod : place of interest, 159 - 161. 

Ch&t Habeli : sub-division, 123. 

Chhdliar : state, 152. 

Chhota Udepur : state, l, 2 ; boundaries, aspect, 
rivers, hills, climate, crops, population, sub-divi- 
sions, history, family tree, 110-115. 

Cholera : 89. 

Choringla : state, 145. 

Christians : 35. 

Chudesar : state, 145. 

Climate : R. K. 10 ; C. 182. 

Cloth : weaving of, R. K. 66-58 ; C. export of, 191 ; 
■weaving of, 208, 

Communications : 187, 

Communities : 35. 

Condition of Cambay: (1345), 216 ; (1459-1513), 
217 ; (1600.1700), 219 ; (1737-1748), 224 ; (1772), 
229 ; C. (1838), 233. 

Cotton gins:. 

Courts : number and workingof, K, K. 77^80 ; C, 235. 

Craftsmen : 25, 42. 

Crimes : see Offences. 

Crops : R. K. 39 ; C, 183. 

Currency:R. K. 43;C. 209, 

Customs ; 238, 



Day-labourers : see Labouring Classes. 

Deaf and Dumb : 21. 

De la Valle : traveUer (1623), 219. 

Density of Population : R. K. 19 ; C. 184, 

Depressed Classes : 25. 

Dev ! river, 5. 

Devalia : Sitate, 143. 

Dev Mogra : pla.ce of interest, 161. 

Dev Satia : peak, s. 

Dbari : state, 152. 

Dhd.nkds : caste of, 34, 95 footnote. 

Dharampur State: area,boundaries,aspect, water- 
supply, climate, products, population, soil, crops, 
roads, history, land management, justice, in- 
struction, places of interest, 254-257, 

Dbumkhal : place of interest, 161. 

Diseases: R. K. 10, 89 ; C, 183, 

Dispensaries ; 89. 

Div : island, 6. 

Domestic Animals : 16, 

Dor : see Sursi. 
Dorka : estate, 153. 
Dorka Mehvas : states, l, 2. 
Dudhia : sub-division, 116. 



Dudhpur : state, 144. 
Drainage : R. K. 7 ; C. 182. 
Dudan : river, 92. 
Dumas : place of interest, 265, 

E. 

Education : see Instruction. 
Embroidery : 208. 

English at Cambay : 0. 218, 219, 220-1, 224. 
Expeditions : 189, footnote 5 ; 229. 
Exports : C. (1600), 190-191. 

F. ' 

Factories : Dutch and English, 195, 219, 224, 232. 

Family tree : R. K. 109, 115, 120, 131, 136, 140 ; 
C. 233. 

Fairs: Dev Dungaria, 157; Chtood, 160; Dev 
Mogra, 161 ; Jeyor, 161 ; Limodra, 162 ; Lun4- 
vdda, 164; Mokhdi Ghdnta, 165; Mota Sija, 
165 ; SanjAla, 168 ; Virpur, 170 ; Vu&i, 249,253 ; 
AroM and Nagar, 257 ; Bhimpor, 264. 

Famines : see Years of Scarcity. 

Fateh Ali : Nawdb, C. 231 ; see Momin KhAn III, 

Females : proportion of, in population, R. K. 20 ; 
C. 184, 

Ferries : R. K. 6, 50 ; C. 187, 

Pinch : traveller (1611), 219, 

Field tools: 38, 

Fish : 18. 

Forests ; 15. 

G. 

Gad : state, 143. 
Gadhesing : legend of, 213. 
Gajni : old Cambay, 213, footnote 2. 
Gandhdr : ruined city, 218, footnote 4. 

Gemelli Careri : traveller (1695), 22O. 
Geology: R. K. 7-10; C. 182. 
Ghinchis : a Musalmdn sect, 35. 
Girls' schools : 87. 

Gomtivils : a Brahman sub-division, 23. 
Gotardi : state, 150. 
Gothra : state, 150. 
Grain : cultivation of, 39. 

Gulf of Cambay : silting of, 195, footoote 2; 214, 
footnotes 1 and 6. 

H. 

Hamilton: traveller (1720), 220. 

Himph : place of interest, 112, 161. 

Haraph : river, 115. 

Harbour : 194. 

HayeU : sub-division, 116. 

Herdsmen : 25. 

Hills : 2. 



INDEX. 



269 



History : (Rewa Ka'ntha) legends, early Hindus 
to 1484; Musalmin ascendancy (J484-1700) ; local 
revival (1700-1730), 59-60; Mardtha supremacy 
(1730-1820) ; British supervision; first NAikda 
rising (1838) ; Mutiny (1857) ; second N4ikda 
rising (1868) ; changes (1820-1879), 60-66. 

,, : (Oambay) name, legends, BaUiarAs (915) ; 
ChMukyas (942); PArsis (1094); Jains (1241- 
1242) ; VdgheUs (1250) ; early Delhi Governors 
(1300-1400); Ahmedabad Kings (1400-1573); 
Moghals (1573-1730); Naw^lbs (1730-1880); 
family tree, 211-233. 
Honey : varieties of, 253. 
Hum&yrm: (1530), 217. 
Husbandmeu : 24, 39. 

I 
Ibn Batuta : African traveller (1342), 216. 
Idiots : 21. 

Immigration: see Migration. 
Imports: 191-193. 
Indigo : cultivation of, 183. 

Instruction : statistics of,K.K. 86-88; C. 238-239. 
Interest : rates of, 4i. 
Iron : n. 

ItimadKllin : regent (1560), 218. 
Itvdd : state, 152. 

J. 
Jlldbugd.m : sub-division, 112. 
Jadvi : Bhil headman, 32. 
Jails : 82. 

Jains : at Oambay (1241), 215. 
J^ma Mosque : at Cambay, 216, footnote 3, 241. 
J^mbugboda : place of interest, 178. 
Jesar ; state, 150. 
Jetpur : sub-division, 112. 
Jeyor : place of interest, 161. 
Jhagadia : sub-division, 97. 
Jhdrola : caste of, 24. 
Jiral Kamsoli : state, 145. 
JnmMia : estate, 151. 

Justice: courts, civil and criminal, 77-78; crime, 
courts of award, police, jails, 79-82 ; 0. judicial 
authorities, civil suits, the Kdzi, procedure, 
police, 235-237. 

K. 

KdiChbids : caste of, 24, 

Kadina : state, 1, 2 ; area, rivers, hills, soil, popu- 
lation, history, 154-155 ; town, 161. 
Eadvil : sub-division, 112. 
Eikadkhila : sub-division, 117. 
Ealiinrai : restorer of Oambay, 216. 
Kdliparaj : black races, 246, 255. 
Kanbis : caste of, 24. 
Kanora : state, 151, 

KantAji Kadam : invasion of (1725), 221. 
Kard^li : sub-division, 112. 



K&ti : river, 6. 
Karjan : river, 2, 5, 92. 
Kasla Pagi : state, 152. 
Kdthis and Kolis : forays of (1766), 228. 
KAtho : catechu, manufacture of, 57. 
Kavdnt : sub-division, 112. 
Kiveri : river, 6. 

Kiyatia : a BrAhman sub-division, 23. 
Kdzi : a Musalmto judicial officer, 236. 
Kbdkhi : a Hindu religious order, 25. 
KhadAyata : caste of, 23, 24. 
Kbinpur : sub-division, 123. 
Kheddval : a Brahman sub-division, 23. 
Kim : river, 6. 

Kolis : sub-divisions, character, religion, customs, 
32-33 ; C 189 ; plundered Hum^yun (1535), 217. 
Kukarda : sub-division, 98. 
Kukrej : place of interest, 162. 
Kumdrika Ksbetra: 2li, 216, footnote 2. 
Kutbi Kbinum ; minister (1783), 230. 

L. 

Labouring classes : 25. 

Lac Trade : 53. 

Ld,d : caste of, 24. 

Lilia : story of, 123, footnote 2. 

Land : R. K- landholders, management, villages, 
67-68 ; staff, aUenated lands, assessment, cesses, 
69-73 ; rent how realized, instalments, defaults, 
reforms, survey, boundary disputes, 73-76 ; 0. 
landholders, assessment, how levied, 234-235. 

Land Trade : C 194. 

Leather : workers in, R. K. 25 ; manufacture of, 
0. 188, footnote 7 ; 191, footnote 9. 

Lepers: 21. 

Libraries : 88. 

Limestone : H- 

Limodra : R- K- place of interest, 162 ; 0. 206. 

Lundv^da : state, 1, 2 ; area, boundaries, rivers, 
hills, climate, population, sub-divisions, history, 
family tree, 121 - 131 ; place of interest, 163. 

M. 

Hicbbi : caste of, 25. 

Madbuvati: river, 6. 

Magistrates : 77. 

Mabddev ' temple of Dehjaria, 124. 

Mabi : R. K. river, 3 ; passage of the river (1670), 

183, footnote, 
Mabmud Begada: King (1459-1513), 189, 217. 
Mdkni : place of interest, 164. 
Males ; proportion of, in population, R. K. 20 ; 

0. 184. 
Mdndva : state, 142 ; place of interest, 164. 
Manure : 38. 
Manufactures : K. K, 56-58 ; 0. 198-209. 



270 



INDEX. 



Manufacturers : see Craftsmen. 

Mardthis in Cambay : 221, 226, 231. 

Marco Polo : traveller (1290), 206, 216. 

MdtdpenSi : hill, 8, 

Mdru : caste of, 24. 

Mavalis : west Deccau Mariithds, 226. 

Measures : see Weights and Measures. 

Men : river, 5. 

Mercantile classes : see Traders. 

Merchants : character of Hindu, 193, footnote 3 ; 

as brokers, 193, footnote 7. 
Mevdda : a BrAhman sub- division, 23. 
Mevali : state, 149, 
Migration: 36-37. 
Minerals : 11 . 

Mirza Teman : minister (1780), 229, 230. 
Modll : caste of, 23, 24. 
Moghals: (1573-1730), 21& 
Mohan : place of interest, 164. 
Moka Pagina Muvdda : state, 150. 
Mokhdi Ghduta : place of interest, 165. 
Motd^la : a Brdhman sub-division, 23. 
Mota Sdja : place of interest, 165. 
Momin Khd,n Dehlami : (1725), 222. 
Momin Khin I. : JSTawdb (1730-1743), 222. 
Momin Khan II. : „ (1748 -1783), 225-230. 
III.: „ (1789-1823), 231-232. 
IV.: „ (1823-1841), 232. 
v.: „ (1841-1880), 232. 
Money Lenders : see Capitalists. 
Muhammad Kuli : ruler, (1783 - 1789), 231. 
Muhammad TughUk : Emperor (1325 - 1351),216. 
Musalmdns : R. K. 34 ; C. 185. 
Mutiny : (1857), 63, 64. 

N. 

Nagar : place of interest, 257. 

Nigars : caste of, 22, 24. 

Naghera : old town, 214, footnote 6. 

NahAra : este, 151. 

Nd,ikdds : tribe of, 34 ; risings of, 62, 64. 

Najam Khin : governor (1737 - 1748), 223. 

ITalia : estate, 145. 

ITand : island, 6. 

Nandarva : sub-division, 124. 

NAndod : sub-division, 97 ; place of interest, 165. 

N^ndoda : a Brahman sub-division, 23. 

Ndngim : state, 144. 

Warbada : river, 4. 

NArukot state: boundaries, agriculture, trade, 
history, land administration, justice, police, jail, 
revenue and finance, instruction, health, places 
of interest, 173 - 178. 

Nasv5,di : state, 146. 

Naw&hS : rulers of Cambay (1730 - 1880), 221 - 233. 

Netrang : sub-division, 98. 

Nima : caste of, 24. 





Occupations of the people : 22. 

Oflfences : number of, 79, 82. 
Ogilby : traveller (1670), 219. 
Orsang : river, 2, 110. 

p 

PaMsni : state, 146-147. 

Pinam: river, 4 ; 121. 

Pd,ndarv4da : sub-division, 122. 

Pdndu : estate, 153. 

Pdndu Mehvis : states, 1, 2, 148 - 194.. 

Panetha: sub-division, 97- 

Pd,nipat: battle of (1761), 228. 

Pintld.vdi : estate, 147. 

Pdnvad : sub-division, 112. 

Paper : manufacture of, 189. 

Parsis : K. K. 35 ; 0. 185 ; as merchants, 189, 215^ 
216, footnote 2. 

Pdtaners : marauders, (1720), 220. 

Pateliyis : cultivators, 24. 

Personal Servants : 25. 

Physical Features : see Aspect. 

PUdji (Jiikwdr : (il25), 221. 

Pirates : 188, 194. 

Pirzadis : a Musalmdn sect, 35. 

Plants : 14. 

Poicha : state, 153. 

Police : cost, strength, working, 80-82; C. 237. 

Population: census of 1872, distribution, sex, age, 
religion, 19-21; occupation, race, 22-35; town, 
and country population, dwellings, 35 ; people- 
able to read and write, 87 ; C. 184 ; town and 
village population, 185 - 186 ; people able to read' 
and write, 238. 

Portuguese : as traders, and lords of the sea, 189,^ 
190, 217. 

Porvdd : caste of, 24. 

Post : H- K. 51 ; 0, 238, 

Prathampur : place of interest, 166. 

Prices : R. K. 43 - 44 ; C. 209. 

Private Schools : 86. 

Pupils : ni^mber and race of, 88., 

R. 

Eaeka : estate, 152, 

Railway : trafSc, 259. 

Eainfall: E. K. 10; C. 182.. 

Kdjgad : sub- division, 117. 

RAjpar : state, 152. 

Rdjpipla : state, 1,2; boundaries, aspect, riversy 
hills, 91 - 93 ; ohmate, trees, population, soil and. 
crops, roads, trade, manufactures, administrativei 
sub-divisions, 94-98 ; history, early Hindu, Musal- 
mdji ascendancy(1390-1720) ;Maratha interference 
(1720 - 1820); British supervision (1820- 1879) ;. 
family tree, 99-110 ; place of interest, 166 - 167. 

Rajputs : 24. 

R4j Vdsna : sub-division, 112. 



INDEX. 



271 



Sdmpur : place of interest, 167. 

Bimpura : state, 145. 

Bandhikpur : sub-division, 116. 

Batanmdl : hills, 2. 

Batanpur : place of interest, 167- 

B&vania : village officer, 237. 

Beligion : 21. 

Began : state, 146. 

Bevenue and Finance : E. K. 83- 85; C, 237-238. 

Bice : varieties of, 247 footnote 3. 

BiotS : at Cambay (1094- 1143^ 215. 

Bivers ;R. K. 3-6;C. 181. 

Boads : 46 - 49. 

Bundha : sub-division, 98. 

s. 

Sdbarmati: river, 1 81. 

SacMn = state, area, climate, production, popula- 
tion, dwellings, villages, crops, wages and prices, 
roads, ferries, manufactures, history, land adminis- 
tration, justice, registration fee ; police, revenue 
and finance, duties, cesses, instruction, health, 
town, 258 - 265. 

Sadids : Musalmdn carriers, 185, 

Sd:gb^ra : mountain range, 3 ; state, 98. 

Sligtdla : sub-division, 117. 

Salt Works : 208. 

SAlbai : treaty of (1783), 230. 

Scarcity : years of, 40. 

Sanjala : place of interest, 168. 

Sanjeli : state l, 2 ; 155 - 156. 
Sankheda Meliv£s : states, l, 2 ; area, boundaries, 
history, sub -divisions, 140 - 148. 

Schools : E. K. 86-88 ; C. 238-239. 

Shnklatirth : island, 6. 

Sihora : state, 150. 

Skambhtirth: 211, 212. 

Soap : manufacture of, 57. 

Sindiipura : state, 143. 

Soil Varieties : E. K. 38 ; c. 183. 

Sorath : rulers of (315 b. c. - 1300 a. d.) 213, foot- 
note 1. 

Staff: judicial, 77; C. 235. 

Stones for Building : H- 

Snntb : state, l, 2; area, boundaries, aspect, rivers, 
hills, climate, soil and produce, population, sub- 
divisions, history, development, family tree, 
131- 136 ; place of interest, 169. 

Snrat : rival of Cambay, 195. 

Slirp&n : place of interest, 169. 

Sursi : sub-division, 111. 

Syed ; a Musalm^n sub-division, 35. 

T. 
Tarav : river, 92. 
TalAja : fort of, 228-220. 
Tavernier : traveller (I66O), 220. 



Targol : sub-division, 112. 

Tejgad : sub-division, 112. 

Thava : sub-division, 98. 

Thevenot : traveller (1666), 219 note 5. 

Tieffenthaler : traveller (1750), 225. 

Tillage : E. K, 38 ; C. 183. 

Trade : E, K. exports, imports, trade returns, 51, 
56 ; C. course of, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, 
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 187, 
189 ; sixteenth century, marts, ports, exports, 
imports, traders, routes, harbour, 190-194; 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 195 - 196 ; 
nineteenth century, trade returns, imports, ex- 
ports, shipping, 196-198. 

Traders : 24. 

TrambdrVati : legend of, 212, 213, 214. 

Trees : E, K. 12. 14 ; C. 183. 

U. 
Uchid : state, 146. 
TJdepur : place of interest, 169. 
IJmad ; caste of, 24. 
Umeta : state, 151. 
Untia Vd.gll : camel tiger, 184. 

V, 
Vddi : estate, 98. 
Vaccination : statistics of, 90. 
VagheMs: rulers of Cambay (1240-1304), 215. 
Vakhtapur : estate, 151. 
Vanjara: carriers, 25. 
Vardhdri : sub-division, 124. 
Varnol Mil : state, 151. 
Varnoli : estates, 153. 
VastupAl : governor <1241), 215. 
V4san: state, 144. 
VerAs : cesses, E. K. 85 ; C. 238. 
Vikram III : (5th century), 213. 
Village Conuminities : see Communities. 
Virpur : sub-division 137 ; state, 146, place of 

interest, 170. 
Virampura : state, 146. 
Vindhya Mountains : 2. 
Vora : state, 144. 
Vydsji : island 6. 

w. 

Wages : E. K. 42 ; C. 210. 
Water-supply: E. K. 7; C. 182. 
Weavers of Gujard,t : (1620), 192 footnote 5. 
Weights and Measures : R. K. 44 ; C. 210. 
Wild animals : E. K, 17 ; C. 183. 
Wood work : 191 footnote 6, 

Y. 
Years of Scarcity : see Scarcity. 

Z. 
Zafar Khin : ruler (139M411), 217.